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DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA ELÉCTRICA Y ENERGÉTICA

Miguel Angel Rodríguez Pozueta
En un sistema trifásico se puede realizar la transformación de tensiones mediante un
banco de tres transformadores monofásicos idénticos (Fig. 1) o mediante un transformador
trifásico (Fig. 2).

Fig. 1: Banco de tres transformadores monofásicos YNy

Fig. 2: Transformador trifásico de 3 columnas

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5: Conexión zig-zag -3- . 3: Conexión estrella A B C A B C A' B' C' A' B' C' a) b) Fig. 4: Conexión triángulo A B C A B C A' B' C' A' B' C' A1 B1 C1 A1 B1 C1 A'1 B'1 C'1 A'1 B'1 C'1 a) b) Fig.A B C A B C A' B' C' A' B' C' a) b) Fig.

TRANSFORMADORES TRIFÁSICOS CON CARGAS EQUILIBRADAS * Potencia asignada. intensidades y tensiones: S N = 3 ⋅ I1N ⋅ V1N = 3 ⋅ I 2 N ⋅ V2 N = 3 ⋅ I1NL ⋅ V1NL = Estrella: I = IL Triángulo: I = Zig-zag: I = IL VL V = IL 3 ⋅ I 2 NL ⋅ V2 NL 3 V = VL 3 VL V = En cada semidevanado: V' = V 3 3 VL 3 = * Reducción del secundario al primario: V'2 L = m T ⋅ V2L E'2 L = m T ⋅ E 2L I '2 L = V'2 = m ⋅ V2 E'2 = m ⋅ E 2 I '2 = Z'L = m 2 ⋅ ZL R '2 = m 2 ⋅ R 2 I 2L mT I2 m X'2 = m 2 ⋅ X 2 * Ensayo de vacío: W A W V Medidas: V1NL I0L P0 P0 = PFe = 3 ⋅ I 2Fe ⋅ R Fe = 3 ⋅ I Fe ⋅ V1N = 3 ⋅ V1N ⋅ I 0 ⋅ Cos ϕ 0 = 3 ⋅ V1NL ⋅ I 0 L ⋅ Cos ϕ 0 = * Ensayo de cortocircuito: W A W V Medidas: V1ccL Pcc = PCuN = 3 ⋅ I12N I1NL Pcc (Si el ensayo es a I1NL) ⋅ R cc = 3 ⋅ V1cc ⋅ I1N ⋅ Cos ϕ cc = Si el ensayo no es a I1NL. se miden V1cortoL V1ccL = V1 cortoL I1cortoL I1NL Pcorto Pcc I1 cortoL -5- 3 ⋅ V1ccL ⋅ I1NL ⋅ Cos ϕ cc  I  = Pcorto  1NL   I1 cortoL    2 .

* Tensiones relativas de cortocircuito: V1cc V Z ⋅I ⋅ 100 = 1ccL ⋅ 100 = cc 1N ⋅ 100 V1N V1NL V1N R ⋅I P = cc 1N ⋅ 100 = cc ⋅ 100 = ε cc ⋅ Cos ϕ cc V1N SN X ⋅I 2 = cc 1N ⋅ 100 = ε cc − ε 2Rcc = ε cc ⋅ Sen ϕ cc V1N ε cc = ε cc ε Xcc ε Rcc ϕ cc ε Xcc ε Rcc * Indice de carga: C = S I I I' I' I' I I ≈ 2 = 2L = 2 = 2 = 2 L ≈ 1 = 1L SN I2N I 2 NL I' 2 N I1N I1NL I1N I1NL * Potencias y rendimiento: PCu = C 2 ⋅ PCuN η = η = η Máx PCuN = Pcc = S N ⋅ ε Rcc 100 C ⋅ S N ⋅ Cos ϕ 2 P2 P2 = = P1 P2 + PFe + PCu C ⋅ S N ⋅ Cos ϕ 2 + PFe + C 2 ⋅ PCuN → Pv = Pf → PCu = PFe → C opt = PFe PCuN = P0 Pcc * Fallo o falta de cortocircuito: I1 falta = I1N ⋅ 100 ε cc I1 faltaL = I1NL ⋅ 100 ε cc I 2 falta = I 2 N ⋅ 100 ε cc I 2 faltaL = I 2 NL ⋅ 100 ε cc * Caídas de tensión: V1 − V' 2 V − V' 2L ⋅ 100 = 1L ⋅ 100 = C [(ε Rcc ⋅ Cos ϕ 2 ) ± (ε xcc ⋅ Sen ϕ 2 )] V1N V1NL Cargas inductivas: signo + Cargas capacitivas: signo - Regulación: V20 − V2 V − V' 2 ⋅ 100 = 1N ⋅ 100 V20 V1N V − V2 L V − V' 2L = 20L ⋅ 100 = 1NL ⋅ 100 V20L V1NL εC = εC (V20L = Tensión secundaria de línea en vacío = V2NL) -6- .