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LCM &HCF

Least Common Multiple (LCM)

LCM of two or more numbers is the least number that is exactly divisible by

each of the given numbers.

LCM is found by the following methods

o Prime factorization

Each of the given numbers is expressed as the product of prime

factors. The LCM of the given numbers is the product of the highest

powers (obtained from the factors of the numbers) of all the factors.

Example : Find the LCM of 40, 72 and 132.

40 = 2 2 2 5

= 23 5

72 = 2 2 2 3 3 = 23 33

132 = 2 2 3 11

= 22 3 11

Successive division

Write the given numbers in a line.

Select a prime factor common to atleast two of the given numbers.

Divide the numbers (in line) with that prime factor.

i)

ii)

if any number is not divisible, write the number itself under it.

Then select a prime factor that is common to at/east two of the obtained

quotients (in second line), and repeat the process, until 'the quotients are all

prime. LCM is the product of all the divisors (/actors) and (he quotients (in

the last line)

Example : Find the LCM of 40, 72 and 132.

2

2

2

3

20, 36, 66

10, 18, 33

5, 9, 33

5, 3, 11

Note :

LCM of the numbers a, b and c is the least number that is exactly

divided by each of a, b and c.

HCF of the deno min ators

LCM of fractions

The LCM of given numbers is not less than any of the numbers.

The LCM of two or more prime or co primes is their product.

Highest Common Factor (HCF)

HCF of two or more numbers is the largest factor of each of them. i.e. the

greatest number that divides each of the number exactly.

It is also known as Greatest Common Divisor (GCD)

HCF is found by the following methods

o Prime factorization

Each of the given numbers is expressed as the product of prime

factors. The product of the prime factors common to each of the number is

the required HCF.

Example : Find the HCF of 144, 192 and 180.

144 = 2 2 2 2 3 3

180 = 2 2 3 3 5

192 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

Therefore, the HCF of 144. 180 and 192 = 2 2 3 = 12

Successive division

Then divide the divisor by the remainder.

Then divide the remainder by the next remainder.

Repeat the process of dividing the preceding divisor by the remainder

The last divisor is the required HCF.

Example : Find the HCF of 144, 192 and 180.

144) 180 (1

144

-----------36) 144 (4

144

-----------0

36) 192 (5

180

-----------12) 192 (3

192

-----------0

Note :

HCF of the numbers a, b and c is the greatest number that exactly

divides each of a, b and c.

LCM of the deno min ators

HCF of fractions

The HCF of given numbers is not greater than any of the numbers.

HCF of two prime or co prime numbers is 1.

Note :

o If a number A is a factor of another number B, then

HCF of A and B =A

LCM of A and B = B

o HCF of given numbers is the factor of the LCM of the given numbers.

o The product of HCF and LCM of two numbers = the product of the

given numbers

LCM AND HCF MODELS

Question

Find the least number, which is

exactly divisible by x,y, z.

Find the least number, which when

divided by x, y, z, leaves a remainder

r in each case.

Find the least number, which when

Approach

LCM (x, y, z)

LCM (x, y, z) + r

Observe, if x a = y b = z c = k

a, b, c respectively.

Then LCM (x, y, z) k

Else, go with the options

Find the greatest number, that will HCF (x, y, z)

exactly divide x, y,z.

Find the greatest number, that will HCF (x a, y b, z c)

divide x, y, z leaving remainders a, b,

c respectively.

Find the greatest number, that will HCF (x y, y z, z x)

divide x, y, z leaving the same

remainder in each case.

Example Problems:

1. Find the smallest number which when divided by 4 or 7 leaves a

remainder of 3 in each case and the number being greater than the

two divisors.

Sol: The LCM of 4 and 7 is 28. Hence the required number is 28 + 3 = 31

2. Find the smallest six-digit number, which when divided by 3 or 11

leaves a remainder of 2 in each case

Sol: We need to find the smallest six-digit multiple of 33.

(33 is the LCM of 3 and 11) and add the remainder 2 to that multiple to

get the required number. Take the smallest six digit number, 100000 and

divide by 33 which gives a remainder of 10.

Take the difference between the divisor 33 and the above remainder

10,.which is 23. This is added to 100000 to give 100023, which is the

smallest six digit multiple of 33. Now add the remainder 2 to get the required

number as 100025.

3. Find the smallest number which when divided by 4 and 7 gives

remainders of 2 and 5 respectively,

Sol: The LCM of 4 and 7 is 28.

The difference between the number and the remainder in each case' is

2. (4 - 2 = 2 and 7 - 5 = 2) Hence, the number that will satisfy the given

conditions will be equal to 28 - 2 = 26.

4. Find the largest four digit number which when divided by' 5 and 9

.gives remainders of 3 and 7 respectively.

Sol: The difference between the divisor and the remainder is the same

(b), in each case

The LCM of 5 and 9 is 45. We will first find the largest four digit

multiple of 45 and subtract 2 from it. The largest four digit multiple of 45 is

9990. Hence the required number is 9990 - 2 = 9988.

HCF = 7 [42 = 2 * 3 * 7, 91 = 13 * 7, 154 = 2 * 7 * 11]

LCM = 6006 [2 * 7 * 3 * 11 * 13]

6. What is the value of p, if q is 24 and the LCM & HCF of p & q

are72 & 12

respectively?

Answer: LCM * HCF = pq

72 * 12 = p * 24

p = 36

7. Find the HCF & LCM of 2/3, 8/9, 16/81 and 10/27.

Answer: HCF of fractions = (HCF of Numerators) / (LCM of Denominators)

(HCF of 2,8,16,10)/(LCM 0f 3,9,81,27) = 2/81

LCM of Fractions = (LCM of Numerators) / (HCF of Denominators)

(LCM of 2,8,16,10)/(HCF 0f 3,9,81,27) = 80/3

8. Find the HCF & LCM of 0.42, 0.91 and 1.54.

Answer: Without the decimal places, the numbers are 42, 91 & 154.

HCF is 7 & hence HCF of 0.42, 0.91, and 1.54 is 0.07

LCM is 6006 & LCM of 0.42, 0.91, 1.54 is 60.06

9. Find the largest number of 4 digits exactly divided by 12, 15, 18

and 27.

Answer: Largest 4 digit no. is 9999

LCM of 12, 15, 18, 27 = 540

9999/540 gives remainder of 279

Required no. = 9999-279 = 9720

10. What is the smallest number which when increased by 3 is

divisible by 27, 35, 25,21?

Answer: LCM = 4725, 4725 3 = 4722

11. The traffic light at three different road crossings changes after

24 sec, 36 sec and 48 sec respectively. If they change

simultaneously at 7.25 am, then when will they change together

again?

Answer: LCM = 144

24 24 48 72 96 120 144 168

36 36 72 108 144 180

48 48 96 144 192

144/60 = 2minutes 24 seconds

Therefore 7.25 + 2minutes 24 seconds = 7 hrs 27 minutes 24 seconds

12. Arrange the fractions 17/18, 31/36, 43/ 45, 59/60 in the

ascending order.

Answer: LCM of denominators = 180

17/18 = 170/180

31/36 = 155/180

43/45 = 172/180

59/60 = 177/180

Since 155 < 170 < 172 < 177, 155/180 < 170/180 < 172/180 < 177/180

Hence, 31/36 < 17/18 < 43/45 < 59/60

13. If the ratio of 3 numbers is 1 : 2 : 3 and if their HCF is 12, then

find LCM & the

numbers.

Answer: Let the numbers be x, 2x, 3x

Here x = 12.

Therefore, the numbers are 12, 24, 36. LCM = 72

14. A no. leaves a remainder 5 when divided by 7 and 7 when

divided by 9. What is

the least possible no. that has this property?

Answer: 7 5 = 2 = 9 7

If n is the least positive no., then n+2 is a multiple of both 7 & 9.

LCM of 7 & 9 = 63

n+2 = 63 n = 61

15. Find the no. of divisors & sum of divisors of 441.

Answer: Find LCM = 3 * 3 * 7 * 7

3 * 7 = 441

No. of Divisors = (2+1) (2+1) = 9

Sum of divisors = [32+1-1] * [72+1-1]

[3-1] [7-1]

741

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