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# Thermo Questions

May 2012
Problem 2

Ws

A stream of air at atmospheric pressure (101.33 kPa) is
cooled continuously from 38˚C to 15˚C for airconditioning a building. The temperature of the ambient
air to which heat is discarded is 38˚C. What is the
minimum power requirement of a mechanical
refrigeration system? The volumetric flow is 0.5 m3 s-1
and air can be treated as ideal gas with CP=7/2 R.

Air at 38 oC

Air at 15 oC
Control system

Q
Surroundings at 38 oC

January 2012
Problem 1
What is the entropy change of an ideal gas that undergoes an irreversible adiabatic compression in a
piston/cylinder device? The initial pressure is 2 bar with a temperature of 25 °C and the final pressure is
10 bar. The irreversible process requires 40% more work than the equivalent reversible adiabatic
process. Assume Cp = (7/2)R and Cv = (5/2)R.

Problem 6
One mole of water vapor is compressed with care at 373 K to obtain a supersaturated vapor at 2 atm.
After some time, the vapor spontaneously condenses into liquid. Calculate H, S, and G for this
process. The molar heat of vaporization at normal pressure is 46.02 kJ/mol. The vapor phase can be
assumed to be an ideal gas and the liquid density can be assumed to be constant (1000 kg/m3). Note:
atmospheric pressure = 1atm = 101.325 kPa; R = 8.314 J/mol-K

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Thermo Questions

Problem 8
A binary liquid system in equilibrium with its vapor is described by the modified Raoult’s law. The
activity coefficients depend on composition as follows:
ln  1  Ax 22
ln  2  Ax12

Experimental data for a particular liquid mixture are as follows:
T  110 o C
P1sat (110 o C )  52.2kPa
P2sat (110 o C )  57.7 kPa
x1  0.32mol / mol
y1  0.44mol / mol

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Identify the more volatile species.
Calculate the value of parameter A.
Calculate the pressure of the system in kPa.
Evaluate whether the system can form an azeotrope at this particular temperature. If so, calculate the
pressure and composition at the azeotrope.
Assume ideal behavior of the vapor.

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If γ1’ in this phase is ~1. consider the phase rich in species 1.9 1 y1 3 .5 0.4 is cooled to T = 76 ⁰ C. then what is γ1” in the other phase? (c) Over what range of T and z1 (overall mole fraction) can one form a vapor in equilibrium with a Liquid rich in component 2? (d) A hot mixture at y1 = 0. L’.4 0.6 0.2 0.1 0. (a) At T = 60 ⁰ C what are the compositions of the phases that form? (b) At T = 60 ⁰ C.8 0.Thermo Questions May 2011 Problem 1 (1) Answer the questions below based on the phase diagram shown below for a mixture of components 1 and 2. What kinds of phases and how many of each form? What are the compositions of each phase? What are γ1’ and γ1” at this condition? 105 VAPOR 100 90 T (⁰C) 80 70 60 LIQUID 50 0 0. y1 = mole fraction component 1.3 0.7 0.

The solubility of air in mixtures of A and B is negligible at all compositions. In addition. and finally exhausted. Determine: (a) at what rate (in mol/sec) air enters the turbine (b) how much work (in J/sec) the turbine performs (c) State any assumptions that you make. used to cool the cabin. at 1 bar and 38 °C.3 bar.8 bar. 4 . the following is known about the mixture properties: • The heat of mixing of the two components at 25ºC is -1 kJ/mol for a 50/50 molar mixture. • The excess entropy at 25ºC is -1 J/mol•K for a 50/50 molar mixture. is expanded through a turbine to the cabin pressure of 0. The air.6 bar. b) Calculate the concentration (mole fraction) of A and B in the air that is in equilibrium with the equimolar mixture at 25ºC. Problem 4 Air from the compressor of a jet engine is being used to air condition a plane’s passenger cabin. Three thousand joules/sec must be removed from the cabin to maintain the temperature at 22 °C. a) Assuming that the mixture can be represented by the simple Margules model the equimolar mixture.Thermo Questions January 2011 Problem 3 Two pure liquids (species A and B) are mixed isothermally at 25ºC in equimolar amounts and kept in contact with air at 1 bar. The pure components have the following properties at 25ºC: PAsat = 0. PBsat = 0.

Thermo Questions May 2010 Problem 3 Problem 6 Problem 8 5 .

Thermo Questions January 2010 Problem 1 Problem 4 6 .

8))= 1. L’.Thermo Questions May 2009 Problem 3 An ideal gas is compressed adiabatically in a steady-state process.8)) = 6.18 (c) Over what range of P and z1 (overall mole fraction) can one form a Vapor in equilibrium with a Liquid rich in component 1? Read from the chart the limits of the coexistence region V-L” labeled below: 0. x1” = 0. such that cv = 5/2 R and cp = 7/2 R.11 And γ1”= Py1 / x1”P1*=2(0. (a) What is the temperature Tout in the outlet stream? (b) What is the entropy change between the two streams? Problem 7 (1) Answer the questions below based on the phase diagram shown below for a mixture of components 1 and 2.8 < P < 2 bar and 0.0 (d) A mixture at x1 = 0.44)/((0.44)/((0. what are the compositions of the phases that form? Phase L’ has x1’=0.33 MISSING GRAPH!! 7 .17 = 5.18. L’ and L” What are the compositions of each phase? x1’= 0. What kinds of phases form? Vapor + two liquid phases. The following inlet and outlet conditions are known: Inlet: Pin = 0. This process has 87% efficiency. y1 = 0.12 and Phase L” has x1”=0. If γ2’ in this phase is ~1.18)(0.8 bar from the chart.44 < z1 < 1.83 What are γ1’ and γ1” at this condition? Py1=γ1’x1’P1* = γ1”x1”P1* P1* = 0. then what is γ2” in the other phase? Equilibrium determined by two equations: γ1’x1’=γ1”x1” and γ2’x2’=γ2”x2” γ2” = γ2’x2’/x2” = (1) (1-0. consider the phase rich in species 2.44. thus γ1’= Py1 / x1’P1*= 2(0.12) / (1-0.4 MPa Assume that the gas is diatomic.83 (b) At P = 3 bar.83) = 0.1 MPa.3 is compressed to P = 2.83)(0.88/0.0 bar. x1 = mole fraction component 1. (a) At P = 3 bar. Tin = 25 °C Outlet: Pout = 0.

Within the cylinder. Problem 8 A piston-cylinder device contains an ideal gas. What is the final temperature and pressure inside the piston-cylinder? 8 .314 J mol-1 K-1 Problem 4 An ideal equimolar liquid solution of hexane and heptane is flashed isothermally at 80oC. P = 200 kPa.Thermo Questions January 2009 Problem 1 One mole of an ideal gas at 350oC and 1030kPa is expanded in a turbine. at which point it stops. See the figure below. calculate the pressure (in torr) and composition of each stream. The whole piston-cylinder device has been placed in a rigid vacuum chamber and the vacuum chamber was evacuated so that P ~ 0 Pa. The mass of the piston is 1 kg and the acceleration due to gravity today is 10 m/s 2. Stopper #1 is removed and the piston is forced upward by the pressure inside the piston cylinder. Psat heptane = 388 torr. The exhaust pressure is atmospheric (103kPa). The piston is held in place by a mechanical stopper (stopper#1).5R) and negligible heat transfer to the surroundings. The product is half vapor and half liquid. The volume inside the pistoncylinder is now 2 m3. the gas is at T = 300 K. and V = 1 m3. The piston rises one meter until it hits stopper #2. The vapor pressures are Psat hexane = 1082 torr. (The gas is still inside the piston cylinder though). What is the lowest possible temperature of the exhaust? How much work is obtained? Assume the heat capacity (Cp = 3. R = 8.

5R and assume the ideal gas model holds. and universe? c. Take CP = 2. b. During the process the system does work. irreversible. For an ideal gas a  c.5 kmol of an ideal gas (Cp = 30 kJ/kmol-K) is taken from P = 10 bar and T = 300 K to P = 1 bar and T = 500 K in a closed system. and receives 5000 kJ of heat reversibly from the surroundings at 300 K. How much work would need to be done by the system on the surroundings? Is this process possible? Would it be possible for the gas to undergo the same change in state adiabatically? Explain.Thermo Questions May 2008 Problem 1 A process has been proposed whereby 1. For a van der Waals fluid. The gas is subjected to a constant external pressure of 400 kPa and compressed in an isothermal process. d. What is the entropy change of the system.50 m3 of an ideal gas at 150 kPa and 20°C. b. Assume the surroundings are at 20°C. or impossible? 9 . surroundings. Is the process reversible. Determine the heat transfer (in kJ) during the process. in terms of P-V-T properties only? a. In the general case b. a. c. a. Problem 2 How does the internal energy of a fluid vary with the volume at constant temperature.  p  2 v  b   RT v   January 2008 Problem 1 A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0. Would it be possible for the gas to return to its original state adiabatically? Explain.

Henry’s constants for oxygen and nitrogen in water at 25°C are 43500 bar and 84800 bar. Calculate the time in hours it will take for the discharge from the tank to rise from 60°F to 90°F and the maximum temperature that can be achieved in the tank.0 lbm/h. γ2  = 0. Additional data: Power of stirrer motor: 1. 75% of this power is delivered to the oil. Oil flows in and out of the tank at a rate of 1018.0 psia. which is condensing in steam coils at 40. U= 291 Btu/(H∙°F) Cp.A12 ) x1] 10 . and the solubility of oxygen and nitrogen in water. Calculate the mole fraction of water vapor.7°C = 267. Calculate the amount of heat added or removed when an equimolar mixture of water and formic acid is formed from its components at 45 C. The rate of heat transfer from the steam to the oil is given by Newton’s heating law.Toil) Where Q is the rate of heat transfer in Btu/h and U is an overall heat transfer coefficient. Q = U(Tsteam .2°F Problem 6 A sealed vessel contains water and air (which consists of oxygen and nitrogen in the ratio 1:4) at 25°C and 1 bar. respectively.oil = 0. contains 5000 lbm of oil initially at 60°F.5 Btu/(lbm∙°F) 1 hp = 2547 Btu/h Water saturation temperature at 40 psia is 130.0 hp. which is perfectly mixed by a stirrer. You may use the Margules equation as follows: ln γ1 = x2 2 [A12 + 2 (A21 . The temperature of the inflowing oil is also 60°F. May 2007 Problem 3 The following data are available for water (1) + formic acid (2) mixtures at 45 C: γ1  = 0.74.Thermo Questions Problem 3 A tank is used to heat oil by saturated steam. The tank. The vapor pressure of water at 25°C is 0.49 .0317 bar.

How much heat is exchanged between the box and the surroundings? Nitrogen behaves like an ideal gas under all conditions. at a constant rate m Neglect potential and kinetic energy. m  [e. The initial mass is m0. Compute the temperature in the tank as a function of time. January 2007 Problem 3 .000 Pa and T=300 K via a valve. 11 . R=8. m(t )  m  t so that m t can be neglected relative to m0. The conditions of the nitrogen gas in the high-pressure line do not change during the filling. and CV=20 J/(mole K). kg/s]. such that m(t )  m transient balance for T(t).g. The box is connected to a high-pressure nitrogen gas line containing nitrogen at P=200.314 J/(mole K). Solve the (2) Consider very early behavior. and the initial temperature is T0. Assume the tank is well insulated. Assume that the gas is ideal and use a reference temperature of Tr for all thermodynamic quantities. The valve is opened and one mole of nitrogen flows through the valve into the box. (assuming that  t  0 so that the tank is not empty). Consider gas flowing out of a small hole in a tank.Thermo Questions Problem 5 A 1 m3 rigid box contains 1 mole of nitrogen at T=300 K (ideal gas with C p =30 J/(mole K). Heat is allowed to flow between the box and the surroundings (which are also at 300 K) so that the box returns to 300 K. in terms of temperature T in the tank. (1) Derive the transient energy balance for the tank. The valve is then closed.

66kPa. The equilibrium water vapor pressure above the solid (which behaves like an ideal gas) has been measured as a function of temperature. specific volume V = 20 m3/kg. and the composition of the vapor. In this process. The specific enthalpy of the air in the tank is 229. Determine the equilibrium pressure. What is the final volume of the vertical cylinder? b. as follows: Log10 (Po) = 7.Thermo Questions Problem 5 A liquid mixture of cyclohexanone (1) and phenol (2) for which x1= 0. How much heat is transferred? 12 . the specific internal energy of the air U = 89. P1sat = 75. (3) The system forms an azeotrope at 144 oC for which x1azeo = y1azeo = 0. The initial volume of the air in the cylinder is 0. Assume the kinetic and potential energies are negligible.05 m3.294. May 2006 Problem 1 Solid sodium carbonate monohydrate loses water vapor upon heating to form anhydrous sodium carbonate. and specific volume V remain constant at their initial values.6 kJ/kg During the process the pressure P.9 –(3000/T) (where P0 is the partial pressure of water in bar and T is in degrees K) What is the standard Gibbs Energy change for the reaction at 600 K. from the following information: (1) Assume the composition dependence of GE (Excess Gibbs free energy) is given by an equation of the form GE/RT = Bx1x2. and then it is closed.0015 kg air flowing from a large tank to the cylinder. How much work is done? c. y1.20 kPa and P2sat = 31. is in equilibrium with its vapor at 144oC.6. based only on this information? Na2CO3*H2O → Na2CO3 + H2O Problem 5 Air (treated as ideal gas) is contained in a vertical cylinder at a pressure of 20 bar. where B is a function of temperature only. The pressure is imposed by a weight on a frictionless piston. specific internal energy U.14 kJ/kg. (2) At 144oC. The valve is opened to allow 0. so that the pressure remains constant. a. P.

The N2 flow rate is 90 moles/min.40 Psat .35 0. 45 mol % styrene and the balance liquid iodine (assumed to be nonvolatile). toluene. torr 1340 560 210 P = _________________torr yBenzene = ___________ yToluene = ___________ yXylene = ____________ January 2006 Problem 1 A storage vessel is filled with a liquid mixture initially with the following composition: 50 mol % toluene. and o-xylene is in equilibrium with its vapor at 100ºC. The liquid composition (mole fraction) and vapor pressures in torr (mm Hg) at this temperature are given below.Thermo Questions Problem 7 An ideal liquid solution of benzene.25 0. What is the total pressure and vapor composition? Benzene Toluene o-Xylene a) Total Pressure: b) Composition: x 0. (a) What is the initial pressure of the vessel? _________mm Hg (b) What is the initial mole fraction of toluene in the vapor phase? ________ (c) What is the initial molar flow rate at which toluene leaves the bubbler? _________ mol/min Vapor pressure data: Toluene: P*(115 °C) = 859 mmHg Styrene: P*(115 °C) = 315 mmHg 13 . The gas leaving the bubbler is saturated with toluene and styrene vapors and initially contains 25 mol % N2. no other substances are present. Nitrogen is bubbled through this liquid at a temperature of 115 °C.

5 mol/s. The oxygen transfer from air to water is controlled by molecular diffusion of oxygen through the top layer (0. Assume the exhaust gas is ideal.5 cm thick) of water. Assume the intake air is ideal. Using this information. The viscosity of water at 20°C is 1 cp. so that the associated entropy . The compressor operates isothermally and reversibly at 320 K. and exits the turbine at 400 K. The diffusivity of oxygen in water at 20°C is 2x10-5 cm2/s. The compressor is driven by the exhaust gas by use of a turbine (see figure below). The exhaust gas flows at 2.5 bar. the change in entropy.  For isobaric expansion of an ideal gas. enters the turbine at 550 K. perform a thermodynamic analysis to decide if the turbocharger can operate as stated. and water below this layer is well-mixed by the movement of goldfish. It may be further assumed that a minimum concentration of 10-7 mol O2/cm3 needs to be maintained in water. where is the mass of gas and is the gas constant. You skepticism leads you to get more information about the turbocharger. May 2005 Problem 1 A car advertisement states that its turbocharger compresses atmospheric intake air to 2 bar.000 bars at 20°C. Estimate the number of goldfish that can be sustained in the tank. The intake air flowrate is 2 mol/s. HINTS:  Assume all heat is lost reversible at the temperature of the compressor. Each goldfish needs 10-4 g of O2 per hour to survive. compressing intake air at 320 K from 1 bar to 2 bar. . This layer may be assumed stagnant. The turbine operates isobarically at the exhaust pressure of 1. 14 . The Henry's law constant for oxygen in water is 40. where is heat flow and T is temperature.Thermo Questions Problem 4 A fish tank (30 cm wide x 50 cm long x 50 cm deep) is used to keep goldfish at 20°C.

Assume that the activity coefficient of B equals 1. calculate the (i) equilibrium pressure and (ii) molar composition of the vapor phase in equilibrium with a solution of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and cyclohexane at 40oC that has a CCl4 mole fraction.0 mole% A and 96 mole% B? ii. a second liquid phase. a.7oC.427 bar and the vapor pressure of pure B is 0.34 mmHg and Pcyclohexane* = 184.0 mole% A and 96 mole% B. The Henry’s law constant is 500mmHg/(mole fraction B). 15 . When larger amounts of A are present. The saturation vapor pressures at 40oC of pure CCl4 and cyclosexane are PCCl4* = 213. At 92.61 mmHg. xCCl4 = 0. respectively.012 bar.000 mmHg. What are the activity coefficients for A and B in this second phase? January 2005 Problem 1 A real gas is contained in an insulated piston cylinder with the following initial conditions: Volume = 1 cubic foot Temperature = 45oC Pressure = 0. The surrounding pressure is held at a contact value of 14 psia.0 mole percent A appears. the maximum amount of A that can be dissolved in an A-B mixture is 4. At 92. Assuming ideal solution behavior. Find the heat transferred (Q) and the enthalpy change (ΔH) between the time the latch is removed and the time the piston comes to rest. You may also assume that the vapor phase follows ideal gas behavior.0 mole percent.Thermo Questions Problem 2 The bubble point temperature of a liquid mixture of A and B containing 4. calculate the (i) equilibrium pressure and (ii) molar composition of A and B in the vapor phase. For xB = 0.475.7oC at 1. where xB is the liquid phase mole fraction of B.6 psia The piston initially held with a latch. The saturation vapor pressure of pure A at 80oC is PA* = 1. b.784 bar. Vapor-liquid equilibrium for the system containing components A and B at temperature of 80oC shows that component B obeys Henry’s law in the range 0 < xB < 0.0 in the liquid mixture containing 4. Problem 2 Consider the following two vapor-liquid systems.02. What is the activity coefficient of A? b. the vapor pressure of pure A is 0. What is the composition of the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid mixture containing 4.0 mole% of A is 92. containing 40.7oC. i.01. a. Express your answer using energy units of ft-lbf.

5 kg/s and is at 1 bar and 70oC.Thermo Questions May 2004 Problem 1 A Fast talking salesperson comes to your door. Will this device work? Justify your response with quantitative calculations. Problem 2 16 . He brings out the mysterious box and claims that it can take an inlet stream at 2 kg/s of an ideal gas at 4 bar and 50oC and convert it to two outlet streams. The second outlet stream exits at 1.5 kg/s and is at 1 bar and -10oC. One outlet stream flows at 0. offering to sell his patent rights to marvelous invention.

Thermo Questions January 2004 Problem 1 Problem 2 May 2003 Problem 1 17 .

Thermo Questions Problem 2 Problem 5 18 .

Thermo Questions January 2003 Problem 1 Problem 3 19 .

Thermo Questions Problem 6 May 2002 Problem 1 20 .

Thermo Questions Problem 6 January 2002 Problem 5 21 .

What is the minimum temperature that the lecture hall could reach using this device under the above conditions? Problem 1 22 .Thermo Questions Problem 3 In order to air condition a lecture hall to 21oC. and by having a heat reservoir available at 38oC. but can accomplish the required air conditioning by supplying 1 x 106 kJ/hr to the device at 150oC. 7. Should you. a.5 x 105 kJ of heat must be removed from this hall per hour. purchase this device? Quantitatively justify your answer b. as the lead engineer on the project. An inventor claims to have invented a device that neither requires nor generates work.

Thermo Questions May 2001 Problem 2 Problem 3 23 .

Thermo Questions January 2001 Problem 1 Problem 6 24 .

Thermo Questions Problem 7 25 .

Thermo Questions January 2000 Problem 3 Problem 7 26 .