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You are on page 1of 8

Prof. Gosney

Spring 2015

Homework #2

For Monday, January 26, 2015, read Chapters 4-5 (pages 53-98)

Chapter 4: Power Plants

Chapter 5: Environmental Impact of Power Plants

For Wednesday, January 28, 2015:

Chapter 4 Questions: 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.34 (pages 86-87)

whose speed must be fixed at 180r/min. The Turbine is Francis

(should be Pelton) type 10m runner diameter. When the flow rate

at the nozzle of the penstock is 10 m3/s, the generated electricity

is 50 MW. If the total efficiency of the generator, turbine, and

hydro is 88%, compute the velocity of water jet.

Solution:

Vc= wr= 2fr

= 2

180

60 .5

= 94.25 m/s

Now, Pw = Pinp

Pin =

50

0.88

= 56.8 MW

Pc = 2 f (Vi Vc) Vc

Vi = Vc +

Pc

2 f V c

Vi = 94.25 +

56.8 10

3

2( 10)(10 )(94.25)

Vi = 124.4 m/s

FYI: 124.4 m/s x 3.28 f/m x 60 mph/88 f/s = 278.2 mph

4.14) the physical head of an impoundment power plant is 100m.

When the penstock is fully closed, the pressure at the outtake end

is 106 N/m2. When the penstock is fully open, the pressure is

reduced to 9X105 N/m2. Compute the effective head.

Solution:

h

H

=

Pr P r 0

h=

100 (9 x 105 )

106

h= 90m

Alternative solution (and better):

The actual pressure at the outtake end for 100 m of physical head

is 9.81 x 105 N/m2, rather than the 106 N/m2 reported in the

problem.

Consequently, when the penstock is full open and the pressure is

reduced to 9x105 N/m2, the effective head is:

H = Pr/g delta = (9x105 N/m2)/(9.81 m/s2*1000 kg/m3) = 91.74

meters.

4.15) a man owns a land that includes a low head water fall and

wants to build a small hydroelectric plant. The effective head of

diameter as a penstock. He computed the speed of the water

inside the penstock by dropping a small ball at the entrance of

the tube and measuring the time it took to reach the other end of

the tube. The ball travelled the penstock in 2s.

a. Compute the power at the outtake of the tube.

b. If the coefficient of performance of the turbine is 0.95, and the

efficiency of the generator turbine and generator is 90%, compute

the expected generation of the site.

c. If the cost of building the small hydroelectric system is $10M,

compute the payback period if the cost of electricity from the

neighboring utilities is $0.2/kWh. Assume that the water flow is

always constant.

d. Is building this small hydroelectric system a good investment.

Solution:

a.)Pout = fgh

=

r2 L

gh

t

( 0.52 ) ( 3 )

( 1000 )( 9.8 ) ( 20 )

=

2

= 230.91 kW

b.) Coefficient of performance= 0.95

Efficiency () = 90%

Pexpected = 0.9x0.95x230.91

= 197.43 kW

c.) Cost of building = $10M

Cost of Electricity = $0.2kWh

Assuming the water flow is constant,

10 10

0.2197.43 24 365

Payback period =

= 28.91

28 years

investment since the cost of building the system is too high and

the payback period for the system is quite long.

4.16) a hydroelectric dam creates a reservoir of 10km 3. The

average head of the reservoir is 100m. Compute the PE of the

reservoir.

Solution:

PE r=mgh

1013 9.8 100

9.8 1015 J

turbine. The effective head is 20m and the flow rate of water is

50m3/s. Compute the power of the water exiting the penstock.

Solution:

Pout =fgh

( 50 ) (1000 )( 9.8 )( 20 )

9.8 MW

diameter. The water head is 60m. Compute the water flow rate

and the velocity of water inside the penstock if the power at the

exit of the penstock is 10MW.

Solution:

Pout =fgh

f =16.9 m3 /s

f =AVi

V i=

16.9

( 22 )

V i=1.34 m/ s

of water. The head of the dam is 80 m.

a. Compute the volume of the discharged water per second (flow

rate).

b. Compute the power of the water entering the turbine.

c. Assume that hydro efficiency is 0.95, the turbine efficiency is

0.9 and the generator efficiency is 92%, estimate the generated

electrical power.

Solution:

a)

m 10 5

flow rate= =

=100 m 3 /sec

1000

5

b) power entering the tube=mgh=10 9.8 80=78.4 MW

c)

Pout =P h t g

Pout =78.4 0.95 0.9 0.92

Pout =61.67 MW

28,000 Btu/kg of natural gas. Compute the mechanical energy of

the turbine and the overall system efficiency.

Solution:

W =Q 2Q1

W = ( 48000 ) ( 1.054 ) (28000 )( 1.054 )

W =21096 kJ

ideal =

W 21080

=

=41.67

Q1 50592

28,000Btu/kg of oil. Compute the mechanical energy of the

turbine and the overall system efficiency.

Solution:

W =Q 2Q1

W = ( 45000 ) ( 1.054 ) (28000 )( 1.054 )

W =17918 kJ

ideal =

W 17918

=

=37.78

Q1 47430

of U.

Solution:

10 kg of uranium = 254 X 1023 fission events

E=

254 1023

14

=8.19 10 J

9

31 10

gas , compute the annual percentage reduction of SO.

Solution:

SO2 from coal= 7 kg/MWh

SO2 from Natural Gas= 5 g/MWh

In one year,

SO2 from coal = 7x24x365=61320 kg/year

SO2 from Natural Gas = 0.005x24x365= 43.8 kg/year

Annual reduction percentage=

6132043.8

100=99.92

61320

electricity; estimate the maximum amount of SO released from

the coal-fired power plant worldwide.

Solution:

SO2 released from coal =7kg/MWh = 7x10-3 kg/KWh

12

Total SO 2 leased=16.28 10 7 10

1.139 1011 kg of SO 2

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