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Week 6 – Modal Verbs

1. Complete the sentence using one word in each gap.
a) In the early years of motoring, drivers didn’t ………………… to take a driving test.
b) You ………………… sign the application form at the end of the page, or it will not be accepted.
c) Hurry up. We ………………… to get to the airport by 9.30.
d) I think we had ………………… stop and ask someone the way.
e) This bus is going to take ages. We ………………… have taken a taxi.
f) Important notice. All new arrivals ………………… to report to the reception desk.
g) Thanks for coming. I’m glad you ………………… make it.
h) You look really tired. You ………………… take a few days off and have a holiday.
i) Sorry I’m a bit late. I ………………… to pick up the children from school.
j) You ………………… not decide immediately whether to join the class.
2. Write a new sentence with the same meaning, beginning as shown.
a) If I were you, I’d take an example.
I think you’d ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
b) Is Saturday morning school compulsory in your country?
Do students ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
c) In the third week, students must hand in a typed copy of their first lab report.
In the third week, students are ……………………………………………………………………………………………
d) Sheila changed the battery in her camera, but it wasn’t necessary.
Sheila …………………………………………………………………………………………the battery in her camera.
e) You look really ill. If I were you, I’d stay at home today.
You look really ill. I ………………………………………………………………………… to stay at home today.
f) It was a bad idea to leave the windows open while it was raining.
You ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
g) The theatre tickets were free, so there was no need for us to pay.
The theatre tickets were free, so we ……………………………………………………………………………………..
h) I can stay here until 10.00.
I ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. leave until 10.00.
i) Helen managed to stop the car before it crashed into a wall.
Helen was ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
j) Steve’s laptop had a wireless Internet connection, so there was no need for him to connect it to a phone line.
Steve’s laptop had a wireless Internet connection, so he ……………………………………………………………….
3. Complete the text with one word in each gap.
Rubbish – or refuse as we (a) …should… really call it – is big news at the moment. For many years, people in Britain (b)
………………… had to pay a local tax (council tax) which includes a charge for refuse collection. In many parts of the country
people have also been (c) ………………… to ask their local council to remove unwanted household items, such as furniture and
electrical appliances. However, in recent years, as a result of EU legislation, councils have (d) ………………… to reconsider how
they collect rubbish, and what they do with it. In the past, householders simply (e) ………………… to put out their dustbins once a
week, and the council collected the rubbish. Now the emphasis in on recycling, and householders (f) ………………… to separate
recyclable waste (paper, plastic, cans and bottles) from organic waste (food and garden waste) and other items. ‘Really we (g)
………………… have started doing this years ago.’ One likely change is that soon householders (j) ………………… have to pay for
their rubbish collections. ‘People (k) ………………… pay according to how much rubbish they produce, and we (l) …………………
to reward people who recycle and consume less. People in Belgium, for example, (m) ………………… had to get used to this system
– and it seems to have worked.’ And if you think that weighing your rubbish is a strange idea, you had (n) ………………… get used
to it. Before long, an electronic chip in your dustbin will be weighing the bin and calculating how much you (o) ………………… to
pay.
4. Choose the correct form, A, B or C, to complete the sentences.
a) Why don’t you phone Katie now? She [A. can’t have left; B. must have left; C. might have left] yet.
b) Take some sub-block and wear a hat, as it [A. must; B. can; C. could have] get very hot in the middle of the day.

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must. C.’ f) I don’t know what time I’ll be home. 6. C. B. don’t have to. or in a different direction. must have made 10. 7) You could always come back tomorrow. yes. c) You [A. C. can let] it out. as Drake and his men did in 15771580. might] know the answer. might involve 16th century explorers Imagine what it (a) ………………… like to have sailed around the world in a small wooden ship. g) Don’t worry about your driving test. C. B. or we cannot reserve your room. g) You [A. There were all the usual dangers too. may. shouldn’t have tried. can’t have set off 3. B. You have to. On a ship only some 35 metres long. C. I think you [A. could easily be 4. A ship (d) ………………… destroyed by a storm or run out of food and water. h) There’s no sign of the dog anywhere.Week 6 – Modal Verbs c) There’s no point waiting here any longer. You [A. mustn’t. Explorers (f) ………………… many wrong decisions in an age when there were only basic maps and navigation equipment. I [A. d) I wish you wouldn’t leave your bag near the door like that. C. Choose the best continuation 1 to 10 for sentences a) to j). must have sent her. can’t have been 7. 2 . You’d better. C. B. i) You [A. a) I’m still waiting for the money the bank is supposed to have sent me. and as knowledge of navigation improved. h) I’ve been trying to contact Maria all day. had better be. is bound to have left. B. i) Oh sorry. and had to make a profit. voyages became more and more successful. so these voyages (c) ………………… attacks on other ships and towns. haven’t got to be. B. might have sent her. needn’t. h) It’s a very long book. if you always feel tired. it (b) ………………… easy for the 80 or so crew to live comfortably. may have fallen] down the cliff. and in unknown parts of ocean where a ship (g) ………………… for weeks without reaching land. We [A. d) It’s going to get colder later. are bound to. This is a ‘no parking’ area. had better not] look up all the words you don’t know. could have fallen. could expect 5. could always send her] some flowers. to complete the sentence. d) Luckily you managed to hang on to that tree. 1. B. C. i) Why don’t you ask Nick about it? He [A. should not] to begin writing until I give the instruction. Choose the correct option. are bound to] to pass. 2) Surely you can’t have finished it already! c) It’s getting rather late to deal with this now. should. must. 4) It can take quite a long time in the rush hour. don’t have to try. 7. have to. B. C. 1) You’re bound to need it if you don’t. C. had better] give a credit card number when you make your booking. should] go to bed earlier! b) I’m sorry I dropped the eggs. shouldn’t. are to be] 3-1/4 inches wide. [A. e) ‘What am I going to do about a present for Carol?’ ‘You [A. j) In my country. these are your keys. However. You [A. B. f) This piece is the right shape. must have left. can. B. may as well. but it doesn’t fit. j) Leave yourself plenty of time for the journey. e) You’d better take your umbrella with you. B. have got to. B. don’t have to. C. must have been 6. b) There’s still no sign of Alex. e) You [A. 10) Someone could easily fall over it and hurt themselves. You can guess some of them from context. 8) He may have missed the train I suppose. they (i) ………………… on such long voyages without some general idea of the places they (j) ………………… to reach along the way. must. should have started. B. mustn’t] reach her yet. might as well] go and have something to eat. C. B. 6) That’s strange! I can’t see one anywhere! g) There should be a filling station here. A. 5) It can’t be the right one after all. C. C. f) Instruction to the author: columns in the two-column format [A. must. B or C. might have 9. are not. must have started. should have reached 2. can. must not. must have fallen. a) Well. B. B. all you men [A. but I [A. 5. Very often places they thought they (h) ………………… turned out to be much further on. need not] park outside the school. B. 3) It should have got here by now. 9) I must have picked them up by mistake. might have started] by now. I [A. B. C. couldn’t. Exploration was part of war and rivalry with other nations. haven’t been able to. I suppose. could easily sail 8. and the captain (e) ………………… little idea of where the ship was or where it was going. needn’t have tried] to carry so many things at the same time. j) There must be some kind of technical problem. must] spend two years in the armed forces. C. Complete the text using one of the phrases from 1 to 10 in each gap. may] be quite late. The film [A. C. Someone [A. You are to] take a pullover with you. can hardly. I’m afraid. C.

Write a new sentence with the same meaning containing the word in capitals. as in the gym or on the running track. a) Quite honestly. 5) It wouldn’t be a bad idea to ask the doctor about it. certainly regret this in the future. if you don’t mind. a) By the time they leave school. or higher studies. (CAN) c) Those who don’t find the time for exercise.30. b) It’s ………………… that you should know Wendy too! c) You ………………… better not to take any more medicine now. d) All students ………………… report to the registrar’s office on arrival. most students should have understood the importance of regular exercise. I think I should be paid more. c) We’re all going to go down to the gym to do some extra training for an hour. 3 . (MUST) e) They don’t realize that this is possibly also the result of failing to keep fit. I’ll see if she’s free. (MUST) h) However. Choose the best response 1 to 10 for comments a) to j). (COULD) j) In the end. 8) I think she’s annoyed because I wouldn’t go to the shops with her. research shows that it’s not possible for this to be further from the truth. b) When they start a job. it’s a really fantastic place. they feel it is just as good for them to relax in front of the television. Put one suitable word in each space. we have to remember that someone who feels fir and well is sure to be able to work more easily and with more energy. because I’m better at the job. (SHOULD)  By the time they leave school. 10. g) I don’t know how I’m going to get home at this time of night. a) Personally. 1) I think I’d prefer a cup of coffee. It’s very easy to find. (MIGHT) f) When they do have any free time. you would say that. you might as ………………… not bother. 2) If you’d just wait here. 6) Well. i) What’s the matter with Sue? j) I have an appointment with Helen Adams for 10. it’s possible for some people to forget that time needs to be set aside for this. 3) Why would anyone want to do that? 4) You’d have a great time there. d) Do you fancy a nice cup of herb tea? e) I was thinking of spending my summer holiday in Slovenia. wouldn’t you! 7) I wouldn’t worry about it.Week 6 – Modal Verbs 8. for example. f) I think I might have given Alice the wrong directions. 9) Would it be alright if I stayed here and finished this work I’m doing? I’m sure Mark would give you a lift. (MUST) 9. (AS WELL) g) Perhaps they think that the people who find time for exercise are certainly taking time away from doing their job properly. they are sure this has happened because they have been working too hard. we expect that most students have understood the importance of regular exercise. b) Kate is going to spend her holiday painting all the inside of her house in black. (BOUND) d) When they feel tired or over-stressed. (COULD) i) It would be possible for most people to easily find the time to keep fit if they organized their time more effectively. h) I’m still getting that pain in the leg I told you about.

like a giant insect. humming. ………………… I send two copies or three? h) ………………… that really be Paula’s husband? He looks so young. B. d) I ………………… have bought that car. j) Both the clocks say 4. e) We are enjoying our holiday. f) You couldn’t / shouldn’t really be sitting here. C. whirring] sound. grind] of brakes. blowing. i) This ………………… be the place I suppose. crashing. j) I have no idea who it was. C. bubbling. booed] in disagreement as the politician left the platform. g) It’s been more than a week! You ………………… have some news by now! h) We were glad to help. f) Don’t take a risk like that again! We ………………… have just stood by and done nothing. c) Peter wasn’t here then. c) Frances might not have understood what you said. B. though the weather could / must be better. h) Air was escaping from the punctured tyre with a [A. a) I ………………… have become a millionaire. g) You could / may be older than me. Correct any errors in these sentences. so that ………………… be the time. crash. We ………………… have just stood by and done nothing. g) Fortunately I needn’t have gone to the bank in person. crash. C. e) The sack of potatoes fell from the lorry with a heavy [A. C. crying. D. but it doesn’t look like it. D. unable to get out. but that doesn’t mean you’re cleverer. neighed. b) I couldn’t / shouldn’t possibly leave without paying. chirping. D. D. c) That mustn’t / can’t be the hotel Jane told us about. C. h) I might / should suppose your job is rather difficult. rattle. f) You must have told me you had already eaten. d) It was funny that she should have remembered me. whimpering. f) The helicopter passed overhead with a [A. mooing]. f) If I say you have to do it. squeaking. e) If you felt lonely. Choose the most suitable words underlined.30. h) You mustn’t have been so unkind! i) I couldn’t have managed without you. howling] angrily against the window pane. B. B. screech. 13. D. so he ………………… have broken your vase.Week 6 – Modal Verbs e) How about going to the lake? We ………………… take a cold lunch with us. crunch. rustled. crashing. j) No member of the association must / shall remove official documents from these premises without written permission. howl. a) A bee was [A. b) The crowd [A. whoosh. but I suppose it would have been Ann. Choose the most suitable word or phrase. buzzing. B. puffing] sound. D. c) The bus stopped at the traffic lights with a [A. d) I had to put some oil on the hinges to stop the door [A. grinding. 12. C. thud]. ping. D. splash. you ………………… do it! g) I’m not sure about my application. you ………………… have given me a ring. D. hissing. banged. B. Put one suitable word in each space. but I decided not to. 14. B. B. d) There are times when the traffic here can / could be really heavy. b) You ………………… have been here when Helen told the boss not to be so lazy. i) I’m afraid that nobody should / would help me in that kind of situation. but I decided to look at a few others. C. i) You really ………………… have gone to so much trouble! j) I ………………… have thought that it was rather difficult. screech]. a) I don’t think you could / should tell anyone yet. g) The mirror fell from the wall with a [A. D. a) You mustn’t have forgotten already! (error: can’t have forgotten) b) Paul shouldn’t have been more helpful if he had tried. 4 . e) Harry may have won the match with a bit more effort. 11.

beginning as shown. but the rest of the book is complete ………………… b) David was unable to read the postcard because the writing was ………………… c) I understood the ………………… of the article. d) Brenda’s comments were so insulted that they were ………………… e) Bill had decided to study French ………………… at university. world 17. red. C. red]. d) When her uncle died. blue. It arrived completely out of the [A. C. pink] in the face. blue. D. D. orange]. clatter. C. green. C. C. C. grey] –collar workers received a rise. using one of the words given. j) The saucepans fell onto the floor with a great [A. i) Sheila left the ………………… of her novel on a train by mistake. black. blacked. j) The new traffic regulations come into ………………… tomorrow. blue] moon. black. yellow. expectation fortune pressure strike useful force light realize undone a) I’m afraid that Jim’s new play didn’t come up to ………………… b) The building workers have voted to come out on ………………… c) The government is coming under ………………… to change the law. c) When the visitors from Japan arrived. D. gold. don’t go into too much detail. C. D. blue. yellow. squeak]. Rewrite each sentence. purple. C. the company have them the [A. a) Although you are in charge. Complete each sentence with one of the words of phrases given. a) When Bill saw my new car he was [A. i) You can talk to him until you’re [A. orange. fiction illiterate literature outline shorthand gist illegible manuscript a) The first chapter is based on fact. f) Oh brother! My shoelaces have come ………………… g) Bring the torch with you. Use each word or phrase once only. pink. green. yellow. B. We only see her once in a [A. B. yellowed] off. b) Tina never comes here now. j) The company feel deeper and deeper into the [A. I feel completely [A. Brown never went to school and is ………………… h) Some people feel that Davis’s ………………… is better than his poetry. green. crunch. browned. black. blue. tinkling. gold. B. gurgling] in the draught. clanging. brown]. B. white. B. D. but I didn’t read it in detail. D. blued. white. I should ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… e) I am as happy as possible at the moment. f) The [A. so that the meaning stays the same. D. yellow. but it doesn’t give you the right to be rude. but he still won’t understand. B. but he has come down in the ………………… i) Recently I have come to ………………… that you were right all the time. f) I managed to make notes of the speech in ………………… g) Old Mrs. 18. he’s still [A. prose unprintable 16. C. D. Susan came into a ………………… e) The truth of the matter came to ………………… during the investigation. I think ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… c) It’s typical of Steve to lose his keys! Steve would …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… d) I suppose Kate is quite well off. C. 15. white] with envy. Complete each sentence. B. B. C. D. it doesn’t give you the right to be rude. pink. d) I’m fed up with this job. j) Just tell me the ………………… of the story. e) Julie’s letter was unexpected. C.  You may be in charge. red] and then went bankrupt. D. whoosh. 5 .Week 6 – Modal Verbs i) The tiny bells on the Christmas tree were [A. b) I recommend going to Brighton for a week. blue. green] carpet treatment. B. B. B. Choose the most suitable word or phrase. green. h) Tony can’t be trusted yet with too much responsibility. It might come in ………………… h) Ted used to be quite wealthy. ringing. but the workers on the shop-floor were told they had to wait. D. g) We decided to celebrate by going out and painting the town [A. B. red. D. white.

B. make out. looking into. growing on] me. making off with] complaints from other shoppers at the store. j) The prime minister said he hoped to ………………… the rest of the cabinet to his point of view. pin down] what the sign says from here. f) Despite the evidence. C. C. C. d) The police are [A. go in for. C. own up. much to everyone’s surprise. go about. B. B. lived up to. B. making up for. b) Tina doesn’t [A. the accused man managed to …………………. j) Smith has since [A. C.Week 6 – Modal Verbs I couldn’t ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… f) Although I tried hard. make off with. g) Alan will ………………… a fortune when he reaches the age of 21. C. pinned down]! h) My teacher always blames me for everything. keep to] expensive fashion items. give in] to the demands of the armed group. Peter is …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… h) Fancy you and I having the same surname! It’s odd …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i) If I were you I’d take up jogging. B. going back on. B. hold with. d) You need some savings to ………………… in case you run into financial difficulty. hit upon. come into 20. make for] finding somewhere to live? f) The president is still [A. I think ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. given it in] for me. even though he was voted out. gone off. C. go in. hanging on to] power. fighting between rival fans would ………………… b) Nobody is sure whether the revised plan will ………………… c) Most scientific developments ………………… as a result of team-work. looking upon. owned up to. i) The authorities repeated that they would not [A. B. made off with] deceiving more than twenty other customers. c) I didn’t like this place when I first came here. g) This cheese smells as if it’s [A. packed in. j) Do we have to leave so early? Need ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19. 6 get off . going in for. break off come off break out come out bring around do away with come about fall back on a) Police feared that after the match. but now it is [A. Choose the best phrasal verb. going in for. e) How do you think we should [A. B. to complete the sentence. C. a) It’s a bit hard to [A. I couldn’t lift the suitcase. C. B. got it in. C. B or C. e) The lecturer was forced to ………………… and drink a glass of water before resuming. I think she’s [A. B. h) David’s new album is expected to ………………… at the end of the year. Try ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. i) The party is proposing to ………………… with council tax and replace it with local income tax. g) I’m sure that Peter will be on time. packed it in. Complete the sentences with a phrasal verb from the list. A.