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DERIVATION OF BASIC

TRANSPORT
EQUATION

Definitions
Basic dimensions
[M] Mass
[L]
Length
[T]
Time

Concentration
Mass per unit
volume
[ML-3]

Mass Flow Rate


Mass per unit
time
[MT-1]

Flux
Mass flow rate
through unit area
[ML-2 T-1]
2

The Transport Equation


Mass balance for a control volume where
the transport occurs only in one direction
(say x-direction)
Mass
entering
the control
volume

Mass
leaving the
control
volume

x
Positive x direction
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The Transport Equation


The mass balance for this case can be
written in the following form
Change of

mass
in
the

Mass entering Mass leaving


control volume = the control the control


in a time volume in t volume in t
interval t

C
V
t

A J1

A J2

Equation 1
4

The Transport Equation


A closer look to Equation 1

C
V
t

A J1

A J2

Flux
Volume [L3]

Concentration Area
over time
[L2]
[ML-3 T-1]

[L3][ML-3T-1] = [MT-1]
Mass over time

[ML-2 T-1]

Flux
Area

[ML-2 T-1]

[L2]

[L2][ML-2T-1] = [MT-1]
Mass over time

The Transport Equation


Change of mass in unit volume (divide all
sides of Equation 1 by the volume)

C
A
A
=
J1 J2
t
V
V

Equation 2

Rearrangements
C
A
=
(J1 J2 )
t
V

Equation 3
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The Transport Equation


A.J1

A.J2

Positive x direction

J
The flux is changing in x direction with gradient of
x
Therefore

J
J2 = J1 +
x
x

Equation 4
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The Transport Equation


C
A
=
(J1 J2 )
t
V

J
J2 = J1 +
x
x

Equation 3

Equation 4

C
A
J

=
J1 J1 +
x
t
V
x

Equation 5
8

The Transport Equation


Rearrangements
C
J
A

=
J1 J1 +
x
t
V
x

V
A 1
= x =
A
V x
J
C
1

=
J1 J1 x
x
t
x

Equation 5

Equation 6

Equation 7
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The Transport Equation


Rearrangements
J
C
1

=
J1 J1 x
x
t
x

Equation 7

Finally, the most general transport equation


in x direction is:

C
J
=
t
x

Equation 8
10

The Transport Equation


We are living in a 3 dimensional space,
where the same rules for the general mass
balance and transport are valid in all
dimensions. Therefore

Ji
=
t
i=1 x i
3

x1 = x
x2 = y

Equation 9

x3 = z


= Jx + Jy + Jz
t
y
z
x

Equation 10
11

The Transport Equation


The transport equation is derived for a
conservative tracer (material)
The control volume is constant as the time
progresses
The flux (J) can be anything (flows,
dispersion, etc.)

12

The Advective Flux

13

The advective flux can be analyzed with the simple


conceptual model, which includes two control
volumes. Advection occurs only towards one
direction in a time interval.
x

II

Particle
x

14

x is defined as the distance, which a particle can


pass in a time interval of t. The assumption is
that the particles move on the direction of
positive x only.
x

II

Particle
x

15

II

Particle
x

The number of particles (analogous to mass) moving from


control volume I to control volume II in the time interval t
can be calculated using the Equation below, where

Q = C x A

Equation 11

where Q is the number of particles (analogous to mass)


passing from volume I to control volume II in the time interval
t [M], C is the concentration of any material dissolved in
water in control volume I [ML-3], x is the distance [L] and A
is the cross section area between the control volumes [L2]. 16

Q = C x A

II

Number of
particles passing
from I to II in t

Particle
x

Division by time:

Q C x A
=
t
t

Number of
particles
passing from I
to II in unit time

Division by cross-section area:

x
Q
= JADV =
C
t
A t

JADV

Number of particles passing from I to II


in unit time per unit area = FLUX

x x
C
= lim
C =
t 0 t
t

Advective
flux
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Equation 12

The Advective Flux

JADV

x
=
C
t

Equation 12

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The Dispersive Flux

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The dispersive flux can be analyzed with the


simple conceptual model too. This conceptual
model also includes two control volumes.
Dispersion occurs towards both directions in a
time interval.
x

II

Particle
x

20

x is defined as the distance, which a particle can


pass in a time interval of t. The assumption is that the
particles move on positive and negative x directions. In
this case there are two directions, which particles
can move in the time interval of t.
x

II

Particle
x

21

Another assumption is that a particle does not change its


direction during the time interval of t and that the
probability to move to positive and negative x directions
are equal (50%) for all particles.
Therefore, there are two components of the dispersive
mass transfer, one from the control volume I to
control volume II and the second from the control
volume II to control volume I
q1

q2

II

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q1

q2

II

50 % probability

q1 = 0.5 C1 x A

Equation 13

q 2 = 0 . 5 C 2 x A

Equation 14

Q = q1 - q2

Equation 15

Q = 0.5 x A (C1 C 2 )

Equation 16

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Number of particles passing from I to II in t

Q = 0.5 x A (C1 C 2 )
Equation 16

Divide
by time

Q 0.5 x A (C1 C2 )
=
t
t

Number of particles passing from I to


II in unit time

x
0.5 x A C1 C1 +
x
Q

=
t
t

C
C2 = C1 +
x
x
Equation 18
Q
= JDISP =
A t
Equation 22

Particle
x

Equation 17

0.5 x

II

Equation 19

C
x
x

0.5 x A C1 C1
x
Q
x

=
t
t
Divide Equation 20
by
C
Area
0.5 x A
x

Number of particles passing from I to


II in unit time per unit area = FLUX

Q
=
t

Equation 21

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Q
= JDISP
A t

C
0.5 x
x
x
=
t

Equation 22

0.5 (x ) C
JDISP =

x
t
Equation 23
2

0.5 (x )
D=
Equation 24 t

0 .5 [ ]
2
x [L ] (x ) L2
t [T ]

JDISP

Equation 25

0.5 (x )

D=
t

[ ]

C
= D
x

[ ] [L ] = [L
[T ]
2

T -1

]
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Dispersion

Molecular diffusion

Turbulent diffusion

Longitudinal dispersion

GENERALLY
Molecular diffusion << Turbulent diffusion << Longitudinal dispersion
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Ranges of the
Dispersion
Coefficient (D)

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The Dispersive Flux

JDISP

C
= D
x

Equation 25

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THE ADVECTION-DISPERSION
EQUATION FOR A
CONSERVATIVE MATERIAL

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The Advection-Dispersion Equation


C

= J
t
x
x
C
Jadvection =
t
C
Jdispersion = D
x

Equation 8

General
transport
equation

Equation 12

Advective
flux

Equation 25

Dispersive
flux

J = Jadvection + Jdispersion

Equation 26

= (Jadvection + Jdispersion )
t
x

Equation 27
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The Advection-Dispersion Equation


C

= (Jadvection + Jdispersion )
t
x

Equation 27

= Jadvection Jdispersion
t
x
x

Equation 28

Jadvection

x
=
C
t

Jdispersion

C
x
C
= C
D

x
x t
t
x

C
= D
x
Equation 29
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The Advection-Dispersion Equation


C
x
C
= C
D

x
x t
t
x

Equation 29

Velocity u in
x direction

C
D 2
x

C
u
x
2

C
C
C
= u
+D 2
t
x
x

Equation 30
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Dimensional Analysis of the


Advection-Dispersion Equation
2

C
C
C
+D 2
= u
t
x
x
Concentration
over time
[ML-3 T-1]

Velocity times
concentration
over space

Equation 30

[L2T-1][ML-3L-2]
= [ML-3 T-1]

[LT-1][ML-3L-1]
= [ML-3 T-1]

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The Advection-Dispersion Equation


We are living in a 3 dimensional space, where the
same rules for the general mass balance and
transport are valid in all dimensions. Therefore

C
C

ui
+ Di 2

i
i =1
i
Equation 31
C
=
t

x1 = x, u1 = u, D1 = Dx
x2 = y, u2 = v, D2 = Dy
x3 = z, u3 = w, D3 = Dz

2C
C
C
2C
C
C
2C
+ Dz 2
+ Dy 2 w
+ Dx 2 v
= u
z
y
t
x
z
y
x
Equation 32

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THE ADVECTION-DISPERSION
EQUATION FOR A NON
CONSERVATIVE MATERIAL

35

The Advection-Dispersion Equation


for non conservative materials
C
2C
C
2C
C
C
2C
+ Dz 2
+ Dy 2 w
= u
+ Dx 2 v
z
y
x
t
z
y
x
Equation 32

2C
C
2C
C
C
+ Dy 2
= u
+ Dx 2 v
y
t
x
x
y
2C
C
+ Dz 2 +
w
z
z
Equation 33

k C
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The Transport Equation for non


conservative materials with
sedimentation
2C
C
2C
C
C
+ Dy 2
+ Dx 2 v
= u
y
t
x
x
y
2C
C
+ Dz 2 +
w
z
z

k C

C
2C
C
2C
C
+ Dx 2 v
+ Dy 2
= u
y
t
x
x
y
2C
C
+ Dz 2 +
w
z
z

Equation 33

Equation 34

C
k C sedimentat ion
z

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Transport Equation with all


Components
C
C
2C
C
2C
= u
+ Dx 2 v
+ Dy 2
t
x
y
x
y

Equation 35

2C
C
C
w
+ D z 2 + k C sedimentat ion
z
z
z
external sources and sinks

Sedimentation in z
direction
External loads
Interaction with bottom
Other sources and sinks

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Dimensional Analysis of
Components
C

t reaction

=
kinetics

k C

[ML-3][T-1]=[ML-3 T-1]

C
C
= sedimentat ion

z
t sedimentat ion
[LT-1][ML-3L-1]=[ML-3 T-1]

C
= external sources and sinks

t external
Must be given in [ML-3 T-1]

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Advection-Dispersion Equation with


all components
2

C
C
C
C
C
= u
+ Dx 2 v
+ Dy 2
t
x
y
y
x
2

C
C
w
+ Dz 2
z
z
C
+ k C sedimentat ion
z
external sources and sinks

Equation 35

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