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EE-3352: Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering

Prof. Gosney
Spring 2015
Homework #2
For Monday, January 26, 2015, read Chapters 4-5 (pages 53-98)
Chapter 4: Power Plants
Chapter 5: Environmental Impact of Power Plants
For Wednesday, January 28, 2015:
Chapter 4 Questions: 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.34 (pages 86-87)

4.13) a hydroelectric power plant has a synchronous generator


whose speed must be fixed at 180r/min. The Turbine is Francis
(should be Pelton) type 10m runner diameter. When the flow rate
at the nozzle of the penstock is 10 m3/s, the generated electricity
is 50 MW. If the total efficiency of the generator, turbine, and
hydro is 88%, compute the velocity of water jet.
Solution:
Vc= wr= 2fr
= 2

180
60 .5

= 94.25 m/s
Now, Pw = Pinp
Pin =

50
0.88

= 56.8 MW
Pc = 2 f (Vi Vc) Vc
Vi = Vc +

Pc
2 f V c

Vi = 94.25 +

56.8 10
3
2( 10)(10 )(94.25)

Vi = 124.4 m/s
FYI: 124.4 m/s x 3.28 f/m x 60 mph/88 f/s = 278.2 mph
4.14) the physical head of an impoundment power plant is 100m.
When the penstock is fully closed, the pressure at the outtake end
is 106 N/m2. When the penstock is fully open, the pressure is
reduced to 9X105 N/m2. Compute the effective head.
Solution:
h
H
=
Pr P r 0

h=

100 (9 x 105 )
106

h= 90m
Alternative solution (and better):
The actual pressure at the outtake end for 100 m of physical head
is 9.81 x 105 N/m2, rather than the 106 N/m2 reported in the
problem.
Consequently, when the penstock is full open and the pressure is
reduced to 9x105 N/m2, the effective head is:
H = Pr/g delta = (9x105 N/m2)/(9.81 m/s2*1000 kg/m3) = 91.74
meters.

4.15) a man owns a land that includes a low head water fall and
wants to build a small hydroelectric plant. The effective head of

the reservoir is 20m. He used a tube of 3 m length and 1 m


diameter as a penstock. He computed the speed of the water
inside the penstock by dropping a small ball at the entrance of
the tube and measuring the time it took to reach the other end of
the tube. The ball travelled the penstock in 2s.
a. Compute the power at the outtake of the tube.
b. If the coefficient of performance of the turbine is 0.95, and the
efficiency of the generator turbine and generator is 90%, compute
the expected generation of the site.
c. If the cost of building the small hydroelectric system is $10M,
compute the payback period if the cost of electricity from the
neighboring utilities is $0.2/kWh. Assume that the water flow is
always constant.
d. Is building this small hydroelectric system a good investment.
Solution:
a.)Pout = fgh
=

r2 L
gh
t

( 0.52 ) ( 3 )
( 1000 )( 9.8 ) ( 20 )
=
2

= 230.91 kW
b.) Coefficient of performance= 0.95
Efficiency () = 90%
Pexpected = 0.9x0.95x230.91
= 197.43 kW
c.) Cost of building = $10M
Cost of Electricity = $0.2kWh
Assuming the water flow is constant,

10 10
0.2197.43 24 365

Payback period =

= 28.91
28 years

d.) Building this small hydroelectric system is not a good


investment since the cost of building the system is too high and
the payback period for the system is quite long.
4.16) a hydroelectric dam creates a reservoir of 10km 3. The
average head of the reservoir is 100m. Compute the PE of the
reservoir.
Solution:
PE r=mgh
1013 9.8 100
9.8 1015 J

4.17) a penstock is used to bring water from behind a dam into a


turbine. The effective head is 20m and the flow rate of water is
50m3/s. Compute the power of the water exiting the penstock.
Solution:
Pout =fgh
( 50 ) (1000 )( 9.8 )( 20 )
9.8 MW

4.18) the penstock of a hydroelectric power plant is 4m in


diameter. The water head is 60m. Compute the water flow rate
and the velocity of water inside the penstock if the power at the
exit of the penstock is 10MW.
Solution:
Pout =fgh

107=f ( 1000 )( 9.81 )( 60 )


f =16.9 m3 /s

f =AVi
V i=

16.9
( 22 )

V i=1.34 m/ s

4.19) A hydroelectric dam has a penstock that discharges 10 kg/s


of water. The head of the dam is 80 m.
a. Compute the volume of the discharged water per second (flow
rate).
b. Compute the power of the water entering the turbine.
c. Assume that hydro efficiency is 0.95, the turbine efficiency is
0.9 and the generator efficiency is 92%, estimate the generated
electrical power.
Solution:
a)

m 10 5
flow rate= =
=100 m 3 /sec
1000

5
b) power entering the tube=mgh=10 9.8 80=78.4 MW

c)

Pout =P h t g
Pout =78.4 0.95 0.9 0.92
Pout =61.67 MW

4.20) A natural gas power plant has a condenser that extracts


28,000 Btu/kg of natural gas. Compute the mechanical energy of
the turbine and the overall system efficiency.
Solution:
W =Q 2Q1
W = ( 48000 ) ( 1.054 ) (28000 )( 1.054 )

Note: 1 BTU =1.054 kJ

W =21096 kJ

ideal =

W 21080
=
=41.67
Q1 50592

4.21) an oil-fired power plant has a condenser that extracts


28,000Btu/kg of oil. Compute the mechanical energy of the
turbine and the overall system efficiency.
Solution:
W =Q 2Q1
W = ( 45000 ) ( 1.054 ) (28000 )( 1.054 )
W =17918 kJ

ideal =

W 17918
=
=37.78
Q1 47430

4.34) Estimate the amount of nuclear energy produced by 10 kg


of U.
Solution:

1 kg of uranium = 25.4X1023 fission events


10 kg of uranium = 254 X 1023 fission events
E=

254 1023
14
=8.19 10 J
9
31 10

Chapter 5 Questions: 5.9, 5.10 (page 98)

5.9) If a 100 MW coal-fired power plant is converted into natural


gas , compute the annual percentage reduction of SO.
Solution:
SO2 from coal= 7 kg/MWh
SO2 from Natural Gas= 5 g/MWh
In one year,
SO2 from coal = 7x24x365=61320 kg/year
SO2 from Natural Gas = 0.005x24x365= 43.8 kg/year
Annual reduction percentage=

6132043.8
100=99.92
61320

5.10) in 2006, the world consumed 16.28 x 10 kWh of


electricity; estimate the maximum amount of SO released from
the coal-fired power plant worldwide.
Solution:
SO2 released from coal =7kg/MWh = 7x10-3 kg/KWh
12

Total SO 2 leased=16.28 10 7 10
1.139 1011 kg of SO 2