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Basic Transport Equation

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You are on page 1of 40

TRANSPORT

EQUATION

Definitions

Basic dimensions

[M] Mass

[L]

Length

[T]

Time

Concentration

Mass per unit

volume

[ML-3]

Mass per unit

time

[MT-1]

Flux

Mass flow rate

through unit area

[ML-2 T-1]

2

Mass balance for a control volume where

the transport occurs only in one direction

(say x-direction)

Mass

entering

the control

volume

Mass

leaving the

control

volume

x

Positive x direction

3

The mass balance for this case can be

written in the following form

Change of

mass

in

the

control volume = the control the control

in a time volume in t volume in t

interval t

C

V

t

A J1

A J2

Equation 1

4

A closer look to Equation 1

C

V

t

A J1

A J2

Flux

Volume [L3]

Concentration Area

over time

[L2]

[ML-3 T-1]

[L3][ML-3T-1] = [MT-1]

Mass over time

[ML-2 T-1]

Flux

Area

[ML-2 T-1]

[L2]

[L2][ML-2T-1] = [MT-1]

Mass over time

Change of mass in unit volume (divide all

sides of Equation 1 by the volume)

C

A

A

=

J1 J2

t

V

V

Equation 2

Rearrangements

C

A

=

(J1 J2 )

t

V

Equation 3

6

A.J1

A.J2

Positive x direction

J

The flux is changing in x direction with gradient of

x

Therefore

J

J2 = J1 +

x

x

Equation 4

7

C

A

=

(J1 J2 )

t

V

J

J2 = J1 +

x

x

Equation 3

Equation 4

C

A

J

=

J1 J1 +

x

t

V

x

Equation 5

8

Rearrangements

C

J

A

=

J1 J1 +

x

t

V

x

V

A 1

= x =

A

V x

J

C

1

=

J1 J1 x

x

t

x

Equation 5

Equation 6

Equation 7

9

Rearrangements

J

C

1

=

J1 J1 x

x

t

x

Equation 7

in x direction is:

C

J

=

t

x

Equation 8

10

We are living in a 3 dimensional space,

where the same rules for the general mass

balance and transport are valid in all

dimensions. Therefore

Ji

=

t

i=1 x i

3

x1 = x

x2 = y

Equation 9

x3 = z

= Jx + Jy + Jz

t

y

z

x

Equation 10

11

The transport equation is derived for a

conservative tracer (material)

The control volume is constant as the time

progresses

The flux (J) can be anything (flows,

dispersion, etc.)

12

13

conceptual model, which includes two control

volumes. Advection occurs only towards one

direction in a time interval.

x

II

Particle

x

14

pass in a time interval of t. The assumption is

that the particles move on the direction of

positive x only.

x

II

Particle

x

15

II

Particle

x

control volume I to control volume II in the time interval t

can be calculated using the Equation below, where

Q = C x A

Equation 11

passing from volume I to control volume II in the time interval

t [M], C is the concentration of any material dissolved in

water in control volume I [ML-3], x is the distance [L] and A

is the cross section area between the control volumes [L2]. 16

Q = C x A

II

Number of

particles passing

from I to II in t

Particle

x

Division by time:

Q C x A

=

t

t

Number of

particles

passing from I

to II in unit time

x

Q

= JADV =

C

t

A t

JADV

in unit time per unit area = FLUX

x x

C

= lim

C =

t 0 t

t

Advective

flux

17

Equation 12

JADV

x

=

C

t

Equation 12

18

19

simple conceptual model too. This conceptual

model also includes two control volumes.

Dispersion occurs towards both directions in a

time interval.

x

II

Particle

x

20

pass in a time interval of t. The assumption is that the

particles move on positive and negative x directions. In

this case there are two directions, which particles

can move in the time interval of t.

x

II

Particle

x

21

direction during the time interval of t and that the

probability to move to positive and negative x directions

are equal (50%) for all particles.

Therefore, there are two components of the dispersive

mass transfer, one from the control volume I to

control volume II and the second from the control

volume II to control volume I

q1

q2

II

22

q1

q2

II

50 % probability

q1 = 0.5 C1 x A

Equation 13

q 2 = 0 . 5 C 2 x A

Equation 14

Q = q1 - q2

Equation 15

Q = 0.5 x A (C1 C 2 )

Equation 16

23

Q = 0.5 x A (C1 C 2 )

Equation 16

Divide

by time

Q 0.5 x A (C1 C2 )

=

t

t

II in unit time

x

0.5 x A C1 C1 +

x

Q

=

t

t

C

C2 = C1 +

x

x

Equation 18

Q

= JDISP =

A t

Equation 22

Particle

x

Equation 17

0.5 x

II

Equation 19

C

x

x

0.5 x A C1 C1

x

Q

x

=

t

t

Divide Equation 20

by

C

Area

0.5 x A

x

II in unit time per unit area = FLUX

Q

=

t

Equation 21

24

Q

= JDISP

A t

C

0.5 x

x

x

=

t

Equation 22

0.5 (x ) C

JDISP =

x

t

Equation 23

2

0.5 (x )

D=

Equation 24 t

0 .5 [ ]

2

x [L ] (x ) L2

t [T ]

JDISP

Equation 25

0.5 (x )

D=

t

[ ]

C

= D

x

[ ] [L ] = [L

[T ]

2

T -1

]

25

Dispersion

Molecular diffusion

Turbulent diffusion

Longitudinal dispersion

GENERALLY

Molecular diffusion << Turbulent diffusion << Longitudinal dispersion

26

Ranges of the

Dispersion

Coefficient (D)

27

JDISP

C

= D

x

Equation 25

28

THE ADVECTION-DISPERSION

EQUATION FOR A

CONSERVATIVE MATERIAL

29

C

= J

t

x

x

C

Jadvection =

t

C

Jdispersion = D

x

Equation 8

General

transport

equation

Equation 12

Advective

flux

Equation 25

Dispersive

flux

J = Jadvection + Jdispersion

Equation 26

= (Jadvection + Jdispersion )

t

x

Equation 27

30

C

= (Jadvection + Jdispersion )

t

x

Equation 27

= Jadvection Jdispersion

t

x

x

Equation 28

Jadvection

x

=

C

t

Jdispersion

C

x

C

= C

D

x

x t

t

x

C

= D

x

Equation 29

31

C

x

C

= C

D

x

x t

t

x

Equation 29

Velocity u in

x direction

C

D 2

x

C

u

x

2

C

C

C

= u

+D 2

t

x

x

Equation 30

32

Advection-Dispersion Equation

2

C

C

C

+D 2

= u

t

x

x

Concentration

over time

[ML-3 T-1]

Velocity times

concentration

over space

Equation 30

[L2T-1][ML-3L-2]

= [ML-3 T-1]

[LT-1][ML-3L-1]

= [ML-3 T-1]

33

We are living in a 3 dimensional space, where the

same rules for the general mass balance and

transport are valid in all dimensions. Therefore

C

C

ui

+ Di 2

i

i =1

i

Equation 31

C

=

t

x1 = x, u1 = u, D1 = Dx

x2 = y, u2 = v, D2 = Dy

x3 = z, u3 = w, D3 = Dz

2C

C

C

2C

C

C

2C

+ Dz 2

+ Dy 2 w

+ Dx 2 v

= u

z

y

t

x

z

y

x

Equation 32

34

THE ADVECTION-DISPERSION

EQUATION FOR A NON

CONSERVATIVE MATERIAL

35

for non conservative materials

C

2C

C

2C

C

C

2C

+ Dz 2

+ Dy 2 w

= u

+ Dx 2 v

z

y

x

t

z

y

x

Equation 32

2C

C

2C

C

C

+ Dy 2

= u

+ Dx 2 v

y

t

x

x

y

2C

C

+ Dz 2 +

w

z

z

Equation 33

k C

36

conservative materials with

sedimentation

2C

C

2C

C

C

+ Dy 2

+ Dx 2 v

= u

y

t

x

x

y

2C

C

+ Dz 2 +

w

z

z

k C

C

2C

C

2C

C

+ Dx 2 v

+ Dy 2

= u

y

t

x

x

y

2C

C

+ Dz 2 +

w

z

z

Equation 33

Equation 34

C

k C sedimentat ion

z

37

Components

C

C

2C

C

2C

= u

+ Dx 2 v

+ Dy 2

t

x

y

x

y

Equation 35

2C

C

C

w

+ D z 2 + k C sedimentat ion

z

z

z

external sources and sinks

Sedimentation in z

direction

External loads

Interaction with bottom

Other sources and sinks

38

Dimensional Analysis of

Components

C

t reaction

=

kinetics

k C

[ML-3][T-1]=[ML-3 T-1]

C

C

= sedimentat ion

z

t sedimentat ion

[LT-1][ML-3L-1]=[ML-3 T-1]

C

= external sources and sinks

t external

Must be given in [ML-3 T-1]

39

all components

2

C

C

C

C

C

= u

+ Dx 2 v

+ Dy 2

t

x

y

y

x

2

C

C

w

+ Dz 2

z

z

C

+ k C sedimentat ion

z

external sources and sinks

Equation 35

40

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