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PERGAMON

Renewable Energy 16 (1999) 805-810

French Wind Power Generation Programme EOLE 2005
Results of the first call for tenders
A-R. LAALI*, M. BENARD**
Electricile’de France (EDF)
Division - Machines Department - 6 Quai Warier - 78401 Chatou - France
**EDF-GDF Services Division - DOMDept.-Tour Franklin - 92042 Paris La dt$ense

* R&D

ABSTRACT : EOLE 2005 has been launched in July 1996 by the French Ministry of Industry, Electricite
de France and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Management). The Ministries of Research and
Environment are participating ah.0 in this programme. The purpose is to create an initial market in France
for wind power generation in order to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and the competitiveness of the wind
energy compared to other energy sources by 2005. The installed capacity will reach at least 250 MW and
possibly 500 MW. 0 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1 - BACKGROUND

The development of wind energy in Europe during the 80s and 90s has been performed mainly in countries
operating largely fossil fired power plants and with a moderate amount of the renewable energy. The
installed capacity of hydraulic power, 25000 MW (23500 MW by EDF) and the production of 70 TWh
electricity (17% of national consumption) by a cost-effective renewable energy, did not help to promote the
development of wind energy in France during this period. Fossil fired power plants produce 5% of the total
electricity in this country. The total installed capacity is also large enough to ensure the national consumption
and the EDF exports to other countries. So there is no need for more capacity and the EDF kWh price is one
of the lowest in Europe.
Nevertheless the first experiences of wind energy in France goes back to some forty years ago. Promoted by
EDF in the years 1958 to 1962 the first MW class wind turbines were installed at Nogent Le Roi (800 kW)
and at St. Remy des Landes (1000 kW). In the seventies the French Atomic Commission carried out some
experiments. In the late seventies some French manufacturers (Aerowatt and Ratier-Figeac) with EDF and
ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Management) collaboration installed a few machines (100 150 kW). These experiences were not very successful. The material and the design tools used at that time
were of course very far from the current know how in this field.
1996 was a turning point for wind energy in France. In this year, EDF, the French Ministry of Industry, and
ADEME decided to collaborate in order to develop 250-500 MW of wind power over the next ten years in
France. The wind farms are to be installed and operated by independent power producers chosen through a
tendering procedure.
EDF is also involved in another important project in Morocco (Tetouan) to develop a 50 MW wind farm to
he commissioned in the early 1999. There are other projects with EDF participation : 2.7 MW Dunkerque
wind plant which is in operation since December 96 and 7.5 MW project at Salsigue to he installed by the
middle of 1998.
0960-1481/99/&-see front matter Q 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: SO960-148I (98)00259-6

the kWh price is one of the most important criteria for choosing a power plant. to create an initial market in France for wind power generation in order to help the groups. The first. Therefore wind energy has to confirm its competitiveness with other energy sources in the near future. 3 . was set aside for wind power producers who had already measured the wind potential of their sites. Electricite de France. to assess the cost-effectiveness and the competitiveness of the wind energy compared to other energy sources by 2005.WREC 1998 806 A joint R&D programme has been launched at EDF R&D Division in order to provide the Company with all the necessary up to date know how for managing and operating this programme. was open to applicants who equipped their sites with measuring systems by October 3 1. approximately 15 MW.CALL FOR TENDERS’ PROCEDURE In the framework of the EOLE 2005 programme. according to current estimates. For under developed countries. Joint ventures between different industries may also be necessary to achieve this objective. This includes a world wide technical monitoring of wind energy. From 2005-2010 a lot of conventional power plants will have to be replaced in European countries. The objectives of this programme are : . So there is a real need to reduce wind energy production costs. At that time the competition will be very tough between different energies.of companies including French developers and manufacturers having their references in France for export projects. The wind energy technology has to be improved but it could be considered temporarily mature. These collaborations will permit them also to take advantage of the present technological know how in Europe. especially if some consumers accept to pay slightly more for the wind energy. Further progress in the near future could only be imagined on an economical basis with or without very moderate incentives. studying grid connection issues and wind energy production costs. . 1’996. and ADEME has launched a first request for proposals in order to provide 50 MW of wind power in France generated by installations owned by independent power producers. 2 . development of software to calculate the wind potential. The challenge for wind energy is not finished yet. where there is a real need for new capacity now. The world market represents 1300 MW per year now. The request for proposals contains two sections. . in collaboration with the French Ministry of Industry. increasing up to 2000 MW per year in the beginning of the next century. 35 MW.OBJECTIVES The French EOLE 2005 programme for the next IO years is quite important (between 250 and 500 MW). This policy has permitted the development of a mature technology with kWh cost almost at break-even point for the best sites. The potential French manufacturers are trying also to adopt strategies including a close collaboration with the existing wind industry in Europe. In many European countries wind power plants have been installed for political reasons or for preparation for the future with incentives and grants. allowing focus on cost reductions. The electricity cost for the most recent conventional power plants (Combined Cycles) is near 3 ECU cents ikWh and will decrease with the steady improvement of technologies. Recent development of the market could also help the manufacturers to reduce prices. The second part.

Environment and Research) and ADEME proceeded to a preselection on the bases of the documents provided by the applicants. and the projects in less windy areas could constitute a negative reference.5 MVA for small islands) and the French legal upper limit of 8 MVA. in order to avoid the concentration of many wind farms in a limited area.2 . subsidies from different authorities could help the projects to be selected but it is important.Preselection of the applicants The companies or the group of companies wishing to propose a project in the framework of this call for tenders had to apply for participation.Tgl%i Nordex/LagerweylDewind 12 Dontire 3 SpaeTrindel Bonus 16 Petit Canal (Guadcloupe) 2. a certain diversity.5 EOLE Technologie Eole Zond (ENRON) (D&me) tioo . the involved Ministries (Industry.r) 3 SAEML Dunkerque Windmaster NL .5MVA (0.807 WREC 1998 3.Projects selection criteria The projects selection criteria are as follows : ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? Purchasing price of kWh requested by the applicant Economic advantages of projects Long term benefits of the chosen technical solutions Technical and financial reliability Respect for the environment Opinion of local and regional authorities Furthermore. but not in areas where the wind resources are very limited.Nor&c La Hague (Manche) 4.4 SllF Vergnet IA Partel . has been taken into consideration in the selection procedure.Pas-deCala.5 SAEML Dunkerque Jeumont IndusfrielMicon 08 Lastours (Audc) 3. The public acceptance is particularly improved if we could maintain this position for the whole programme.RESULTS OF THE CALL FOR TENDERS The selected projects are : : First seetlon_ Nil site MB! 02 Widehem (Par-de-C&air) 4. concerning regions of installation as well as types of wind turbines used. In medium ranged wind resources.05 V. for the future of this field.1.octe : Enercon . A tender pack was sent to each preselected applicant. 4 . to choose the projects which could be viable economically. A large distribution of the projects is necessary. EDF. One of the main objective of this programme is to show the cost effectiveness of wind energy. 3. It is important to choose projects which are scattered in the whole country so far as possible. The power of each wind farm will be situated between 1.

The selected projects are located in good and medium range wind resources.5 VERGNET Leroy Somcr BL Finance GEC Abrhom I. Figure 1 .4 Sqqme VESTAS 15 SOtts (Coned” Sud) 2-4 Paribas . du Vent VESTAS 13 Centuri (Htc Cone) 2.Vestas -Cie.Location ofthe selectedprojects on the continent . du Vent 04 Plounrzel (Finistire) 3 Paribas .EED 10 Lc Mcrdelou (Aveyron) 7.WREC 808 1998 .BL Finance 17 20 (Hdrault) . Germa VESTAS _ EED Spie Trindel VESTAS Figures I and 2 show the location of the selected sites. du Vent VESTAS 14 Lavntoggio (HteCorse) 3 Paribas .Cie. du Vent VESTAS 06 Souleilla Trcilles (Aude) 7.Cie.6 VERGNET Leroy Somer . Vestas _ Cle.vLnruc 5.Vestas .Vestas -Cie. VALOREM NORDEX II Lod4voi.5 EOLE Technologte Eole Zond (ENRON) 09 Eotnks Conilhac (Auds) 7.4 Paribas . du Vent 19 La Desirsde (Guadcloupe) 2x4 VERGNET Leroy Somer BL Finance GEC Alsthom IS Morne Coartnat Kapcsurre Mark Galante) Petite Place Gpesrsns Marie Gakuue) Miquelon (St P~cneet Miquelon) I.2 Foumie Grospaud .5 VERGNET Leroy Somer BL Finance GEC Alsthom 0.5 Jeumonl lndustne MICON 07 S&an (Aude) 636 Paribas .Vestas 05 Goulien (Finis&e) 6 CEGELEC WEG .

Figure 2 .kwhprice as afincrion of wind mean velociy . This is slightly higher than the one announced for NFF04 programme in England and Wales (4. The average kWh prices for the selected projects on the continent is 5. / I I Figure 3 .Location of fhe projects in overseas departments Environmental aspects are developed largely in the call for tenders’ specifications and we hope that the selected projects could easily satisfy environmental requirements and obtain all the authorisations.9 ECU cents). French industry is very active and collaborates with other European manufacturers to take part in this prograrnme.M / 1 . The technologies are also quite different from one project to another. This is helpful for feedback experience that we have to perform by the end of this programme.2 ECU cents.809 WREC 1998 5 . 14.ANALYSE OF THE TENDERS As could be seen from this figure these projects are well dispersed in the whole country. This could be explained by the fact that we are in starting phase and developers had a short time for preparing the propositions for the first section.

M. This is slightly higher than the one announced for the NFFG4 programme. engineering. Power-Gen’97. The range of turbine rated power varies from 60 kW (tilt-down tower from Vergnet for Guadeloupe) to 1200 kW ( MW class from Nordex for South of France). turbine size and wind speed on production cost : Analysis of the actual market trend. This could partly be described by the fact that some of the projects in high windy areas have some extra grid connection costs due to the distance and some of the projects in less windy areas have obtained some local incentives. . with important feedback into following stages of the wind energy programme in France. The EDF estimations are obtained for some average conditions and real projects could not of course follow the evaluations closely but the dispersion is quite important specially for the first section. 20 projects have been selected for the first call for tenders. The EDF strategy on wind energy and the way we prepare for the future are also developed.CONCLUSIONS The French wind generation programme EOLE 2005 and the obtained results of the first call for tenders are discussed. The wind turbine market is changing rapidly and the costs presented in the paper are based on some average values of the prices. LAALI. published in 1994 and 95. BENARD French Wind Power Generation Programme EOLE 2005. Different financial arrangements were not very well used by the developers especially for the first section. The range of projects and turbines will allow significant comparisons and assessment.some extra charges like impact studies. A. [2] A-R. the wind potential do not influence the kWh prices proposed by the developers. The average kWh price of 5. MEYER Influence of wind fatm capacity. The range of variation of installed power (between 1. REFERENCES [I] A-R. J-L. These projects are well dispersed in the whole country. Madrid. The operation and maintenance costs seems to be very often overestimated as well as. LAALI. Higher installed capacity did not reduced the kWh price. 6 . transport and sometimes grid connection costs.5and 7.l7-19 June. The wind turbines used are from different technologies and gives enough matter to study for the future. 1997.WREC 1998 810 Figure 3 represents the kWh prices proposed by the applicants compared to the analyses performed by EDF in 1996 [ 11.8 MW) is not enough to modify significantly the kWh price. 20-24 May 1996.2 ECU cents is obtained for the first section selected projects. LOUCHE. 1996 European Union Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition Giiteborg Sweden. For the second section. The programme will allow the cost effectiveness and the competitiveness of the wind energy to be thoroughly assessed.