You are on page 1of 40

# DERIVATION OF BASIC

TRANSPORT
EQUATION

Definitions
Basic dimensions
[M] Mass
[L]
Length
[T]
Time

Concentration
Mass per unit
volume
[ML-3]

## Mass Flow Rate

Mass per unit
time
[MT-1]

Flux
Mass flow rate
through unit area
[ML-2 T-1]
2

## The Transport Equation

Mass balance for a control volume where
the transport occurs only in one direction
(say x-direction)
Mass
entering
the control
volume

Mass
leaving the
control
volume

x
Positive x direction
3

## The Transport Equation

The mass balance for this case can be
written in the following form
Change of

mass
in
the

## Mass entering Mass leaving

control volume = the control the control

in a time volume in t volume in t
interval t

C
V
t

A J1

A J2

Equation 1
4

## The Transport Equation

A closer look to Equation 1

C
V
t

A J1

A J2

Flux
Volume [L3]

Concentration Area
over time
[L2]
[ML-3 T-1]

[L3][ML-3T-1] = [MT-1]
Mass over time

[ML-2 T-1]

Flux
Area

[ML-2 T-1]

[L2]

[L2][ML-2T-1] = [MT-1]
Mass over time

## The Transport Equation

Change of mass in unit volume (divide all
sides of Equation 1 by the volume)

C
A
A
=
J1 J2
t
V
V

Equation 2

Rearrangements
C
A
=
(J1 J2 )
t
V

Equation 3
6

## The Transport Equation

A.J1

A.J2

Positive x direction

J
The flux is changing in x direction with gradient of
x
Therefore

J
J2 = J1 +
x
x

Equation 4
7

C
A
=
(J1 J2 )
t
V

J
J2 = J1 +
x
x

Equation 3

Equation 4

C
A
J

=
J1 J1 +
x
t
V
x

Equation 5
8

Rearrangements
C
J
A

=
J1 J1 +
x
t
V
x

V
A 1
= x =
A
V x
J
C
1

=
J1 J1 x
x
t
x

Equation 5

Equation 6

Equation 7
9

Rearrangements
J
C
1

=
J1 J1 x
x
t
x

Equation 7

## Finally, the most general transport equation

in x direction is:

C
J
=
t
x

Equation 8
10

## The Transport Equation

We are living in a 3 dimensional space,
where the same rules for the general mass
balance and transport are valid in all
dimensions. Therefore

Ji
=
t
i=1 x i
3

x1 = x
x2 = y

Equation 9

x3 = z

= Jx + Jy + Jz
t
y
z
x

Equation 10
11

## The Transport Equation

The transport equation is derived for a
conservative tracer (material)
The control volume is constant as the time
progresses
The flux (J) can be anything (flows,
dispersion, etc.)

12

13

## The advective flux can be analyzed with the simple

conceptual model, which includes two control
volumes. Advection occurs only towards one
direction in a time interval.
x

II

Particle
x

14

## x is defined as the distance, which a particle can

pass in a time interval of t. The assumption is
that the particles move on the direction of
positive x only.
x

II

Particle
x

15

II

Particle
x

## The number of particles (analogous to mass) moving from

control volume I to control volume II in the time interval t
can be calculated using the Equation below, where

Q = C x A

Equation 11

## where Q is the number of particles (analogous to mass)

passing from volume I to control volume II in the time interval
t [M], C is the concentration of any material dissolved in
water in control volume I [ML-3], x is the distance [L] and A
is the cross section area between the control volumes [L2]. 16

Q = C x A

II

Number of
particles passing
from I to II in t

Particle
x

Division by time:

Q C x A
=
t
t

Number of
particles
passing from I
to II in unit time

x
Q
C
t
A t

## Number of particles passing from I to II

in unit time per unit area = FLUX

x x
C
= lim
C =
t 0 t
t

flux
17
Equation 12

x
=
C
t

Equation 12

18

19

## The dispersive flux can be analyzed with the

simple conceptual model too. This conceptual
model also includes two control volumes.
Dispersion occurs towards both directions in a
time interval.
x

II

Particle
x

20

## x is defined as the distance, which a particle can

pass in a time interval of t. The assumption is that the
particles move on positive and negative x directions. In
this case there are two directions, which particles
can move in the time interval of t.
x

II

Particle
x

21

## Another assumption is that a particle does not change its

direction during the time interval of t and that the
probability to move to positive and negative x directions
are equal (50%) for all particles.
Therefore, there are two components of the dispersive
mass transfer, one from the control volume I to
control volume II and the second from the control
volume II to control volume I
q1

q2

II

22

q1

q2

II

50 % probability

q1 = 0.5 C1 x A

Equation 13

q 2 = 0 . 5 C 2 x A

Equation 14

Q = q1 - q2

Equation 15

Q = 0.5 x A (C1 C 2 )

Equation 16

23

## Number of particles passing from I to II in t

Q = 0.5 x A (C1 C 2 )
Equation 16

Divide
by time

Q 0.5 x A (C1 C2 )
=
t
t

## Number of particles passing from I to

II in unit time

x
0.5 x A C1 C1 +
x
Q

=
t
t

C
C2 = C1 +
x
x
Equation 18
Q
= JDISP =
A t
Equation 22

Particle
x

Equation 17

0.5 x

II

Equation 19

C
x
x

0.5 x A C1 C1
x
Q
x

=
t
t
Divide Equation 20
by
C
Area
0.5 x A
x

## Number of particles passing from I to

II in unit time per unit area = FLUX

Q
=
t

Equation 21

24

Q
= JDISP
A t

C
0.5 x
x
x
=
t

Equation 22

0.5 (x ) C
JDISP =

x
t
Equation 23
2

0.5 (x )
D=
Equation 24 t

0 .5 [ ]
2
x [L ] (x ) L2
t [T ]

JDISP

Equation 25

0.5 (x )

D=
t

[ ]

C
= D
x

[ ] [L ] = [L
[T ]
2

T -1

]
25

Dispersion

Molecular diffusion

Turbulent diffusion

Longitudinal dispersion

GENERALLY
Molecular diffusion << Turbulent diffusion << Longitudinal dispersion
26

Ranges of the
Dispersion
Coefficient (D)

27

## The Dispersive Flux

JDISP

C
= D
x

Equation 25

28

EQUATION FOR A
CONSERVATIVE MATERIAL

29

C

= J
t
x
x
C
t
C
Jdispersion = D
x

Equation 8

General
transport
equation

Equation 12

flux

Equation 25

Dispersive
flux

Equation 26

t
x

Equation 27
30

C

t
x

Equation 27

t
x
x

Equation 28

x
=
C
t

Jdispersion

C
x
C
= C
D

x
x t
t
x

C
= D
x
Equation 29
31

C
x
C
= C
D

x
x t
t
x

Equation 29

Velocity u in
x direction

C
D 2
x

C
u
x
2

C
C
C
= u
+D 2
t
x
x

Equation 30
32

## Dimensional Analysis of the

2

C
C
C
+D 2
= u
t
x
x
Concentration
over time
[ML-3 T-1]

Velocity times
concentration
over space

Equation 30

[L2T-1][ML-3L-2]
= [ML-3 T-1]

[LT-1][ML-3L-1]
= [ML-3 T-1]

33

We are living in a 3 dimensional space, where the
same rules for the general mass balance and
transport are valid in all dimensions. Therefore

C
C

ui
+ Di 2

i
i =1
i
Equation 31
C
=
t

x1 = x, u1 = u, D1 = Dx
x2 = y, u2 = v, D2 = Dy
x3 = z, u3 = w, D3 = Dz

2C
C
C
2C
C
C
2C
+ Dz 2
+ Dy 2 w
+ Dx 2 v
= u
z
y
t
x
z
y
x
Equation 32

34

EQUATION FOR A NON
CONSERVATIVE MATERIAL

35

for non conservative materials
C
2C
C
2C
C
C
2C
+ Dz 2
+ Dy 2 w
= u
+ Dx 2 v
z
y
x
t
z
y
x
Equation 32

2C
C
2C
C
C
+ Dy 2
= u
+ Dx 2 v
y
t
x
x
y
2C
C
+ Dz 2 +
w
z
z
Equation 33

k C
36

## The Transport Equation for non

conservative materials with
sedimentation
2C
C
2C
C
C
+ Dy 2
+ Dx 2 v
= u
y
t
x
x
y
2C
C
+ Dz 2 +
w
z
z

k C

C
2C
C
2C
C
+ Dx 2 v
+ Dy 2
= u
y
t
x
x
y
2C
C
+ Dz 2 +
w
z
z

Equation 33

Equation 34

C
k C sedimentat ion
z

37

## Transport Equation with all

Components
C
C
2C
C
2C
= u
+ Dx 2 v
+ Dy 2
t
x
y
x
y

Equation 35

2C
C
C
w
+ D z 2 + k C sedimentat ion
z
z
z
external sources and sinks

Sedimentation in z
direction
Interaction with bottom
Other sources and sinks

38

Dimensional Analysis of
Components
C

t reaction

=
kinetics

k C

[ML-3][T-1]=[ML-3 T-1]

C
C
= sedimentat ion

z
t sedimentat ion
[LT-1][ML-3L-1]=[ML-3 T-1]

C
= external sources and sinks

t external
Must be given in [ML-3 T-1]

39

all components
2

C
C
C
C
C
= u
+ Dx 2 v
+ Dy 2
t
x
y
y
x
2

C
C
w
+ Dz 2
z
z
C
+ k C sedimentat ion
z
external sources and sinks

Equation 35

40