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" Dr. A REVIEW OF HIGH CHURCH PRINCIPLES IN RELATION TO CIVIL AND RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS. N. A. " The precious spark of liberty (was) kindled and preserved by the Puritans alone.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. in and the Genevan. and probably for the last time. D. EDDY Newark. TAY 145 LOR & CO NASSAU-STREET. OBLIGATIONS OF THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. Pusey. NEW-YORK: S. the Catholic now. that the English owe the whole freedom of their constitution." Hume. and it is to this Sect. .- » Two classes of religious opinions are conflict. S " J.

* c •. A. Taylor. PRINTER. DORR.-.- u L Entered according John S. to the act of u 2. > 3 ^ " : **^ * . by in the Clerk's office of the District Court. in the year 1843. tfC".. /^ • . 183 Fulton-street. •*" 7 •WILLIAM S.*2- Congress.%. of the Southern District of New-York..

a matter of sincere regret it effort to speak in love and Newark. This necessity him. is better known and necessary or proper. truth. sources. in a new and more extended form. the business. fully to state. felt. even thereby be called in question. N.. on the occasion of the last State Thanksgiving. the author and to his congregation. with has been his aim and . sustained by such references and authorities as men must may speak in defense of their though those of others The necessity pages to There are times when be relied upon. to The unexpected interest submit them due felt it himself with which they were received. at this time. /. . as well as of the country generally. do may own principles. for Feb.ADVERTISEMENT Tee leading sentiments of the following pages were pre- sented to the congregation of which the author is the stated From minister. than is. and the which they have excited from other attention to to their consideration. 1843. yet. which has been laid upon the author of these so. forbid that he should decline the request for their publication.. political and religious aspect of this city.

.

51 cf selecting Men the as Rulers of Intelligence and of unimpeached Moral Integrity The Influence Organizations... The American Government founded on the .. 16 .. and of the Christian Virtues. 49 of Inviolate Faith in the Fulfillment of Contracts. 29 • of Infidelity Necessity of a correct 33 Public Sentiment. 24 The Jewish Commonwealth Spirit. The subsequent Prevalence The .CONTENTS.. on the Civil Institutions of the Country. and for the Purposes of Civil and Religious Liberty 26 Discordant Elements and conflicting Interests 28 Religious Character of the Continental Congress and of the Administration of Washington.. Principles of Protestant Christianity. .. Religious Principle the chief security of Government. High Church 59 of Religious Principles and Ecclesiatical 65 Principles hostile to the peculiar Republican Institutions of our Country 76 !• . Government in General : Its Origin and Claims Dangerous tendency of Party 13 . 22 . TAGH. to correct the Evils of the Govern- ment 43 The Importance The Value The Duty of maintaining the Supremacy of Laws.

CONTENTS... 120 High Church Principles on Evangelical .. 150- .. .. ... Their Practical Tendency the same as Romanism... Doctrines of the English Church at the 134 Conditions of Salvation maintained by writers. The High Church System a departure The Origin of Liturgies and Forms of Worship. The " Divine Right" and "Apostolical Succession. The . . and destructive of Moral Distinctions. ^ . ence. . The opposed to the 127 Reformation decidedly Calvinistic The 114 their Influ- Piety The 98 109 '. .. Concluding Remarks... and of the practical and saving efficacy of the Doctrine of the Trinity. &c Influonce of 85 from the original of Archbishop Whately. Church principles of the English Views 78 83 History of these Principles Word of High Church God Influence of these Principles on those ." Origin of the distinctions in the Christian Ministry. 145 . who 138 are educated 143 in their belief... YI Extraordinary Powers which they confer upon one Man. ... . ...

and.INTRODUCTION.. w ell T it was suggested as chastisement claimed re- a day of thanksgiving was designated. in gratitude to our Heavenly Father. that the divine goodness as gard. Instead of a fast. we are summoned to acknowledge our mercies. Jt the recent proclamation of our Chief Magistrate. IN To THE CITY OF NEWARK. and of plenteous harvests. The instrument that convened us. I love to the institution of an and of times I trust will long memorials of the sterling integrity. were mine. Another day of humiliation being proposed. venerated among the usages stand. which has been commended to our regard by the Executive of this Commonwealth. The winter. we are indebted for another of those interesting occasions. war and the deep wilderness. speaks of general peace. above . freedom from pestilence. oft all repeated seasons of fasting and Amid forgotten mercy. recall the occasion that gave rise to American Thanksgiving. pestilence. intellectual strength and evangelical piety of our fathers. and our Puritan ancestors originated that institution. with the changes of the seasons. which stand. they reliance goodness. Many r prayer they had observed. It arose primitive in this country. They had encountered many a calamity. and failed in fa- filial may have upon the Father of calamities. savage fresh before them. when. TO THE MEMBERS OF THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AND CONGREGATION. N.

we have p^sented the eeligion of Jesus pre-eminently our unfeigned thankfulness. V11I all. Christ. They are commended hope that you may to your serious consideration. for this open and common manly GOVERNOR tribute of respect to our Our civil rulers would not be honored more often and highly honored God and our confidence in them is proportionate to their fear of Him. in every well regulated community. spirit shall perish. and the polity of the commonwealth. That nities civil the political aspect of the country is without many alarming . in its wise administration. as claiming In your name. Christianity does not overlook civil government nor does government. has induced me to submit them to your disposal in a more extended form. and as one of the ministers of that religion. if Christianity. . which can dispense with the and teachings of a divine religion. overlook religion. The favorable manner which many of the cussed in the following pages were received. entailing weakness and a The nation and kingdom that will not serve (God) curse. Though there is no necessary connexion between the exter- nal order and framework of Christianity. and more highly prize and enjoy the immu- which our and religious institutions confer. to control the minds and hearts of men. they . and immunities borrow their chief support from the Hence. on the anniversary of our State Thanksgiving. principles dis- when delivered. the diffusive influence. There is no intellectual culture nor moral perfectibility of our race . and best when diffusing the leaven of its sanctifying influence through every department of our social economy. While the blessings of a common providence are enriched by the civil relations and immunities with which we enjoy them. I thank the of our State. Every experiment has proved a failure and an offense. and elastic power of Christianity. in the relations of civil and political life. other. these less. there must ever be.INTRODUCTION. with the better appreciate the responsibilities of the Christian Citizen. and religion is the purest. no wisdom or form in human government and laws. The one is essential to the high ends of the relations gospel of Christ.

INTRODUCTION.
indications

we

IX

cannot believe, and that existing evils will pass

away, without our judicious

efforts to

remove them,

In the remedy or endurance of these

be expected.

and religious principle

is to

is

evils,

not to

moral

be chiefly relied upon as the most

efficient agent.

In the discussion of both political and religious questions,
from my uniform freedom from participation in party politics,
and from controversy in religion, you will not suppose that I

am

engaging in the one or courting the other.

I intend to

have nothing to do with either. Yet I would contribute in
my humble measure, to allay the violence of party in the state,
and to moderate the unwarrantable zeal of sectarian re ligionists.

While

civil

governments greatly

checking the diffusion of
siastical organization

vitality

ments;

its

features.

affect religion, in aiding or

spirit,

and shaping

much towards

religion does

government, and

to

severity of

;

its

mitigating

Hence the

the despotic rule of the

«

r

its

eccle-

imparting

increasing the

arm of pagan governMahomedan and Chinese
iron

empires, and the almost equal tyranny of Spain and the Italian
States.

and

It is

from

religion, that

this

same

we meet

reciprocal -action of state policy

everywhere, with the darkness and

Romish communion, the most restricted rights
among the people. We find the mixed and
anomalous confederacies of Germany, Holland and Switzer-

cruelty of the

of citizenship

land,

with the equally anomalous character of the churches of

the kingdom of Great
with its republican and aristocratic Parliament, and
its nominal Monarchy, clinging to its own fading shadow, with
its unstable church, as crowding dissenters and a teemingpopulation are demanding the fullest liberty of the gospel.
And hence it is we meet the solitary spectacle of our free
the Heidelberg and Helvetic faith

:

Britain,

with the Scotch Presbytery shorn of its original
and unscriptural assumptions, and Independency, in its various
forms, reserving to itself its inherent rights and acknowledging

institutions,

no superior, but its divine Master. Any ecclesiastical polityharmonizing with other forms of civil government, is obviousl

X

INTRODUCTION.

may be its pretensions
outward framework, receives but
little sympathy from our free institutions, and its ultimate
influence upon our civil polity is a subject of no ordinary
not indigenous to our
to

soil,

a heavenly origin in

and, whatever

its

interest to every Christian citizen.
It is from these considerations that I shall speak freely, and
hope kindly, of both political and religious institutions, as
found existing among us; and as these are favorable to the
stability of our government and the growth of a spiritual reli-

I

warmest confidence and

gion, they claim our

support.

Our

civil

and religious principles are our richest and dearest inheritance;

and the time has
sneak in

when it is our imperious duty to
You are not wholly ignorant of the

arrived,

their defense.

circumstances which claim

this, at

my

hands, at the present

lime.

There are a few subjects connected with our
religious interests,

ty the most
To some of

which are not
it

is

my

and
even

Christian community.

intelligent classes of the

these,

civil

sufficiently considered

duty and desire to direct your

attention.

There

which leads

a natural concentration of power,

is

imperceptibly and rapidly to complete despotism, alike in the

church and

in the state.

And

right or

most

this is the

where it
violently usurped, but where

cult to resist or recall, not

consent, conferred and received, at

is

rapid,

and

diffi-

claimed by hereditary

it is
first,

delegated by popular
for

the purpose of

conscience and religion.
It is

here that Christianity, or the visible church, opens

instructive

and warning records.

entire " liberty:" that

" evangelical

was

The gospel,

at

first,

its

breathed

It marked the age of
memorable and bright through
near two hundred years when this
its "spirit."

Christianity,"

apostolical times,

and

for

;

catholic " liberty," passing from fraternal supervision, yielded
to ecclesiastical control.

cils,

The Word

of

God was

sole arbiter

the interpretations and decisions of church counWhile the " power of the spirit" clothed
in the second.

in the first

;

the one, as with the radiance of charity ; the energies of the

;

INTRODUCTION.

XI

earthly arm, in God's name, without his love, invested the
other.

From

the church, power gradually and insensibly passed

hands of her clergy, with

into the

ment of her

and moral

effort

A

faith

discipline,

whom

and

felt

the settle-

left

power succeeded, and

after Christ, a solitary

in the spiritual

she

relieved from mental

responsibility.

farther concentration of

hundred years
is

and

man

is

in

seven

found enthroned

empire of God, his august Vicegerent

!

This

the concentration of religious power.

No

and certain is the tendency to concentration
powers of the state. Supremacy here is ever tending
from the many to the few, with a rapidity always in proportion as the strong coercions of government are required, or
men are unprepared to govern themselves ; till recoiling from
less natural

in the

the blasting tempests of a wild, gregarious infidelity of igno-

rance and blood, they

shelter to the

fly for

bosom of an

iron

despotism.

The

gospel reverts this fearful tendency of concentration,

And

and would throw power back from the few to the many.
this

it

does, not

tions of

by any

direct

government, but by

and

on the func-

forcible action

fitting society for self-control

:

or

by rendering legislative enactments, governmental restraints and coercion needless, so that the vast, delegated power to frame and enforce laws shall be comparatively
Whes. men are intelligent and moral enough to
unnecessary.

in other words,

govern themselves, that

demand

is,

to act right, there will

for this vast array of legislative, judicial

be no such

and martial

power.

Thus

Christ

left

his church, instinct

with his

spirit divine

Thus he would make the world, a
commonwealth of charity, its every law fulfilled in love the
kingdom, and the greatness of the kingdom, under the whole
heaven, given to the people of the saints of the Most High
God. The state and the church are thus lost in one great
Himself

its

only Head.

;

brotherhood, intelligent in Christ their Sovereign, Savior, God.

There are few,

if

any portions of our population on whom,

And and matured some of the noblest The names of Burr. impaired or obscured. Here their price was most dearly paid . Here came the Pilgrims the Puritans. streets our fathers were driven. fields of that conflict leligion of mankind. Through these lence. by foreign vioEvery rod of earth around us is enriched by their blood. Feb. Boudinott. Edwards. They are now in your There may they never be undervalued. resting from their toils. the gospel. piety . E. was their blood. of Christian liberty These principles have come down to you from great and holy men. their purchase hands. were started institutions of Christian benevolence. too. and the Exiles of claims. transmit them to your posterity and mankind that shall come after you. . of missions. Finly and Griffin. Theirs were the principles of here. their stern and able advocate. Their sanction was their for the entire world. Here our Caldwell fell. of Brainard. D. than Switzerland suffering for Christ. Xll the principles of civil and religious liberty have stronger upon the citizens of this Commonwealth. A. firm in the faith and hope of God. their virtue most rigidly tested.. of the reformation.INTRODUCTION. hallow the spot where we live. On every hill bleach the bones of holy men that Here are the battle of opinions and of arms for the liberty and contended for our liberty and religion. Here was raised the voice of the eloquent and revered Witherspoon pleading the principles of civil and religious freedom. 1843. Reaping their rich immunities. Here came the Hugunots of France. McWhorter.

CLAIMS. " the carrying of the national affairs 2 . when government and laws of God. with inimitable wisdom replied. The captious Pharisee. § 1. CIVIL ITS ORIGIN. " the In popular language it frame work of the social polity. with the obligation of and sustain it . by making citizens of the earthly state fitted for the human subjects to honor its no part of the Gospel release from the imperative institutes of the things that are the existence of who has : and no man is not well discharged the duties of the other. the symbol of Rom in supremacy ??' The before him. men them good for the one. " Render unto C&sar the things that are Ccesar's. " Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar or not Redeemer. GOVERNMENT OR THE SOCIAL CONSTITUTION: AND CHIEF SECURITIES.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. of the Savior conflict with the government of the asked. may be denominated. as a science." Here was recognised God government. and unto God's. and in sion with the prepares human is there any demands which the laws and authority impose. attempting to make the claims Roman." sometimes signifies. Government. not in colliChristianity kingdom of heaven.

of Confederacy. becomes a consti- protection and immunities.. Dismissing the with the various combinations which they last two. whom Sometimes the person or persons upon In more general and com- duty devolves. John Quincy Adams. the consideration of the first becomes a subject of personal interest to every American citizen. or the " social constitution. This power may be exercised by every individual over himself. Government. have been embraced in Its most general features three comprehensive forms the : Democratical Republican. its share in the responsibilities of its support. and word and providence of * Government. and never yet assumed a permanent and fixed character. may have as- sumed from time Jo time. nor the two combined. 11. says Mr. and an Absolute Despotism. . Each State has its own consti- the Confederacy. without a gross and fraudulent perversion of language be termed They are neither democracy. or it may be exercised by one or more individual over others. Sec Lecture of at Providence. under a separate consti- Neither of these. THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. f This appears to be that form. if in their ceaseless popular mind we mistake changes are advancing everywhere not. tution. impossible to give any one definite term that shall express the true nature of our government. with a fourth added element. And is in this it it is the " Constitution of £o. looking up for and compelled is to it so interesting to is as each one . can.iety"* wide sense that every member of society tuent part. to which all governments which the which. says the Hon. 1842. the Aristocratical Monarchy. Adams." has appeared under various forms. three elements. p. compounded of these a Democracy. t It is Nov. chy.. and all united form tution. aristocracy nor monarThey form together a mixed government. 14 into execution. is the exercise power directing or controlling the will of human beings." this prehensive terms. the demands.

confirm us in the belief of this position. in mercy. We say the word and providence of this idea of government. Under this form. Reverting to these times and these first principles. and the details of which were so admirably carried out in the administration of the lawgiver of Israel. its session of glory and his its Froud breast." but we classes of society. He." our duty and privilege. Every and sustaining principle. God that. ernment. " Public pervading the hearts and virtue. and religiously to govern himself: virtu- — by the union . not only find government to be a divine institution . for 15 near six thousand years. as Christian citizens. wisely. ordained of God. conduct of the whole body of the people. we trust that it is that "form" of gov- God's purpose us and to those who may come the legitimate fruit to secure for us this principle as of the form when properly underafter stood and rightly administered. the separate elements of composed : that while find clearly which it is man. to It is Having see that principle secured. his duty and his destiny are. and happy the people among established : and his happiness must take entire posfor popular whom it is the principle were a sure consequence of if the form. A God seem to favor review of that government. distinction government. ously. which he early established over the Hebrews. must have government and be governed. authorise us to believe. is the animating and exclusive selfish purpose must be relinquished by the individual country. says the eloquent and accomplished Montesquieu. destines all mankind yet to sustain and enjoy.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. we " the powers that marked the relations. privileges and duties of the various be.

These laws make no new principles. with their results. and its thunders and fires never there been known.<. "as members one throw out of their of another 1 communion who refuse submission to the constitution ment that enlightened counsels ' to all and govern- and religious virtue have reared. nor do their penalties do anything more than enforce These laws are but sayprinciples already established. are to take wisdom and care of themselves. And though from their origin and incipient we must recognise and admit a Theoc- . Under the salu- men tary direction of providential and gracious influences. ing to the world what is right and necessary among mo_a. would all have been met in the progress of our race. on that rocky mount. virtue silence.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. will and they foreshadow in their penalties what be the necessary and inevitable results of disre- And if God had never descended garding these rights. ral agents. He did indeed defrom Sinai prominent and general laws for the government of a moral and religious community. subdue or . virtuous hearts and purposes of strength. These laws were subsequently drawn out and more fully applied in detail to the various relations of social and civil life. There is nothing in the original and exalted position which God himself held over the government of the HeDrews which forbids this conclusion. these fixed. in associated strength. administration. 16 of cultivated mind. he is to meet and terests of ignorance manly control all the opposing in- and wickedness. But these rery laws are to be considered as having their foundation liver ultiin the immutable principles of mnral reniiiiirLp^ mate and existing facts in the intellectual and moral kingdom of God. moral principles.

and the high priest of the sanctuary borrowed from above At the same time the po- the prerogatives of his office." "There was in the Hebrew commonwealth no power of levying taxes but such as the people themselves imposed. the obvious design of God. to enlighten. that God was 17 monarch of in fact the his people yet the government which he gave to Israel. litical Hebrew arrangements of the state were under the To direction of elders. or per- find the " tribes of Israel to ratification. and through them people. submitted their requests to the decision of God. and receiving through them the wishes of the people." clothed with that ence which " demanded the laws for their approval and all this. An able writer has said." Here was shadowed forth that more spiritual government of the gospel. assume the appearance of an aristocratical monarchy haps advancing upon this. these. where the sovereignty of God never suspends nor infringes the freedom of men. if All this may not in reality. princes and subordinate officers. Mose"s delivered the divine to all the commandments. was not without those usual forms which are found existing in God the civil institutions of men." paramount influ- be submitted to them They even assumed own and were not denied. and at times to resist such as were already enacted.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and of self-control on the principles of the divine government. racy. No one can rise from the study of the Jewish economy without perceiving and admiring this leading feature. at first view. elevate and empower his people with the privileges and blessings of self-control. "the right of proposing their laws. " Considering the age of the world in which the Jewish code was established and 2* . in behalf of the people. : —but beyond we in popular assemblies. it is true was the king.

tude to a foreign and despotic prince. in the time of David and Solomon. that there is a single feature of a distinctly developed. they adopted a regular form of government. remained for a series of years undisturbed. Though holding as they did. and which. with salutary restrictions." « The form of government established by Moses was republican. I do not Free State but They were know here is a people remarkably well acquainted with their rights and form of government. that the doctrine of personal rights little in the world generally. the balance of power between the two great monarchies of Egypt and Assyria. 18 how was understood somewhat remarkable. as the laws of Moses and the history of the kings of Judah and Notwithstanding their recent servi- Israel. though. It con- . when they ultimately settled in that land. And yet. free in that the laws governed and not men. and enabled them to maintain their independence throughout history. all the varieties of their national with the exception of the writ of Habeas Corpus. they were few. the people were at liberty to change it when they desired. They of government. xhey remained a free people. is it not the laws of Moses were so decidedly liberty? know which is I the friend of civil work not where to look for any single so full of the great principles of political wis- dom. and giving law to all the kingdoms between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and though just entering upon a tedious pilgrimage in the deserts of Arabia. Though rich in resources and powerful in arms. a privilege not required under their government because it did not allow of imprisonment. were free in choosbg their free in the enacting of their own form laws . a government they came It was which lasted almost half a century before to the promised land.

* * * most part with God. where spirit. pervaded and governed society."* With these views and obvious ment of Israel. Spring. They were a nation of confederate states. perfectly institutes of the gospel.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. The own nation." shall be manding level as all to common lost in the eternity. adopted their which ledge. while all were united in one great republic. as the noblest specimen of a free and independent nation. no better organised community ever existed than the ancient industry cence — wealthy. in other words." com- " Where the and just in propor- tion as the evangelical spirit of the gospel has arisen." " No nobler people . bound together for the purposes of defense and stituting a little Their laws though originating for the conquest. aims and everywhere goes upon the rights. 19 each under leader con- its commonwealth. have the uncomfortable restraints and adventitious distinctions of * Br. is my know- there an instance on record. . life and of gov- . there is liberty . circumstantial and temporary distinctions of men. to the best of laws were not proposed to the re- presentatives of the people and received their unanimous consent. ground of an equality of brings It mutual and reciprocal men upon one common It to character and wants. and mon judgment. all features of the govern- harmonise the it destines them spirit retributions of a of the Lord is. of obligation. were approved by themselves. in their Nor laws. a com- the " incidental. — ready at Hebrews. but without Inured to honorable ostentatious magnifi- a moment's call to resist any attack upon their country's freedom ing in their revered ancestry — with an honest pride — they may well be regarded exult- during the more auspicious period of their history. sisted of twelve great tribes.

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

20
ernment been

and the arm of arbitrary and

laid aside,

oppressive authority weakened or withdrawn.

The

gospel in

and precepts comes

its spirit

human passion

rate

diffuse charity, the social affections

mankind.

It

comes

to

to

mode-

subdue selfishness and pride

to

;

;

to

and good-will among

enrich the poor, to strengthen the

feeble, to comfort the afflicted, to relieve the oppressed,
to let the captive

go

free.

would impart

It

that constitution

Here

deed.'

it

where men may say we are free inall mankind in the hopes
'

and sympathies of Christ

raise the entire family of our

;

heirs of a corrupted bondage

Most High from
barian, Scythian,

all

;

;

making freemen of the

kings and priests of the

the willing captives of sin and death.

In Christ Jesus, there

The
men

forming

;

would equalise

race to the citizenship of heaven

"

the ele-

all

ments of the best regulated self-government

neither Greek, nor Jew, Bar-

is

bond nor

religion,"

free.

says Tocqueville, " which declares

equal in the sight of God, will not refuse to

acknowledge
the law."

equal in the eye of
ho adds, "is the combattles and in all its con-

that all citizens are

"This same

religion,"

panion of liberty in

all

its

the cradle of

its

infancy, and the divine source

flicts

of

;

claims."

its

What

the laws, institutes and religion of the Bible and

the spirit of Christianity would have

men

to be,

govern-

ment, ordained of God, wisely administered and sustained

by the people, kindly and of necessity comes in to make
them and it is only by sustaining and administering the
:

one, in the spirit and on the principles of the other, that
this result

can be secured.

Christian citizens only, can

create and sustain a Christian government, and govern-

ment administered on any

principles

but those of the

THE CHRISTIAN

21

CITIZEN".

Bible, will not long be a government over free and inde-

pendent men.

The

great difficulty and danger imminent to this coun-

hope and the struggle to attain that, by government and law alone, which can be secured and enjoyed
by that only which lies back of government and law,

try, is the

enlightened,

Christian

virtuous

gives to government

its

supremacy and worth.

principle

ornament and pride
It is

that
;

to

which
law

its

the casting off of these high

principles, resisting their attractive power, that throws us

in wild circuity from the sympathy, the light

and radiant

glory of the great, conservative system of truth and God,

and

like a baleful star stricken

from

its

orbit, left to fall

in loneliness and night.
It

becomes then the duty of every

citizen of the state,

and every member of the government, to see his part perform^
fvnof mot -»*>"' TMo plodgoo « U ~ »*. ~ a _.. ilio
principles and in the spirit of a common and divine
Here we meet together as members of the
Christianity.
o.

>>,*£,

civil

community, under equal laws and equal moral

obli-

and the Christian preacher, as one of the members of the civil community, and as one of the expounders of the divine law and the principles of moral respongations

;

sibility, is to aid

by his ministrations of truth and mercy,

the stability of the government and the salutary execution of

its

laws.

He

transcends not the sphere, nor does

he come down from the elevation and sanctity of his
office, when he calls upon every man in the name and in
the language of his

Master

to

things that are Caesar's, and to

God's

;

render unto Caesar the

God

the things that are

whether as a citizen or a ruler of

state, to

govern

and be governed as a Christian member of the commonwealth.

There

is

but one law of moral rectitude, and

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

22
that

law stretches

imperious claims from the pauper

its

on his bed of straw

to the chair of state,

the majesty of

crowns and the throne of God and that man is a traitor
to his race and a rebel against God who refuses its bind;

ing power.

The
to

origin and design of

reverence

character

its

government should lead
;

respect

industriously seek the benefits

it

its

would confer.

perfections are not to be attributed to

its

arise from the imperfect societies of

men.

becomes more and more perfect
in

its

and

administration as

its

virtue, labor for the

and party

for personal

Though the rulers
his own choice, and

institutes,

in its

subjects,

origin

Its

men
and
im-

but they

;

Government

laws and happy

growing

in

wisdom

general prosperity rather than

distinctions.

of the Christian citizen, rise under
the laws they enact are

made

his

and the sanctions that clothe them, are to be
respected as the " powers that are ordained of God ;" so
them,

that he can never revile nor resist their execution with

rudeness or irreverence.

The

absorbing influence of personal or party ends,

which overlooks

alike the source, the security

and pur-

poses of government, must be carefully guarded. There
may sometimes be party discussions and arrangements,

which with due moderation may have

their uses in sup-

pressing local jealousies and sectional designs, as well as

by imposing a

vigilant inspection

the abuse of executive powers
will hazard the general

nance, and

when

there

is

to

its

struggles for predomi-

attained, recklessly bind every interest

to the increase of its

And

good in

and salutary check

But undisciplined party

:

own

spoils.

often equal danger in servile adherence

and the despisers of government were rebuked and silenced as the opposers of God and a divine Christianity. degrades the " power of God. hand of God rebuking them. impairs the vigor of government. considered as a party. government and the abuse for the perversion of ." says Andrew this heavenly ordinance and resists The great point of a Christian peo- Fuller. even then. 23 measures of a party administration. for its these struggles. With these views of the civil relations and that ordinance which defines the obligations of the citizen to the state. a Christian peo- ple should recognise the perhaps the thousand habitations of embarrassment and losses. not as its and holiness. but as it sources of pecuniary gain. ple." When Nero ruled and Christians bled.THE CHRISTIAN CiTlZEN. the government of the state will secondary tion. in unreason- character and enact- its in under the power attainment. praised and honored in it cultivates and encourages virtue keeps open and fruitful the often is government constituted authorities. "should be an attachment to government as government. may be seen the folly and guilt of prostituting the administration of law and government to any selfish or Too merely temporary purposes. to or In become the triumphs of personal and party ambi- and the precious interests of a whole community madness of lost in the faction. Thus blind attachment or indiscriminate resistance to party. while the loudest cries of remon- come up from arise from their Amid calamities so often experienced. . one can innocently or safely exclusive banners of party at contending enlist whether all. as to the able opposition and violence to No ments. loyalty was enjoined. irrespective of the party that administers it. and invests the selfish and aspiring with the immunities of subordinate office strance that men.

for Whosoever. earth yields her increase. and prayer for authority. when is rigid regard for the proper ends of must be remembered. custom to all their whom to custom for all that are in . and the is sagacity often searches ordinary principles. its ends to Human a twofold defeat ensues. . for the cause of na- all embarrassment commerce of At such times we search free. that supplications. to the forgetfulness of that intelligence. therefore. rulers of the nation.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. hands of the intelligent and virtuous. yea. reverence for law. tribute made for all men. support. There tional calamities. therefore. be and Render. saith the apostle. that though ordained vast and complicated interests are safe only its in the whom to this it which they were ordained and maintain. authority. resisteth the ordinance of God. open and there is no . tribute to honor first of to whom all whom honor. of God. prayers. resisteth the power. in all owes citizen Be government that protects him. the to this it subject the powers that be are ordained to of God. 24 of When tliese are wrongly applied. in vain. are duties to which every Christian powers. exhort yon. till we the world causes of for refer to the perversion of the social and civil relations. obedience. the heavens are propitious and the generous . I . respect. that they quiet and peaceable life in all godliness for may and kings lead a and honesty . and laws. intercessions the giving of thanks. dues . and they that resist shall receive unto themselves condemnation. the very winch they were made subordinate are lost. no pestilence. virtue and religion. no foreign invasion exist suspension of worldly resources nor sterility . of God to cultivate In addition government. are the promises of the divine favor made and : the duty of Christian citizens to implore upon the Subordination. on in vain.

THE CHRISTIAN 25 CITIZEN. rest in the and the state but they rise from the hearts and Safety is found only in wisdom. God very laws and government of are but anarchy and wild confusion amid the rebellious and maddened multitudes of men. and crowded com- They rose. . the highest securities do not emanate from and authority. ture of office. rests the favor of and the execution of law are easy and salutary. from the chair of office capitol of the country . and the authority of God is then secured only by the desolating scourges of his vengeance. its ciiizens. as the munition of rocks. render obedience law and government. here that history opens The annals of all its pages of fearful admo- ancient munities are dark and melancholy. which threatens guard against every evil it by its pros- perity. It is nition. good and acceptable in the sight of God our for this is Savior. and pray for the divine blessing. It we must be remembered. the Here is whence the source of power. becomes the imperious duty of Christian cultivating the principles essential to give it their becoming to most efficient support their responsibilities. the other hand. to and with vigilance and the interests involved. flourish- . hands of the people. With them legis- lation On Government. That people who respect to authority. The there is no promise of protection. In view of the value and great ends of government. God. Here arises the investi- are found the bulwarks of defense. governments such as that in are considering. integrity and religion of the community. possess the substantial elements of a free and happy state. and no safety. maintenance. without this spirit and these virtues.

less continent. anl its new economy experience of the past solemn admonitions. violently souls and bodies of the saints. desolate and lost amid the thousand nations of the earth. men here founded by the most intelli- selected from the very church of we and advanwere the Jews for the of the wisdom and power of God in their an- for a purpose. gion. is of in Cities. Another chapter government opened. countries and nations throw off the fear of God war with the and virtue religion. A begins. are scattered. A free church. casting aside the restraints of virtue and law. A new government gent and pious God. enlightened. and a is The arises. . opens its stain- persecuted and exiled families of the Christ. 26 and discarding the virtues of ed. trious men came These illus- not alone for civil liberty. and of civil life judgments of God. The people and the church of God free. the rights of con- . powerful Israel. a spiritual religion. believe. unheeded are vain. known erned the world are disgrace and destruction of crowded We : reli- search in Nations that gov- only in the annals of their and we walk over the ashes awed by capitals. of restoring civil liberty .THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and bowing the entire Christian world to the iron arm of the judgments of God But a relief of his people. bosom to man the " We look for of sin. as cient and divinely ordered government. binding . died under the the justice and the judg- ments that swept them from the earth. cing religion and illustration is . enriched and ." in vindication of truth new unknown and the course of providence for ages. but confes- sedly to advance religion and in the spirit and culture of the one to secure to the world the blessings of the other. vain for their palaces and thrones.

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

They

quent.

the one,

God

petitioned neither

their

and conse-

liberty subordinate

civil

;

were

the glory of God,

science, the grace and

primary object*

27

nor their king for

they had secured, enjoyed and established

till

With all this they were
demanded and secured it.
Thus became erected the government which we now
enjoy.
So far from being dissociated from religion,

the other on a firm foundation.

prepared

because

for the other,

it

incorporated none into the civil framework of

the state as to
it,

legalized, ecclesiastical organization,

its

God

from the beginning, adopted the laws of

statutes,

and the gospel as

ment since

its

common

the theocracy of Israel,

No

law.

was so

as

its

govern-

distinctly

and

emphatically founded on tbe principles of the Bible and
for the great ends of a spiritual religion.
Christianity

was

its

and

basis,

it

was

of knowing no religion,
its

instinct with
it

primary object of pursuit, and

founded, through
judicial

principle

all

its

branches,

its

but religion as

bond of union.

Thus

-egislative, military,

and executive, moral obligation and Christian
were feit and acknowledged. Its vows of alle-

giance, oaths of office, and pledges of trust,

given and received on the
the government of Israel

ment, so evidently

of Christianity

;

plainness defined.

was

Word

of God.

was founded a

this established

As

all

religious govern-

on the principles

And

as the safety of Israel

we

was

in the

are secure only from

the spirit and energ7of a divine Christianity.
all this

were

clearly as

and the purposes of each, with equal

shelter of God's protection, so

as

Instead

its spirit.

knew nothing

As

clearly

entered into the original structure of our gov-

ernment, as
institutions,

the animating and pervading
it

spirit

of

its

ever has and will continue to have, op-

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

28

posing principles

which,

it

may

with which to

God has never

and before

Yet

From the elastic power
we may recover and rise above

deserted us.

of this vital Christianity
the deep waters that

The

conflict,

often for a season appear to yield.

come over

us.

original materials of the

American

society,

and

the various elements combining in this concentrated gov-

ernment, have given rise

occasional difficulties and to

to

country, both as to their

There was a
two great divisions of the
religious principles and the chief

causes which led

settlement.

no

little

anxiety as to the

final results.

diversity of character in the

to their

There are the claim-

ed and questioned rights of separate and sovereign

states,

leading to almost unceasing " conflicts of the law ;" the
the almost necesdiversity of population, slave and free
;

sary rise of party and sectional jealousies, with conflict-

ing pecuniary interests

and from the ceaseless workings

;

of the elements of such a complicated, anomalous and

growing confederacy, departures may often occur, from
that decorum, integrity and religious principle which
ennobled and guided

The

founders.

its

ecclesiastical intolerance and civil oppression

which many of them
which the great body

fled,

of

from

and the leading design by

them were governed, long pre-

served in vigorous action their religious principles, and

every day strengthened their attachment to the political

and ecclesiastical institutes of their adoption.
Through the whole period of the continental Congress,
the perils and storms of that memorable day, there were

repeated recognitions of
providence.

Days

God and

a wise reference to his

of fasting and prayer for the aversion,

of evils, and for the divine favor, were frequent, and

THE CHRISTIAN

29

CITIZEN.

every department of government seemed cheerfully
recognize the claims of a

The

common

administration of Washington was

out by a rigid regard for

marked throughand

leligious principle,

man everywhere commended

great

to

Christianity.*

and

virtue

this

religion,

not only as the sure basis of a free government, but as
essential

statesman.

elements in the character of a patriot and
" While we are zealously performing the

duties of citizens and soldiers," says he, "

ought not

To

to

be inattentive

we

certainly

to the higher duties of religion.

the distinguished character of patriots,

it

should be

our highest glory to add the distinguished character of

* Sept. 11th,

1777, Congress, by special vote, ordered 20,000

copies of the Bible to be imported from " Holland, Scotland, and

elsewhere," into the different ports of the United States.

In 1782,

"in consequence of the difficulty of importing Bibles," recommended
the edition of Robert Aiken, of Philadelphia.
Mar. 14th, 1776,

it

was voted

humiliation, fasting and prayer."

1778

;

Mar.

lution designating the last,

May

"a day

17th as

Another was appointed

six

of

months

Similar seasons were set apart by Con-

afterwards, Dec. 11, 1776.
gress, Mar. 7,

to observe

10,

we

of our divine Redeemer, with

1781

;

Mar. 19, 1782. In the resowords " That the religion

find these

all its

:

benign influences,

may

cover the

earth as the waters cover the sea."

Nov.

1,

Congress

Nov.

1777,

in

A

day

for public

thanksgiving was proclaimed by

view of the Divine favor

17, 1778, a similar

to the armies of the country.

day was appointed in view of the reduction

army under Earl Cornwallis. " Congress in a body repaired
Dutch Lutheran Church, Oct. 24, 1781, and rendered thanks
Dec. 13, 1781, was proclaimed as a day of
to Almighty God."
thanksgiving throughout the United States. Another was designated

of the
to the

for
is

Nov. 28, 1782, with

this

emphatic declaration

:

"

On

every

man

urged, each in his station, and by his influence, the practice of true

and undefiled religion, which

is the

perity and national happiness."

3*

great foundation of public pros-

the in warmest returns of gratitude and piety Giver of The all opinions of great Christian the sustain to the Supreme good. has often told me that General Washington old fox was too cunning ticularly except that." practices of such a men are not alone sufficient to religion man as opinions and the but . signal instances goodness demand from us." and this they have done upon high autho- them. the for them. who pretended to be in his secrets and believed himself to be so. and is invalidate his claim to evangelical piety. on which showed a belief in the Christian religion. that to the public he had never." Writings. it was observed in said a word any occasion. and they thought they should so pen their address as to force him Christian or not. " I know that Governeur Morris. Why iv. to but an attempt upon which our civil interests bound feel man. if not to rebuke the efforts of infidels. their consultation. Dr. of his providential a particular manner.— THE CHRISTIAN 30 The Christians. to question the right. that when the clergy addressed General Washington on his departure from the govern- ment. attest- ing the value. He answered every article parwhich he passed over without notice. from Asa Green. vol. admiration and gratitude effort to impair the fair fame of this great And we are based. 1. Jefferson rest on such testimony when he was inti- . to loosen the foundation and every . However. CITIZEN. Cox. Jefferson's 512. yea. the absolute necessity of the religion of the gospel to the safety of our free institutions. whether he were a his author observed. the mise- in this.* Feb. anxious. p. and have labored hard rity to which they rable foundation on * Thomas tells me Jefferson in his that he had it ' Ana. says Dr. George Washington. claim our profound respect. does Mr. at length to declare publicly They did so. believed no more of that system than he himself did. to drag surreptitiously ranks into their the venerated father of our They have been country. " to claim him as their own.'' to sustain But rest. says Rush 1800. says.

he says. attended both services. author. II. or in this calumny any way (of infidel claims). I . and thus accosted him " Doctor. abroad. and their 31 " they have efforts will signally- soon be all and eternally bankrupt together. Mr. Johns. the General visited the house of the Rev. J. " their intercourse was daily confidential and cordial. as he commended the principles and virtues of a divine and spiritual Christianity to the friends " And every redeems is his fame from welcomed by part of the and fellow-citizens of his country. I understand . Dr."* mate with General Washington from 1769. occurred while the army were at in that church Morristown. titious interest of state relations. as their interests CITIZEN. and the high decorum of religion adorned to his the entire character of his civil Christian in the closet alone ." Nothing is more clear than ends of essential aids to the its Prayer was no stranger wise government." * —Vol. A Christian." service of the communion which was observed but twice a year. not a not such from the fac- from principle. the public sentiment of the country as a common treasure of mankind. 349. The Rev. Johns was the pastor In 1779-80. He met the followers of God communion of at the table of Christ. N. Dr. Johns to . army of General Washingten was in winter Morristown. everywhere a professed Christian.THE CHRISTIAN the same distinguished failed. He was life. neither sectarian nor exclusory. all Washington was a that firm believer in Christianity. In a morning of the previous week.f The General requested have a longer intermission between his morning and afternoon services. p. the quarters at of the Presbyterian Church in that place. and that for four years while he was Secretary of State. with a cordiality as fraternal and strong. but at home. fact that illustrates his piety. and camp. that his officers might attend: so and the The officers it was changed.hat : the Lord's Supper is to be celebrated with you next Sunday.

The restraints of moral and religious obligation were as unfriendly to the former. and we hence give the Lord's invitation to The General of whatever name. the greatly excited and would learn agitated state of the world abroad. but the Lord's . by the scenes of revolutionary accords with the canons of your church to admit if it communicants of another denomination"!" The Doctor rejoined. witnesses to the verity of this and other instances of Washington's participation with Christians at the table of Christ. however. all his "I am glad of it. nonexclusive but as : it I replied." The Doctor re-assured him of a cordial Though a welcome.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN." as I it ought to be would ascertain that occasion. . real liberty. " most certainly ours is not the Presbyterian table. fact. as I followers. and the General was found seated with the communicants the next Sabbath. I that is thought propose to join with you on member of the Church of England. was not quite sure of the from yourself. the demoralizing influence of the war above-mentioned augmented the one. I have partialities. of aristocratical affinity. table . pp. Long and to the stern and and there were many demanded the most enlarged and who violently opposed every appearance. this country was established and We have already alluded racter in the elements of which demoralizing influence of greatly and increased it the to admin- at first the diverse cha- was constructed. specially in its bearing upon the government of the state. 28-9. as the most extended and agrarian democratic was dear principle in the state And while to the latter. 32 There were. secret influences were at work adverse evangelical piety of the puritans whose professed principles . or imaginary. The war of the Revolution aggravated this and diversity strengthened the enemies of religious principle. living Cox's Theopneuston." There are —Dr. many adverse influences to the moral and religious principles upon which the govern- ment of istered.

written his name deep and endur- structure. had become familiar with the principles of French philosophy both in politics and religion. The depressed many state of morals in sections of the country. and aided by the peculiar circumstances of the country at that time. and animated with the speculative philosophy of revolutionary France.33 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and own sanguinary experiment was not was loudly claimed as a signal advance of human society a splendid march of intellect and the result of her fully settled. was stimulating the other almost to a state of phrensy. found . to unite these strong An required but It some commanding some object of and unstable elements. Infidelity had done its work on Thomas Jefferson. and whole nation. were preparing the way for signal changes posed of its to in the general aspect of society. governed by power of in- ends of the social his great mind. France was endeared aid to us by her kind sympathy and through the eventful crisis of our revolution. concentrating influence.' He had enjoyed the ing on the foundation-stone of our on many accounts was endeared society and civil to the become deeply imbued with the spirit of that remarkable people. individual long distinguished in the councils of this who had country. and the settled opposition of multitudes to any which could be sup- restrictive forms of administration. and their full belief in the tellectual culture to secure the highest state. It — moral achievement towards the perfectability of our race. and he sincerely sympathised with them in ment of their visionary speculations upon the advance- society. the spirit of Euro- pean scepticism. France. harmonize with aristocratical government in any features. attraction.

effort to elevate Instead of a wise and efficient every class of the community. for the most enlarged liberty. favor of his elevation to the presidency of these United States. was made and the vulgar prejudice * See notice of the Life of Jefferson and the Burr. vol." so ruinous in France. and which found its way to this country at this eventful crisis of its history. Davis. II. if not most efficient influences that attended the elevation of Mr. No. was the "levelling system. And also the Life of Burr. French philosophy.* Under such auspices. pp. I. . there was a determination of society to rise on the higher classes of the community. Davis. p. and a laudable desire to advance through the influence of education and morality inferior orders . French infidelity. and surrounded by these circum- stances. and from the heart sent a feverish and fatal action to every extremity. L.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. like French fashions. of which we have here nothing to obvious as it was melancholy. M. byp. he enters high office . the result was as Instead of the stern virtues of the Puritan faith and of evangelical piety. Mar. but the very cry of the sans culotte of the streets of Paris. A demand 5. over the fac& of society. say. by in the ruins of the Memoirs of Aaron New-York Review. aspect. 1838. 34 own hand in his power of turning the the scale in. upon the solemn responsibilities of his and whatever may be said of his own per- sonal and direct influence. IIL Jan. Jefferson. with the conservative energies of government. 1837. 175. soon spread a new and religion. lending a aid to the its confederate Christian advancement of virtue French morals. or of his political character. in the and No. It was not the agrarian movement of the Tiers Etat alone. One of the peculiar and leading. 71-74.

we shall ever regret his influence this nation. the idol of a numerous and powerful class of sceptics. it among the mountains of youthful society organised to principles and favor its claims . cannot resist Jefferson was the head. but England. and feel it our duty to speak in decided disapprobation of his religious principles. its remotest members. to the fatal contagion. the whole body. remote discuss its its was popular not was so everywhere. Rosseau. and Shaftesbury went forth to poison the at the seat of Not a New retired village. His works have already been commended to the young men of our country. When the head and the heart are both alike diseased. It government. from the schools of Rochester. to a flame. and to feed the voracious appetite of the vulgar. and . Voltaire. its ignorant.35 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. had infidelity . ministered. and scurrilous Low. was fanned jubilee its : high priest was the chief of and his voluminous writings. During the period of his administration and years following for some which he embraced the principles it. but had Paine. only Tom from Hobbs. Blount. . many while claim the right to question the political sagacity of this distinguished on the morals of man. the heart. as well as his show how faithfully he served the altar at which he the nation life. exerted a most disastrous influence on the popular mind. Infidelity. public mind. It blindly avowed Disease spread through almost every member. while every seed thickly sown and institution of learning found its springing with a vigorous growth. and as the guardian of their morality every Christian citizen must desire to furnish And along with them an antidote to their poison. both in refinement and in its its grossness. worshipped and had its reward.

the wife of Joseph are too indelicate and blasphemous to be repeated. He this charges the apostles with "stupidity and roguery. the most intolerant of all sects The . that he dictated." and the young men of his favorite university were the victims of his majestic. speaking of his university. II. Jefferson. they theogony against those who Presbyterian clergy are loudest the most tyrannical and ambitious. p. that lord of the universe. down and in all his writings. Jefferson to John Adams near the close of his also Tucker's Life and Character of Jefferson." In a letter to William Short. 495. 36 While the influence of pared. We have given them stated and privileged days to collect and catechise us. as well as to one of the latest epistles in his rejection of the conso- lations of religion on his death-bed. THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.'' and says. in every other point unite in maintaining believe there is their mystical only one God. ex cathedra invectives against the religion of the gospel. to whose tile as spells on the human mind its improvement these sects are. is to ominous. Of this he was proud. They pant to re-establish by law that now only infuse into public opinion. in a measure. Hos- one another. letter of Mr. the infidelity. the war of the Revolution pre- way for this disastrous reign of no one can question.f his sentiments See Trumbull's Reminiscences of Washington. holy inquisition which they can We have most unwisely com- mitted to the hierophants of our particular superstition the direction of public opinion. opportunities .* He sought to lay the foundations of infidelity deep and durable by the broad projection of this literary institution. * The t life were .. "of band of dupes and impostors Paul was the great Coryphceus. vol. His own table and the Sabbath became the theatre and the occasion on which " Christianity was made the subject of his conversation and his sneers. sibility for its that the burden of respon- continuance and spread rests in a great measure on Mr. he says : " The serious enemies are the priests of the different religious sects. his correspondence la he expressly denies the claims of Christ and the His remarks respecting Jesus Christ and inspiration of the Gospel.

who " in his high and palmy slate. more cruel than that from which she revolted. consequent his life Of 37 the morality. political or on such sentiments. that institution was entirely overrun with infi- and the most able productions of his great mind delity." was no "improve the reason and that without moral security for the rising generation. and no permanent stability to government or As France had sunk law. to reverence the principles of the gospel as the only sure charter of republican liberty. D wight entered on the presidency of Yale College.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. the history of must decide. avowed and determined. " experienced the deserwho once lived upon his smiles and multitudes tion" of losing their of delivering their oracles to the people in mass." when power of patronage. and "like all retiring statesmen. to regain the ascen- almost universally saw that something bet- ter than infidelity was needed and enlighten the general mind religious principle there to . their Eliminations against to of But in spite improve the reason of the people and encourage them it. private. in the use the liberality of (Virginia) this state will support this institution and give fair play to the cultivation of reason. The man. into the iron arms of a des- potism." was the idol of millions. When Dr. and under the fostering care of our literary and religious began institutions better principles Men dency. no longer to idolise reason catastro- in the rejection of Christ." 4 . began had passed away. are found in his invaluable discourses on modern scep- ticism. and of moulding their minds as wax in the hollow of their hands. warned by her sad phy. of endeavors to enlighten the general mind. her friends and admirers here. and become the executioner of her own best sons. A reaction in the public mind soon took place.

for scepticism and vulgar infidelity. This scourge always brings a train of moral evils and throws up new elements of society. The immediate its terrors of this period passed demoralising influence continued. tudes Having became ready neglected and to . moral and religious obligation was weakened. and more hated and reviled by his adversaries.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and we no longer wonder that." own case. An here opened in the literary and religious history of this country. that. In its desolating influence on the institutions of religion. prostrated . yet at first frequently truth of his though popular opinion will at last This became realised in reach a correct conclusion. moral interests of the country began to advance. but The Sabbath was do not recollect. As by common conbecame sent other minds and "other principles ultimately ascendant. multi- espouse the cause of a long vilified Christianity. Passing over a few years we come to the war of 1812. moral and to his reli- tasted their bitter fruits. than any of his compatriots ever admiration no respect is may be due or can be paid gious principles. which under no other circumstances would ever rise. as it paves the way well as for the habits of gross licentiousness. during eight years of one con- . " favorite dogma/' " that men be wrong. while virtue and religion lent their aid to the order and interesting chapter is stability of the state." and what- given to his political sagacity. and the more valuable. in high places. in the language of his own eulogist biographer. 88 were loud own may Here he found the in his praise. " it was the fate his of Thomas Jefferson be to at once more loved and praised by his friends. and Christianity had but few advocates We away.

and the necessities that demanded it. we However. there 39 was any express recognition of a divine religion from the executive department. the great body of the people may now coincide with the judgment then exercised. The agrarian spirit began again off the supremacy of its work. after the battles of this war were fought there was. mary much though our fears had not wholly We subsided in view of his previous history. the result may . and we and We to the right source. governed the distinguished Chief we impute of an infidel philosophy. will sanction. . for to him none of the We principles looked with lively hope the results of his elevation. and but feeble illustrations of The tal. too much countenance everywhere given to the loose and infidel habits of men. be salutary. the sacred . sol- assumed and the sumAs to the right of such assumption. it was an experiment which the genius of our have nothing government to say. And what- the restraints of law and moral obligation. and anticipated popular reformation . and though. and seeking intellect. tinuous administration.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. the principle at once invalidates our chief security. Though there was a season of resting from political animosities. at the same time. legalised the desecration of the Christian Sabbath. and its legitimate result was the general prevalence of a lax morality. their mo- cannot be overlooked them . bered the resolute dier throw to demanded freedom from spirit remem- and the moral daring of the the vast responsibilities he justice that he executed. that the besc intentions are bound to have not a doubt. we may ever ral results refer think of the times that succeeded. its virtue anywhere at the capi- plea of state necessity and the advantage of rapid intelligence to the community. but at great peril in a solitary instance. Magistrate.

" in this country* " inter if. The demand for a general fast in view of the public calamity. power and may have encouraged required but a solitary it to settle the commanding opinions and conduct of thousands. insubordination From decide. was answered in the language of Jefferson. with the autho- lative rity.— THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. then our constitution and laws must yield to the sword. arma. and even the writ of Habeas Corpus be left at the disposal of adventitious military power. all tending same end. the became of it." and vulgar infidelity Our were cities full At this time. that of personal the general spirit of it impossible is to a variety of concurring causes. 40 This majesty of law. its halls were crowded Its victims. (See Con. . by to which they may become subjected to councils of war. Events long maturing were approaching a The men were crisis. to the soon ensued. growth of popular rapid and almost universal. nor has and executive powers combined. and as such. insufficient. is rather a question of casuistry than of constitutional or statute law. forming the and only precedent of the kind first For should be seriously considered. and means of moral culture were check the popular were in vain.fflh and sixth amendments. example. to licentiousness. which the constitution has not trusted to the hands even of Chief Magistrate himself. and with the flower of our youth. and universal embarrassment succeeded. and providential scourges Pestilence swept like the winds through almost every dwelling. "this country knows no religion. and an easier morality was every- where demanded. Sources of intelligence. its preachers. clashings of party and the indomitable spirit of impatient of control.. silent leges. the- clothed the legis- it proclaim martial law over private citizens.) How far these acts of military responsibility.

the murderer not life excepted. ety assumed every principles and purposes shape." open contempt of the laws of God and his country. men and women. their The the administration all forms of justice in ruffian in the street. very hour. The disastrous influences of war. carried forward the work. and its domestic and foreign. perjured by the violation of his own Violent and oath. the duellist. the enraged legislator. censure fallen. and the violence of party. great to individuals. were every where. entered upon own way. 41 criminal its demanding the law. and crowds of excited and reck- men. striking these parallel of times with those of Jefferson's administration. . the historian has yet to write — and with a discerning hand sponsibility involved.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.As the natural result of these things. and encouraged by the vapid speculations of transcendental philosophisings. of humanity. a general. corrupt public sentiment. It came it variety of of liberty. would overturn our entire social system. equalize the re. multitudes. visionary men. boldly avowing in his adherence to his shameless " code of honor. of rational reli- In meliorating the condition of soci- would reduce penalties. contemning the whole system of law. No injustice and severe single man can either cause or cure the multiplied evils that have been inflicted upon us. not upon the most guilty. what= 4* . till law and justice were but a name. catching the same spirit. cast* and setting aside ing off moral responsibility. of law. The Mr. the mur- derer stands unrebuked in the halls of legislation. name in the gion. were more powerful than the principles and patronage of any one man. by banishing its of no man. In this may have already been done to respect. in the two instances before us. and less fearful To this powerless before the storm.

that form the public zens. We and believe. institutions its its surface. we must share in all sentiment. the Senate the Executive office primitive honor and dig- nity. and that. dency.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. will no longer allow The energy of Christianity its ascen- and God. elastic There are signs of a better day. however. still lives. has begun to work its own cure want of elements upon which to act. singly or politically asso- ever those principles and patronage . as citi- the responsibilities of public station. result has come upon us. that intelligent. and the redress of pub- the cessation of party violence and pro- . moral principle. much from it the as from the fact. its own spirit. ciated. have regret The so long slumbered over the violence of party zeal. that all this is but temporary. And we must remember. the intellect and moral sense of the country. and that . We always love highly prize to foreign traveller will take no secrets and the and . we more pains regret the that go into the to charms of our society. restrains the violence of men. that the stern virtues and in- tegrity. confidence in legislation has been impair- all ed. and become disrobed of its . The more able portion of the public journals begins to character and breathe a milder an abatement of lic grievances . and it cannot be endured. 42 may have been. By confessed. still more. The wear respecta better press demands nuisance. and not judge of us alone from those light elements that float upon And we We speak well of our country. the press subsidized and often scurrilous has impaired itself its own good name. the people are tired of it. hearing the cry of his own people. that it is public sentiment that makes men rather than men. that not so even now.

the evils which they suffer. in seeking the remedy of public we evils. to admit of sudden change. Christian All these favorable indications appeal to the citizen. every action of life. and must wait the action of a correct public sentiment. and habits of political immoral- nity ity. firmly fixed. to reach as it is imperious. specially from the moral parties their active co-operation. but from those lie at the basis is And American peothis. that the manliness. and that too with the consent and from the demands of the people.THE CHRISTIAN scription. all demanding. specially their rulers. stability and happiness of the ple can be restored and confirmed. is not the work of a day . general intelligence. on sudden and revolutionary movements are not nor on . nor can they Evils that have been of gradual growth. virtuous a rigid morality and a spiritual religion. The embarrassments of the commubecome so identified. in a day. there any hope of per- religious principles. or should be so. and had mote and perhaps unseen causes. any rapid succession of changes of men in office and geThese principles are too neral principles of government. their origin in re- It is only by sub- economy. that the government itself loses power to remedy the evils it may have created. are often so incorporated with the administration of the government. nor manent good. stantial industry. It is its . would legislate all statute law. Men. The restless and radical evils out of society. which of the social constitution as well as of private worth and vital piety. we repeat. order. may now exist. Social evils do not spirit that and multiply is as hopeless come upon us be removed in a moment. are too much accustomed charge upon others. and religious of And to rely 43 CITIZEN. even to in the social state.

what we is should strive to create. was demanded. to say how government should be formed and administered. on the are alike injurious to those who office affinities. bestow and those who receive the preferment. his while seated at so to administer sibilities the it. no doubt." must be erased from our Promotions records. all The of purchase and proscription on party moral question simply. to all. but to select the best and ablest men. commended " Roman virtue.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. grounds of party to and removals. " Is he capable easily may is . actually when the burden of was assumed amid its vast the storms and respon- waves of . Hermitage. upon the subject of his cabinet ministry. is was. he this inquiry be forgotten. and tions required. even for first installment. its this secured. at the constitution The he honest . irrespective of such affinities. This. that his might be harmonious and unobstructed. must not be permit- system. that we must This look. should be. administration With whom origin in this country. is But how faithful to the constitution ?" new qualifica- expense of moral character and the ? letter addressed to President Munroe. grounds. Thomas Jefferson. 44 to that sentiment. from one remembered and admired by who succeeded That advice pay no respect to party relations. and another." and it did much towards own subsequent elevation. this system may be said It its saw the necessity most cautious exercise. " become ted to the victors belong the spoils. was the deliberate judgment of this man of him. he at his says. as a- To the settled policy of this government. with have had to for an apology. his only inquiry as to qualifications for all subordinate office. But it was one thing.

Though an ? does not cease : he is the warring of moral elements. many days appear." and amid this " Euroclydon. But the cry from out the winds of party mined." then he may " undergird. and the clamors of party violence. and may throw in- We proper functions. " come down upon the sea when rapidly on his : . but there is " mutiny on board. and from carrying out his There admired. which own which we may have sanctioned and ciples and purposes slight peril to the social system." neither sun nor stars for of being saved is taken cast his anchors or " unlaid" his burden . The ven mariner . surmountable obstacles in the cir- 11 to raise men to office. with no is may purposes . hoc opus then obstruct political To pressing their conflicting claims." the storm wrecked on a barbarous coast. and literally shake its foundations and shall by the storms of popular and party violence we then charge all the evil upon the single man. lay his course direct from the quiet ha- skies and starry nights sail safely and fair way but when storms and winter snows." what can he do Amid " angel stand by him. and all hope away . on denned clearly principles It is unreasonable and cruel however correct and est. administer that calmer moments and under other in cumstances. long. 45 way of the very govern- ment which we create.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN." despotism of party triumphs unimpaired: strife is and the iron the distinguished victim sacrificed on the altar of Moloch. "hie labor. and dark tempests. pure as an angel's. is . it '* Though : deter- the administration be shall be overthrown. as it is profane. manfully. governmemt now. prin- a species of moral rebellion and trea- is son here. its aspirants. what can sterling integrity do It ? may resist. whom : we have thus disabled from acting on his own prin- ciples.

" removed or But the pri- vate citizen in view of the chair of state. the Men reason for this fact should be seriously considered. Again a noble principle " government defined. millions entirely changed without bloodshed or even vio- But. those ster- ling principles upon which it was founded. religious principle and God. The The government of alternately with hope and sublimest moral spectacle is seen. congregations of wor- shippers through the land. openly bowed in recogniiion of the divine chastisement. That maxim. state necessity" or for party be driven from their own principles. . hold- requiring belief in the and eternal retribution for the validity of . falls to the dust. were too high object of admiration and hope rebuked. porate into all It is for them. and we fear. 46 Providential changes and mind the public new popular affinities agitate fear. The remedy for all this. to raise and incor- the departments of government.. we have said. and a nation tary lesson. And in our popular government and social character. whether in private life or on the throne and under the pressure of " may purposes. " this government knows no must be rebuked by the actual presentation of and in the al! pervading demonstration of its truth of a final . lence. is It was a salu> like Israel of old. and the policy of No man shall be proscribed on grounds of party affinities. to which other circumstances would have forbid. THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. are human. lies with the people. government founded on Protestant Christianity ting by acts of false religion. A distribu- Congress the Christian Scriptures ing days of fasting and prayer power its excellence. who are the source of power and the virtual exresults ecutives of the country. and the incum- bent there installed. is avowed. are not always one and the same. much The forgotten." fatal .

common incoporated into its Divine Redeemer. we may safely confide in the govern- ment which we have created. . fresh ings and strong in Christian faith. It to was the hopes and as the returning of the long loved star. There was ty in his character independent of his religion this. its is not must cling to the Christian Scriptures and the Christian virtues. From admiration of these principles and from deep con- viction of their importance to us. The great ends of government must ever be kept in view both by the people and their rulers. and in a Providence overruling We infidelity will admit. We venerate Chief Magistrate of our country. that the living and dying testimony of his late successor. on the inspired records delity no religion . The Author. an oath while every servant . first acknowledged and common elements of thousand ways recognised the claims of bare recognition This enough. and demand from our rulers . be his lasting monument. And when meeting the responsibilities and discharging the duties of Christian citizens. precursor of day. suffer- the like a divine and power of Christiani- encouragement prayers of the Christian citizen. and example of our spirit we often refer to the from their fathers. 47 employs must swear it fi- Such a government u know /" This government knows no particular denomination of Christians and encourages no distinct religious party or form of ecclesiastical There ligion ? tianity — an which this is a But polity.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. And was. when the achieve- that adorned this will ments of his hence it political greatness shall pass came away. of an re- — a common Chris- accredited Gospel of a government from the knowing no is this religion law. to the excellence ty. and first a sublimibut it was most the soldier and the statesman.

because there modern times the in one morality opponents." says this distinguished man. false maxim that and another morality that in their political conduct to their men may say and do that. of the example. ' consider as the very concrete of false mo- was that " all is fair in politics. " that the influence of Gov- ernment on the morals and on the religious feelings of the community. to enter- has.— THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. speak." If a falsely or calumniously of his neighbor. its good or example. the in relation to public and ready excuse political matters and is this . timent which for the offence. of course. powerful institution appeared as it character." in all these respects. reproached It I which declares man speaks is There has been openly announced a sen- life. and advert to this. which they would never think of saying or doing in the personal relations of private rality. Its its human happiness which most their general morals also. has been put forth there is for other things . portant to most has sometimes me. to protect industry." its We aim. " Government has something more Webster. ac- tone. to do. " than prise due reward. than the influence of most other human to institutions put together." says and secure Amid the efforts and sacrifices for the ad- all vancement of society at the present day. and the general tone which A popular government. . or should have a higher It must regard the moral sentiments of the com- " munity. affect the political for evil. is apt to be overlooked. of I of its " its indirect influence. . I it is is whether most im- among those things morals of mankind. or underrated. is a more powerful. either for cording to power inspires. it for politics. 48 those securities and blessings for which government is ordained. I have thought. of respect or disrespect to moral obligation. I cher- . Mr.

and not of will. " are passions are to be restrained be inspired . of danger.' when whatever against that individual. will ill but quite the contrary I . penalties. whether be committed politically.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. its charms and law become secure in the open execution of its lose . and calumny will be treated as a breach of the it 49 commandment. pledging his support 5 is so confident have to senti- " the Constitu- . the sacredness of constitutional law and the maintenance of legally administered justice ascasuist can sume an importance which no Christian nor for a moment overlook. that the value or demand : And " Ours few could for that patriot a government of we been at all appreciate and Christian ment of Mr. and worthy motives true . the is coming falsehood will stand for falsehood." he adds. we predictions and abroad gested fears from have had one standing reply law." in this strong guaranty. its the spirit. or in the concerns of private life. Wirt. when pervading . public justice re-assume its prerogatives." " The feelings. The people of this country have long rested in the To all sugfancied securities of a government of law. to be disciplined Such sentiments and sustained by to circumstances. In my spoke of my adversary merely day opinion. and Before these. From the foregoing considerations of the principles of a free government. I. private life. the a profound religious feeling to be instilled and a pure morality inculcated under state . and ennobling the vulgar infidelity will retire . ished no personal as a political man. offices of scepticism refined. Christian citizen statesman are to cherish and disseminate." all as these. borrowed from the gospel.

far as human ulti- foresight and providence could do. are annulled to-day. Experience wise. Its found- ers had long endured the oppression of the one and mately broke from its As chains. and what one branch of the government has set up. limits claims or spurn and checks to to its subleast mainautho- delegated and executive power. or rudely assailed and erased from . did they see the ne- Still cessity for the injunction of the dying Magistrate " let THE PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION BE CARRIED OUT. : doubt their sagacious minds perceived the foreshadowings of Their cautions were needed. and Laws" tion less perhaps. contradistinction to a government of will. and the hand may be vir- The that should exe- among the first to annul and has already become a part of history. but the force of individual will has far titudes every invaded a government of law. very body that enacted cute vain and powerless. It it is annihilate it. and their counsels evil.50 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. solemn asseveration that the hand. This government was established a government of law. But experience has ever shown. they framed a constitution and laws for the other. and severer still. They knew more the necessity of moral and religious principle for its support and administration And no . by written law. The enactments of yesterday another has subverted. that the will not only of adventitious parties. lifted in all tain its its restrictions. jects of of They never dreamed that the demand its revulsion protection would would ever invalidate it." These great men knew the value of constitutional law. it. Long established principles of legislation have been set aside. appeared abundant. without tue and religious principle. that law. . and that mul- where have spurned its righteous claims. in is a teacher true. The rity.

and not wholly foreign preceding. and must the life. of both our civil and religious liberties Even greatly impaired. has been shorn of 51 its majesty and the constitution. while The set aside. is severe and just infliction of be dispensed with. is and a faithful discharge of their high trust. to rulers efficient cooperation. most sacred have been treaties common and of both the decisions of the highest ju- have been scorned and dicial tribunal statute law. The influence of commanding example. obe- dience and vindication of the constitution and laws under which he dial and lives. which has driven the original proprietors of this land from home and life. . and proffering demand from them II. at the expense men every where assuming the responsibility of law and justice have warred upon personal security and And form Regularly administered law with the demanded. out" '* its penalties cannot longer the principles of the constitution from the humblest cottage till. to majesty shall be respected and re- their Clnistian citizen pledging his respect. till scarce a remnant re- mains.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. violated. and virtual annulling of contracts form a melancholy chapter in the history of this country. not only. has been pleaded. State necessity. denial of justice to the disregard of treaties. it is impossible . The violation of the public faith the injured and oppressed . Law the statute book. these things too have met their crisis and a re- be carried capitol. The vered. to the the faithful regard to the fulfilment of pro- mises. but the providence of God towards uncivilized nations adduced in justification of that wast- ing process. may and magistrates cor- rightfully expect Another subject.

be re- that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much. let the faith of membered.THE CHRISTIAN 52 CITIZEN. may every What do we now to trace. oppose. and every where speak in terms of the most decided condemnation. as Chris- We would unite the pulpit and the press. yet the violations of tlie public faith where be seen working disastrously. The doctrine of repudiation in we must all its forms. It may truly be said. who from such prece- private dents. In the moral and religious community. that he no where Let it else. feel at liberty to repudiate their indi- vidual debts. or from their embar- rassment and losses. in any of the more restricted operations of life. from the laws of bankruptcy. and that he tions. see through the land. and alarming responsibility ? escape even legal efforts to Entire sovereignties are meditating the hazardous experiment of repudiating their pecuniary gations . As a question of casuistry. we must feel that in this act of national supremacy. a giant blow has been struck at the basis of commercial morality. but the most fearful delinquency of moral obligation. who repudiates his extended obliga- cannot be trusted on the grounds of his honesty. tian citizens. and set aside those claims which otherwise would remain sacred. An unfore- . in its very questionable law of bankruptcy. The influence of these high proceedings has been fast working more its way down to the calculations and habits of the members of society. has assumed the fearlul responsibility of legalized repudiation. are leaving the innocent to sufTer and shaking all confidence in the value of securities and the faith of promises. that this whole nation. the judge and the jury. and corporate obli- institutions dissolving into their irresponsible elements. if promises be unimpaired. weakening every where the sense of pecuniary obligation.

The are implicated. repudiation pays nu debt. he must he owes to be bin ling still. but by the faith and honor of nations. law. but after having " provided for his own.'' that which their necessities demand. We meet the claims of every will not believe that one of these confede- rate sovereignties will ever seriously enter upon this ha- zardous experiment. than for the reputation and existence of the associated and corporate relations of society. bankruptcy. But the live its debts ? and are here to-day. who ? morrow. which as Repudiation cannot be admitted for a where. to- and the successors of repu- diating rulers live. every debt feel moment any by those communities. 53 seen inability to meet our engagements does not free us from responsibility. A sacred regard to the faith of promises essential for the support of private is no more worth. more civil here all In one case you pollute the spring that 5* . when he shall have acquired the do A it. impairs not it at all his obligation to meet every engagement. may Christian citizen ability to rightfully avail himself of the advantages of compromise. and with their immunities. and least of all independent sovereignties by the supports of or- exist. first may Still and success of respect but a few .THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and no acts of compromise nor laws of bankruptcy can annul that moral obligation. and where either exempts the debtor from the cruelty of an oppressive creditor. must as- sume the responsibilities and creditor. is this faith essential to the integrity compacts. are gone state lives. which to a Christian human than stronger is Compromise. How Who are the can such a community repudiate state They. or of the laws of bankrupt- cy perhaps. where so many seem to lose their personal responsibility and sense of justice. not dinary law.

. nor it lia- Nations are not bound by mercantile laws. confidence of the world. THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. but it we must does not pay them . repudiate appear ago. 54 rises at your As we own which fountain at door the other. but honor and moral integrity and when we stand bankrupt or we become disgraced and outlawed from the fraternity of nations. and the civilized world to repudiate our debts whom we are indebted. nizing us in our national sovereignty. Rather a thousand times combine the ample resources of this vast country and restore every member of the con- federacy into the credit and Repudiate our debts. made on us are name in the international Europe. and wade the justice of our call in question. bankruptcy may evade are the bonds of state . We cannot wholly dismiss this subject without a brief allusion to those habits to that which have greatly contributed embarrassment. and we do tries the moral so on account of their direct bearings upon the question of morals. and now indebted to half Europe hundreds of millions and refuse Upon to pay if demands ! our own on the principles of what have we principles. How A few ? ? demanding the claims of our shall years and citizens rushing into war with France for a farthing. proudly our debts eyes of civilized nations to the the millions drink. recog- law. sovereignties. . we cannot. of nations. which so severely integrity of men . that bility. as we on our estate goods and chattels of the insolvent debtor and equalize his distrain the assets to his creditors. How far the long established usages of mercantile and . should seas and bury us in our disgrace and own blood The ? doom no American could to say. you poison in . Do nor cancel obligation. not . may justly seize and confiscate our possessions.

by presenting temptations to dishonesty stronger than ought ordinarily ment. There here demanded. not for us to say. But while one of to all parties How far engaged such in " A well-regula- allow to be a blessing. is not destructive to dependence upon of that kindness and indulgence on the one hand.THE CHRISTIAN commercial may have life dition of society is 55 CITIZEN. are questions of serious mo- And whether consolidated wealth. and subjecting men their pleasure. we are . all character this favors. which are the basis social. must be something wrong. While the men limited resources. yet all allow And would not that it providential reject the system of has been greatly abused. ments. there are thousands tion is found dispensing its which have proved disastrous them. that corporate and monied insti- It is wrong. with moderate and that relied at first on persevered modestly. community. and of questionable moral tutions are all ence . credit. and of that keen sense of obligation and gratitude and the bond of the on the other. institutions tend to relax moral obliga- and weaken a sense of personal responsibility. ted institution" of this kind. resting in the valuable reflection that they have been the makers of their own fortunes. business not prepared to decide. profits. ful influ- but the principles and limits of their safe adminis- to men encounter. creating power- monopolies. or such sudden and general when no revulsions could not so often occur We causes intervene. are now men the their own satisfied of responsibility and wealth. tration seem to be very poorly defined. who have sought most extensively its advanhave shared most largely in pecuniary embarrass- those tages. contributed to the present con- an important inquiry be no doubt that a revision is and there can .

if ing him with positive delinquency. under the severity of a rich corporate claimant. reflecting perhaps upon the integrity of the borrower. proffering credit not alone tutions racter. have produced no very favorable results. both in a pecuniary and moral point of view. The obligation may of another kind. but it is create. and those almost wholly pastoral. there obviously on all is not charg- concerned an unfavorable moral influence. thus unexpectedly involved. who wrote with inspired wisdom for a people those tem. judging from the developments of the last twenty years. while who have been most deeply engaged in this syswho have sought and enjoyed its facilities. He that is and he that . And we have often thought.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. that if Solomon. which these have adopted. and the lender enforces his legal claims on the party that has received no benefit. 56 That universal system of operation. that the whole system of by associated corporate bodies. and the extended demand for its facilities. but to the insti- to cha- and the responsibility of the borrow- pecuniary strength of the security he offers. It credit cannot be questioned. and to them surety for a stranger shall smart for said. are among the severest sufferers. wrecking thousands of extended fortunes. lays the ground for that mutual deception and distrust which often ends in the bankruptcy of all parlies. business talent er. and as he meets it. and the surety. while he bows to the stern mandate of the law. and The the relaxing of a sense of moral obligation in each. it . never feels that peculiar moral obligation which his own immediate contracts be as strong. period. borrower hazards resources that are not his own. either to the pecuniary interest or moral character Repeatedly has the business and commercial community been severely tried within this brief of the country.

amid all the enterprise and commerce of the Augustan age. would not every epistle speak the salutary admonition. nor are we afford events have shown no increased security enlarged facilities for active business to such as entitled to credit own from their On the contrary. and reveal in decided terms the perils of suretiIt has been well 1 ship and of extended obligations said. which and none of that gratitude arises from the kind aid of the rich towards the . if not imputations of actual dishonesty. thus have been written for the present day 1 if Roman Paul. wrote. writing now. that there is and often less moral obligation felt towards them. to the conclusion. " the debtor is the natural and where payment the enemy enemy of the creditor. to aware. the and the Hebrew of the Hebrews. citizen Owe no man anything.THE CHRISTIAN hateth suretiship striketh sure is A man . but to love one another . why If thou hast nothing to pay. and no disability is ordinarily heavy enough unfortunate the relieve to from severe reflections. borrower." withheld. the creditor becomes is of the debtor. wrote. void of understanding hands and becoraeth surety his friend And : 57 CITIZEN. talents and that from personal responsibilities. or of them that are Solomon. presence of in the again in direct caution : Be not thou one of them that strike hands. than towards an ordinary private creditor. Long experience and many recent that monied corporations capitalists. the are character. and as none of that interest is directly created towards him. sureties for debts: should he take away thy bed from under thee in a pastoral age what would and say if had he cautions his And ? We to a pastoral people. the peculiar monied corporations their relation to the . that they create any very security we are driven character of they require.

thatin the United Slates 90 out of every 100 every 100. wasted little present time. receive about 35 per cent. 35 out of In the United States the creditors receive. We would. and chiefly in a moral point of view. though it is we reit revert to this forced upon our consideration widow and utter absorbing of millions from the phan. change. men. nor centuries of national prosperity repair. in the crowded factories. request the casuist and the ex- pounders of the doctrines of political economy. private losses. says.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. however. in England. from the estates of insolvents. The answer shall not be given. all Whatever maturity of this subject. at We the all to bestow commercial would ask those hustings. in prostrate for- tunes. unparalleled dishonesty in high which the wealth of commerce cannot re- pay. the splendor and luxury abounding. both as to bearings and moral influences. that by the brought and whatever conclusions we may have or- fortunes of thousands and the unparalled moral delinquency of the most responsible and respect- men. that but gard can be secured is we may have reflection for them. the better feelings of both are not at brought into exercise. ' What has the credit system done for this country?" repeat the same inquiry in 1843. with the almost able of entire subversion of these very institutions themselves. about 8 per cent. so loudly and confidently inquired in 1836. become bankrupts . they .* * Mr. to drawn. on an average. Barnard. in England. in Cungies?. at the subject at all . general bankruptcy and universal embarrassment. and amid its on the ex- at the land-auction. such is the state of the world. but in that wide wreck of moral character. who in the senate. 58 young adventurer. who buy and sell. further thought upon this subject. universal distrust. places of trust.

temptations strong overawe by proscription. and when private citizens shall refuse to aid all party aspirants.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. or have seen too much of reality or question its dangerous ten- dency. and it is tri- felony at law. interests. what they thing it will more is created by the people. no- shall be. and needs only a competent bunal for a decision. lers of We duty of selecting unimpeached moral men 59 as Magistrates and Ru- integrity. The government of this country is not of that self-perpetuating character which frees the people from responsibility and solicitude in tration but . Under the influence of party. see are corrupt enough to sell themselves to the leaders of a party . ever active to perpetuate by opposing and its ordinarily In such a government. are driven to the consideration of this subject. own avowed brance of their private life. and is be feared. that party spirit by and proscription which so often disturbs and endangers the safety of legislation and the due administration of law. then. its operations will be embarrassed. than the administration of party. may we hope to While men demoralizing system done away. form. and not this till then. bribery. and no more beset the sources of govern- ment patronage with petitions for office. this to doubt its to corrupt We by patronage. either for them- selves or others. it to adminis- its is its Chafed ascendency. at the expense and removal of worthy incumbents. the bribes lose the Places of trust and emoluments of which is virtual remem- office are too often stain the hands of executive power and corrupt This men principles and pledges in the aspirants for political preferment. The III. Every indication of general uneasiness at this party is a happy indication of re- purchase and proscription.

THE CHRISTIAN 60 CITIZEN. and by the aid of associates equally unworthy. without sufficient qualifications may not thrust themselves forward. so that men. administration. making capability and honesty the only To essential qualifications for office. demand and secure become the suffrage and support of Christians. to select of unimpeached rulers moral integrity. great effort should break up the government of ascendency of moral principle. effectual remedy is to And of the people. or to government at we all. It is not necessary nor desirable that religious from the responsibilities of retire required to engage in civil life. but in the hands it becomes the duty of all the friends of good order and political morality. to respect and pray for our rulers and raise empowered up good men certainly to all in authority make and becomes our duty . as our law- undermine the mo- and best security of the country. and are confident that an be found no where. rals to trust. that a correct and efficient moral sentiment may be created upon this vital now be. and restore the its to The question. to select and vote It for then such . to soothe asperity. to speak in decided tones of disapprobation. We are required. as Christian citizens. comes the duty of the Christian vate men as magistrates and it be- and ele- effect this. party. that God would administer laws. more vigorous men but they are efforts guard to which already so against the increase of that corruption extensively prevails. While we hope to see from every quarter and from every class of the community such decided dissatisfaction with this corrupting policy of patronage we proscription on party grounds. and thus seated in the most responsible places of givers and magistrates. citizen. fear that there will not be wanting purchasers to pay the price of their profligacy.

but not adopt it? What terests to men who do a patriot and its precious in- who can ? give no ? refer- Nor : or advise. as well for man and every measure he supports has an important bearing on the interests of others as well as on his own. our to- wards them should be a decided demonstration of our adherence man As dence. support no we who as ing this principle of action. and action. and for reasonably implore and expect the divine bene- diction. of as solemn a nature as is can be called to with his vote . perform. that as Christians. nor to religious sects. are aware that. that candidates selected be professed But." says Mr. where candidates conduct for office are selected. shall trust. a man may not every free elector others as himself. " The exercise of the elective franchise. possible not to forfeit Christian character it Can unworthy our are bound to adopt this rule so equally is we impose upon them. low and our determination to correct principles. of for office Christians. men> and we can men only.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. as. we do at liberty to select who have for members of any church com- we say. in the present state of party organ« 6 . we can such for and moral integrity. that it to who can be betray them will guaranty for faithfulness Let to confi- patriotism but love of country? is that be love of country that ence We patriots. and aid in elevating men are not to places of not the requisite qualifications for meet- ing the responsibilities We al- reject- we have no office. Webster. 61 from their intelligence whom safely trust. will by party organizations. " a social duty." we If absent ourselves from those primary assemblies. we demand munion commits be distinctly understood. and every is innocently man trifle a trustee.

as principles. . that under no circumstances at countenance or suffrage be given tute of intellectual to and moral qualifications men desti- sufficient to we commit warrant a faithful discharge of the trust to them. Though Christians. whether Christian citizens are to be governed by the spirit and laws of their religion in the exercise of their civil rights. the victims of party are not at liberty to sacrifice our principles as Christians to continue or countenance and corruption which often invades that political intrigue alike the halls of legislation and the sanctuaries of justice. and that others under the same Christian and moral obligations will not be governed by our example. power of the moral and Christian community to check at once this giant eviL Not by the organization of new parties not by the officious obtrubut as Christian men of all sion of religion in any form It is in the .THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. made dictation. and important principles said to be involved. to decide shall our once. It may be pleaded that there is now a crisis and some important interests involved. But no crisis is so great. we do not cease to be citizens . 62 ization. The and no principles so important. or political profligacy and gen- eral desecration of moral principle. that crisis and those sidering. There will always be a crisis pleaded. questions of difficulty a moment greatly embarrass may be met which will for us. political integrity. the instruments of party unless we are prepared to be We misrule and violence. or submit to the domination of blind and reckless party zeal. are to be sustained or abandoned by the moral and community. The great question religious portions of the is to be settled. But we are never to become. crisis which we are now conwhen virtue and mo- has arrived rality. parties. in any sense.

in we have citizens.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. nor can we in one 63 relation. with a strict regard to the divine precepts. way only that we can be good same time maintain our Christian in this It is and citizens. and way that we are to prepare the common with others of our fellow- It is in this integrity. which. It is this way. Not only so. tian citizen cannot It is away do A Chris- it. and it compromit their moral and religious prin- any temporary or party purposes. and this can be done by refusing to sacrifice or but . throws virtue and the the shield of his last security of his patriotism. it is a part. to say distinctly. that sells himself to party. framed. was it originally we may keep too. to return to us that protection. We cannot doubt that the best men of parties all and power of the moral and reliof the community to redeem them trium- desire to see these principles revived and sustained we believe that gious portions many in cases it adjust the balance of office in ciples to it is may be power controlling. at the government. which other and fatal influences may plant in the vitals of our social system. to study and secure the advancement of the public safety and morality. and happily in the selection of men for every party. that we can . and meeting our political obligations. the is in Their influence should always be salutary. their duty also for the sake of their example. by exercising our civil rights. either forfeit or And resign the rights and responsibilities of the other. secure those ends for which to designed. and an important part of our religion. that they will not be overruled in the dis- The man posal of their votes by the decisions of party. that out the seeds of corruption and the elements of discord. upon the foregoing principles alone. of the state. phantly.

not to purify our halls of legislation." combine their influence.* * The following patriotic and Christian sentiments. well consent to go into stations be done. and we that. in the church died. and for their maintenance of constitutional law and moral rectitude. which robbery to fulfil. will be to unite all other for public that a sectarian things. It is not meant influence should be brought to bear on our elections. it for resisting these by redeemed interests was wrong to make and which it is At the same time others are rebuked approaches. we should remember that while are also citizens of the commonwealth discharging our duties to the state. in The certain to acquire a poli- denominations against . which in past ages brought on the which the Already union of church and fatal was corrupted and state political parties state. we der unto Caesar the things that be Caesar's.. of the New-York Observer. Few a government like ours. are more to be dreaded. and if pious would deny themselves. THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and unto the things that are God's. in all this. and with a single eye to his glory men. all their details demand are are to ren- God Civil and political action in the conservative influence of a divine Christianity. from if . men and bring forward as candidates of piety and talent. In the face of Christians. A. and seek to bind them respective their to pledges. approach whole denominations of nominal Christians with virtual bribes. whose name is enough to commend his opinions to every one. yet to preserve them total destruction by mingling with them the conservative influ* * " Let the pious then ence which genuine piety would produce. and of influence and usefulness. much might qualified for public stations. 64 guard against those baleful influences. " If Christians would exercise their right of suffrage conscientiously. bound by the principles of our We religion. in the fear of God. are from the aged and distinguished correspondent A." * * " consequence of any one denomination attempting tical influence. stations.

who would honestly aim at the good of the commonwealth." * * "In a government such as ours. that we meet every where. § 65 THE INFLUENCE OF RELIGIOUS PRINCIPLES AND II. OF ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATIONS IN FORMING THE CHARACTER OF While CIVIL INSTITUTIONS. Dangers thicken around our once happy coun- "While every thing is proceeding prosperously. or the consequences will be fatal. the civil government greatly affects religion. witnessed events which the founders of our political institutions never apprehended." It would be wisdom in them to cast their vote in favor of a candidate whose politics differed from their own in regard to the expedience of particular laws and measures.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and to evils which threaten to mar ward or destroy our peace. appearances in our political horizon. try. and shap- religion does much government. It is from this same reciprocal action of state polity and religion. them. as well as original structure. influence to preserve our free institutions. Christians may be indulged in their love of retirement and peace but when the republic is in jeopardy." * * " Let Christians of every denomination unite to elect good men. with the darkness and cruelty of the Romish communion. ofT those and liberty. . arm of Pagan and Mahomedan despotism the almost equal tyranny of Spain and the Italian states. provided he was a truly There * * " is no need for good man." 6* . it behooves them to come out and exert their . We have. order. good men must come forward and claim and exercise their There are already ominous rights. them to embark zealously in party politics. within a few years. the Hence the iron . men of wisdom and integrity. and in mitiga- ting or enhancing the severity of contributing to : its its features. in aiding or checking the diffusion of ing its ecclesiastical organizations towards imparting vitality to character of the its spirit.

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.* Every sing with other forms of civil government. that Mr. Jefferson was indebted for some of the finest republican features of his Declaration of American Indepen- dence to the elaborate constitution of a certain Independent Congregational Church. and monarchy. are of our free institutions with the Scotch presbytery shorn of its and unscriptural assumptions. Holland and Switzerland. From we hope these considerations we shall speak freely. as crowding dissenters and a teeming demanding the fullest liberty of the And hence it is. with its unstable church. pretensions to a heavenly origin. and whatever work its ecclesiastical polity. harmoni- its sympathy from our upon our civil polity free insti- becomes a question of interest to every citizen. and kindly. indications of truths and commanding principles. of ecclesiastical institutions as at pres- ent existing among us. . and still more clearly to be met in the Gospel. and as these shall be found to favor the stability of our government and the growth of a spiritual religion. gleaming from the lift- ed folds of the ancient economy. with the equally anomalous character of the churches of the Heidelberg and Helvetic faith : the Britain with kingdom of Great republican and aristocratical Parliament. we have the solitary spectacle population gospel. they claim our confidence If we mistake not. itself its inherent rights. in receives but it tutions. and Inde- original pendency in its various reserving to forms. there is often and support. We find the mixed and anomalous confederacies of Germany. clinging own to its its its nominal fading shadow. and acknowledging no superior but Divine Master. and its little influence obviously is may be its outward frame- not indigenous to this soil. 66 most restricted rights of citizenship among the people. which go far to settle the nature of that * It has been said.

deliberately writes. the cordial adop- tion of those sentiments in religion. and searching the latent causes of its civil immunities. its its infancy claims. that the observing and sagacious foreigner." its religion is this ecclesiastical polity its which the companion of liberty in all and the divine source of and religion that all citizens are equal in the eye of And with the law. scriptural views.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. we and shall find a given set of religious opinions in most powerful action. while looking over this more country." battles. If we revert to the days of the Stuarts of England. to which we have before alluded. The are equal in the sight of God. the conflicts of those sanguinary times. that. which is best fitted to the enlightened and And with Christian state of the world. " declares to all acknowledge " This same religion and in all its is And what equal justice and beauty added. circles of religious culture. And it was thence he traced the legitimate action of Christian sentiment and order on the civil institutions and political movements of the country. yea. will not refuse What 1 are its sentiments This man had gone 1 into to its firesides. are driven to the consideration. have ever proved themselves friendly religious liberties of mankind. and which found their end only in the security of personal and equal rights. we 67 this conviction. ments of its the cradle of . and those principles which most harmonise with these There are religious sentiments and of ecclesiastical polity. government. It was to the civil in and view of these sentiments. as well as in the order of the . conflicts the heart of New England. in the polity of the church. ecclesiastical organizations which. and all tending to the revulsion of long established orders of priestly and church oppression. in their legitimate action. to its social and to the republican arrange- primitive churches.

its members. THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. has bitter declared that England owes she its to the Puritans all the liberty The commonwealth. that a simple. scriptural faith was it the spirit of the Gospel a church of equal orders in . and the indomita- more than we can ever pay. no friend to the one and a now enjoys. who acknowledge the debt. We owe as well as of and we. ble spirits of Switzerland. which in faithfulness to them and the world. and the kindred equal rights the religious prin- political principles of among mankind. under Cromwell. England. tiers of prelates. and the cour- tical institutes. to the Monk to the Puritan of of Germany. an increase of civil liberty. not in insolvency. that the ecclesiastical freedom. And we may germ of political. and review the scenes enacted on the continent of Europe.* And that historian who was enemy of the other. which They were cannot be misunderstood. 68 If state. together with the presbytery. and. and of equality of rights in of their faith and their aims. working manfully. we travel farther into the past. we shall there find this same peculiar class of religious opinions. when al- most universal darkness and oppression reigned. We have history as the memorial and preserver ministry. We we must need not say. and girded them for such achievements. but in the richness of the treasure. Here was a warring of principles. now live in all the benefits of both. ciples of Geneva. was the same. and ultimately rising in the majesty and power of the Reformation. Their end. brings double weight to this high testimony. the security of equal rights in the church. say. both political and religious. . clamorous * Hume. that governed these men. as far as the age allowed. in both civil and ecclesiasAnd the courtiers of kings.. then sprung forth. at that time. defend and transmit unimpaired.

Here of the Prelacy. was during the commonwealth. and the same has steadily been pursued by the advocates for popular rights every where. the religion that declares all in the sight of is it not so of Rome. The papacy law God. of English laid. hand passibus all cequis. that " the religion that be it declares in the sight of God. against them.? the prelacy and let history in and equally the And which warred deepest in blood.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. If are equal acknowledge the eye of the equal in are citizens all all ? fast friends the papacy go the best. both political and religious. will demand a distinction in the eye And of the law. 69 combined. its found. when The most was and many other of her most valuable institutions were projected. that these sentiments and orders of church have ever sympathised with governments wholly foreign war with our own. hand . institutions free but opposed the rise of Germany? and France. or the to enlightened period the foundation of the Royal Society fast advance the cause But when did the friends of high church principles. And history has decided as clearly. was an object uniformly sought by the friends of the Reformation. ever unit© of popular education] . must be working against the equalising influence of free institutions. * .* At this time must be acknowledged there were other it and other principles of ecclesiastical which were. true." Who ? free institutions in Switzerland. in vigorous action against the sentiments and principles. will not refuse to men surely. and ever have been. religious sentiments polity. And opposed the action of Rome alone ? No in hand. under Cromwell. of the Reformers and the Puritans. The that then are not equal it does so all to this hour. Romanists. and decide. and which are at to genius and its These. history. both of the church and the state. wherever aims. were of divine right. Who England To whom waded did the general diffusion of knowledge as well as an increase of civil liberty.

though shorn of much of its power to act. tions they here find. and not We are all acquainted with the action of these princi- ples in the time of our revolution. will be necessary for us to speak Rome cy of more often of the papa- and of the prelacy of England. within nine months. and with all the noble exceptions that these times record. that as he passed the Tweed. has always been and it was never more so than now. no king /" And it is seriously doubted whether the English throne could stand and her costly aristocracy live. national not for The sympathy between the monarchical aristocracy and the ecclesiastical orders before us. it clear and strong. but because other parties. While we wish as far as possible to avoid the appearance of partizan zeal and all invidious comparisons. advocates of the divine right of kings and of passive obe- dience look. their most genial and favorable associations — so much so. that the responsibility of their origin and maintenance lies almost exclusively with them. but to the the Prelacy and its nities of the gospel. were it her bench of bishops and her exclusive church. become so charmed and intoxicated with this harmony.THE CHRISTIAN 70 CITIZEN. than of any Not because these are the only denominawhere these principles have appeared. which we are reviewing and from which we are compelled to dissent. defenders of the divine right of apostolical claims to all the immu- and the passive submission of men Did not the apostate hands swore to maintain the to their exclusive ministrations ? James I. who. with lifted " solemn league and covenant" of the Kirk of Scotland. avowed it as his daily motto. from the politico-ecclesiastical structure of these two communions. " No bishop. there were few to be found who adopted the doctrines of divine right in the . let it be distinctly understood that it is principles. Yet.. men or sects.

. a Catholic. The decided victory achieved in England at the downfall of the Stuarts.* The ascendency of the evangelical sentiments of the Reformers and the Puritans has been so general and the minds people of the so engrossed in cares inci- dent to a young and growing country. shall hear again. but the divine right of kings also. the struggles of that day. not only the divine right of church prerogatives. contributed to quiet our fears as to the return of the evils of their disastrous reigns. land. There cal opinions and is obviously a reunion of ecclesiasti- efforts to sustain. or to the growth of other ecclesiastical claims." in the " divine right ties to the of priests" and churches. and the shaken dyEurope are looking around for the old securi- nasties of " divine right of kings. And if we mistake not. efforts Nor can we misun- derstand that remarkable retrogression in England. no king" We we cannot misunderstand the action of Catholic go- vernments on the continent of Europe. that tion has been given to the secret workings little atten- of opposing sentiments. " no bishop. but neither were high-church- or exclusive religionists. and their to establish their faith every where. of bishops and churches toward the sentiments and usages of Popery. and Caroll o Carolton. clergy or of exclusive power in 71 any church. and faith Men that favored who joined the liberal sentiments of the revolution and of Puritan in principles were the advocates and the founders of our free Others were sheltered from the storm or retired to the protection of " legitimacy" in their native institutions.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. men free institutions f True they were. And who are sympathising in these Are they the friends of * It may 1 movements 1 Are they the be said Washington was an Episcopalian. But times have somewhat changed.

that or not of Christ. a tendency in the times to laxness in religious sentiments. uni- formly resort. to the rejection of a spiritual religion. drapery. as of old. and in whatever com* munion. There all is shall be under one symbol also a feeble return to " habits" and " rags" of the sixteenth century. 72 friends of freedom any where guise the fact that. but sometimes. but is diffusing say. Rather. while prelates are ordering the arrangements of church furniture. is not confined exclusively to any one communion. working itself out of of the Christian family." at his inGrave ecclesiastical bodies are to their clergy mere articles of dress. are hostile are to be There is the state.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and urging original source. to mere forms and This ceremonies. that these high church principles any where. for refusing the " frock stallment as a bishop. and a natural demand." not alone from the papacy and the prelacy. to free institutions in met and opposed to liberty bordering on licentiousness. and where Christianity is not wholly discarded. all the interest that essential verities demand. which has cheered millions for centuries with its pure translation of the original Scriptures. It is ? men to sustain And we not for us to dis- every where who sym- and advance these are free to say. if not an unholy. bosom of we should every spiritual association that its way back to its communion whence it hear the lofty tone of " divine right. with Just as if. There is also an unmanly. from the aspiring presbyter. commending and the surplice. there are pathise in the all movements arrogant principles. these. had anything to do with . and alike every where. it is its leaven in every direction. pious and learned when the the Hooper was persecuted and imprison- ed. with boastful confidence. silk and lawn. effort to reflect upon that Bible. the We sprung. and even the descend- ant of the Pilgrims will talk of his scriptural system.

and strengthening the arm of the Man of As Christians. When the church visible went to Rome. and exchanged the spiritual favor of God for the protection of Caesar. the genius of anarchy in the state. Aaronical or pagan exter- either when we remember their popish ten- how they were once advocated and the prelacy. in which the com- table shall stand. importance. for con- science sake. with profound humility and regret that we are obliged in grave discussion to allude to such insignificant puerilities as clerical dress. as the symbols and the sanction of a corrupt. the vest and the fringes of the priestly garments —yea. we were under If tutes of rites the Jewish economy. Its past history demands a notice of its origin. tending to- is wards Rome. refuse them whole. we should defend and hallow the mitre. as in church enactments. enforced by what wars they have occasioned. altar. the incense would. and as Christian citizens. with the insti- and typical service. begetting intolerance in political action. all snuffers. with the throne she inherited heathenism. but now. the and the ashes of the tend for . wherever found. and com- heathen Rome. we unsymbolising gospel : and above dencies. the candlestick. con- dismiss the whole and believe both foolish and wicked nals we to carry over to a it simple. we must Sin. the 7 Roman toga became the . or the munion its 73 CITIZEN.THE CHRISTIAN manner Christ or his ministry. we should more than reject the Yes. mend it to To adorn and dignify religion. if necessary. elements. with our Puritan ancestors. against protest It is it. and what blood has been shed in their defense and enforcement upon others. with the faith that partakes of All of this. no one could dream of its and but for records of truth. false It is and bloody system.

179„ . visible is devout only and can worship best amid gothic towers and cathedral chants. either in Scripture or in the history of primitive times for their support. after times) to the the Romanism and the prelacy. " even to a proverb. The Roman. considering the tendencies of and * that necessity The more which most men human feel for nature. and that more arrogant assumption of titles and rights." : Hence the heathen derided a toga ad pallium . repeat that the exclusive spirit that would excom- municate other churches on the ground of a single all form. and on the Church of We is holiest of stair-case veritable of all Pontius when kneeling Pilate the in Peter. apostolical succession. vestment of her clergy . from by exclusive divine commis- moment and we declare of the whole. And they have been to many a conscientious worshipper costly garments costly of through ages of exclusion and suffering. faint resemblance (a thought of Hence sprung robe of Aaron. Ch. and are still no doubt pampering to the pride of the youthful aspirant. or sion." Christian. the which led Ter- tullian to write in defense of the cloak." Clerical Dreas. ultimately robed the Christian through centuries of darkness. some kind conscientious Christian converts rejected the toga or common cloak " a plain 'garment robe.* St. however. We confess that we have never been free from appre- hensions.— 74 TrfE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. or that pretended respect for order that breaks up communions. there shadow of foundation. See Lord King on the Heathen Origin of andTertullian " De Pallio. who carrying his credentials and human.. and used the pallium or commonly worn by Christians. and reject our long venerated Bible for the translation of a word . p. temporal and spiritual. Prim. are not to be overlooked or admitted for a in this age of light not a is .

" corrupt and waste the pure doctrines of the gospel. prepared for this religious if mind was not the public advancement. may it yet be found best. and the recommending of garments to the clergy of air of prelatical authority Jesus Christ. . have long watched the natural of the prelacy and the papacy. of religion. with the Catholic and spirit by elastic energies of an But our hopes have been met approaching millennium. and hoped that the corruptions of the affinities we had sometimes Romish Church would. " persecuted about clothes. and war against the principles of the Refor- We mation. better suited to please Parisian mere children. we cannot but revert again to the excellent Hooper. be laid aside. of fatigued into preferment. advancing intelligently to the safer discipline of a under the auspices of a modified spiritual Episcopacy. and compelled against his will to be made an Episcopal bishop in the "habits" of .THE CHRISTIAN 75 CITIZEN. this return to undervaluing of the gospel and with this see that assu- and the courting of the papacy. that the reversion towards popery was thus early." actually imprisoned. this strange retrogression of the prelacy to the cold And embrace of the papacy. and in connexion with high church pretensions to " divine rights. When we intelligent look at these melancholy recedings from piety and scriptural theology forms and ceremonies to the in its simple ordinances ming . and that her members. would return to the faith and worship of the primitive believers. that high church Arminianism would yet advance. that we might be more sensible of our danger and the worth of those principles of ment for which the reformers contended civil common govern- argument and in our fathers in arms. and Christianity. than to the women and simple and spiritual worship God.

to we have civil interests which are not only favorable The 1. and itself. 76 We popery. the symbols and exe- of state. in our this. but do. to difficulty we have something more very adverse influences. for that article. Vol. We cutioners of saintly power. article which was inserted Being responsible in is ordained on High Church and the Christian Spectator. . warned of these the saints. the sword spirit. and armies of thousands. While we of our father's faith forcibly before us. the pen- ance of the yet with robes of office. carried naturally to the times of bare- are headed bishops and barefooted friars. II. and are ness.* There may be nothing dangerous to a republican gov- ernment. in the mere fact that a clergyman * la 1830 the author prepared an Arminian principles. of our country. rest are required to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered tect. with bread and water. As cannot but remember the in common tendencies of hostile to to to pro- our social happi- Christianity. Parker and Laud wading and sufferings come fresh and Christians simply. he has transferred to the following pages whatever was suited to his present purpose. we that under God. coming forth as the ghostly attendants of the dying and the imperious rulers of the living . in view of leave religion to take care of as blood of evangelical The thousand memorials Christians. view. 120. but friendly to our § . p. might. would survive every it Christian citizens. High Church the peculiar principles institutions are. though anonymous when published. without any further notice of its previous publication. all assured. — many to a Ximenes with and un- hair-shirt der-garments of canvass.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

set apart for religious purposes . quences of yielding to such a claim.THE CHRISTIAN 77 CITIZEN. as the delegated agent of God. as authorised to engage in the ministry of reconciliation. the known. or unhe has gone to subscribed the articles of his faith and taken from his hands. But on high Church are they may 1 principles. or can be acknowledged. the * pp. in der any ecclesiastical regulations. directly from only power which is God himself. will exert on the public mind and morals a prodigious influence. rather than by " the laying on of the hands of the presbytery. from what kind of men ber of prelates The us. power thus delegated If the and acknowledged community who may think power is claimed by a this few individuals. and is liable But when it. Religious institutions and ordinances are indispensable our social. for the Altar. fourth edition.. their talents and character. See Bishop Hobart's Companion 156—159. . this " one man" until any way. by a bishop." expediency. men. what must be the conse. of commissioning the ministers of Christ for millions of No one can be recognised in this immense multisouls. on these principles. claims to hold. in any best to adopt is felt be exercised as a matter of mere to we can evil purposes. for example. tude of rational and immortal beings. numamong Just such as a small please to commission and send prelate of an entire state. to civil must have men Hence we and national existence. when abused be recalled to to see no serious objection to such a constitution of things. and when obedience to this power is de- manded under sure. and these their station and employment.* ic is the most awful penalties of God's displea- a serious question. as concentrating in their persons by a divine right.

and none . man on these principles. on whose head the hands of an Episcopal bishop have not been once leave his people. preach the Gospel of Christ." exposure io the " awful displeasure of Jehovah at least. are country. carried out into full operation as they unquestionably ought to be. or What a scene would be opened in this country by high church principles. unless their consciences made ? and their office faith could be quadrate with the standard set up by the smallest to body of men among Upon us.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. what this continent would possess any thing like the power of an American prelate 1 And what power is so controlling as religious supremacy what grasp so unyielding as that of indivi- — dual authority. to the preach the love of God." believe so. rendered fearless by popular submission. concentration of power! tory as large as all New Every minister within a terriEngland. must at altar of prescription. of commission- ing the ministers of religion for sixteen millions of people — of saying who shall. and awful as death by the presumed appointment of God? Such must inevitably be the only authority known power of those who hold the or believed to exist. there is the utmost reason to . and who shall not. if The whole body of on the authority of God resting the ten thousand clergy of this tion of a few hundred. with the excep- thrown out of the sacred forever. to laid. And how power to the shall the people resist the worst of purposes from the Church like our Puritan fathers. repair or never again presume break the bread of life. gious liberty under free institutions ed to Judge abuse of this Shall they withdraw ? ! But and seek reli- this is declar- be " rebellion against the Almighty Lawgiver and . 78 power to Unparalleled preach the gospel of his Son.

arrange this." It is madness moment. of the individuals the diocesan shall designate for the care The power of the men. rest- like the English Church. and the fearful consequences. for a who have the awful prerogative of granting or withholding a " covenant title" to eternal life. And if he attempts to do so. Let high church principles be universally embraced in (as they ought to be if they are correct). founded as an establishment by Henry VIII. from nal to declared to cut off the soul. he must encounter resistance of subordinate clergy. covenanted all And life. " Let him that cate with him that God of church we are bound to is provide a all himself! conscience and honorable full taught in the teacheth in in Word communi- good things. or 10 array to those . too. mendous. "are necessary to salvation. is known. not at once an Established Hierarchy.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. this country. for the poor recompense of maintaining the rights of a freeman. thus commissioned. in the words of the high church historian. is tre- administer or withhold those sacraments. upon all these rebuke of his diocesan. which. on the weak basis of human enactments. command but on the immutable For the clergy of this and by divine injunction. in the most satisfactory manner. The support must all people have no option in the case but perhaps. It lies with them to whom of their souls." This go only to such religious teachers. at once. as a few prelates think proper to appoint and ordain. in yielding implicit obedience to hesitate. no one can be weak enough to sacrifice the salvation of his soul. and we have ing. This to believe otherwise. the who are ever dependent his smiles. we as 79 title are supposing the or hope of eter- whole community be fully enlightened on this subject. support. dispose. among themselves how to they may. .

" by refusing may clergy" which his " regularly ordained think proper to prescribe. and sup- pose that God has conferred an absolute infallibility on the priesthood which he has placed over us. " Calvin was unin hand in England. " on the other men^ the world knows. that this authority will be abused.SU THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. mies of our own more John Rice. the consequence of such we receive the rites of his reli- to gion. with such awful sanctions to enforce our obedience. on those conditions. where they have acted without straint ? What principles created and Court of High Commission and the Star Chamber re- the sustained Who ? advocated the arbitrary measures of the House of Stuart? " Who opposed the glorious revolution of J 688 And." and — adds. we declare. " who were the ene- glorious revolution ? High church- In the language of this." says Dr." faithful records of history afford. a series of most instructive facts. V in the language of Dr. and warrant the strongest conclusions as to the tendency of high church principles. And who is ignorant of the practical operation of high church principles." gone hand questionably a Republican. ourselves in " rebellion against (our) Almighty Lawgiver and Judge." . united heartily and co-operated vigorously. in a ner totally inconsistent with our rights and privileges as freemen. low churchmen and dissen- ters. "that he endeavored to fa- shion the government of all the Protestant churches on republican principles. on *• The this subject. we know and man- are certain. shut our eyes to all power But what in the clergy will be Unless ? past history of our race." the ablest hand. one of of our age. in all men these instances."* * " High Churohism and Toryism. " have ever Horsely says. Bethune.

" T his gentleman presents us with the following extract fr^m a letter written by a tory of the Revolution. whatever they such and only such. two years " You will friend to Presbyterians. established by the means be" In the time was of our Revolution. in than to de- difficult And we ask. " The debt of gratitude which independent America owes to the . says. a Presbyterian loyalist a ihing unheard of. they with the associated him who has thus created them. never can be paid. their doctrines Indeed. to secure the prevalence and succession of may his own for he appoints the clergy of his diocese." . which has always they had or by any sume power. dissenting clergy and laity. and that I fix ordinary American proceedings The the chief and principal instruments in all I De= am no the blame of these extra- all upon them." — " No for the bishop — No . and and religious of error man by popular is elect a successor vestries. residing claration of Independence. . as he And commission. and they are sentiments and practices. ground of KING. before the have discovered that Very few Church of Presbyterians have been these flaming measures. and ever will act against government. are to certain this succession influence .THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. " distin- means could as- in answer to Show me any precedent. and they always do. wherever presbyterial government and regal was together without perpetual rebellions. has not power and influence. stroy It is may is how intolerance power invested recall the consent.. from that restless and turbulent anti-monarchical guished them every where. Reed." says William B. own of their how long the may one To be perpetuated." James I. in his it a to great extent. see be more the hereditary despotism of ages. writing to Lords Jermyn and Culpepper. England people were among them. pleased to members to in sentiment and character. A prelate in country has this 81 power. anti-monarchical. Esq. the request to abolish Episcopacy. however illegally. of Philadelphia and he adds. in New-York. is it cannot be otherwise. . when spirit. not difficult to be made.

82 fare us. life. or of the heathen world. We undertake not to call in question no man's motives. but must feel them. the exalted enterprise of giving the Bible to every family in our land . by and the faith of the ry where.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. great and unsparing effort. we do ask. no department of They belong to the mind itself. tem should ever become predominant The if such a sys- in this history of the world gives but one answer. been already exerted even in this country with. blest characteristic of the present age." W hat then must be the effect on freedom of mind among us on the exercise of private judgment. " ? he thinks it The im- our aid for such objects" ! hundred churches are instantly closed. r . and ten thou- sand hearts are steeled against those men. and above all on the rights of conscience. the most generous efforts for the instruction of oppressed Christian nations. and piety of the evangelical of the English We forbear to allude to other instances of pre- We latical authority. which originated in the zeal Church. who are pleading perhaps for those very charities. which thus tends to place the consciences of a whole diocese under the control of a single man. hostile to our liberal institutions and pernicious to the intarests of true religion. dependent on his will. must not that system be wrong. country ? . No whole community to be governed " Religious principles will be felt eve- his dictation ? circle of private government. and to make our the no- religious charities. lying in wickedness been repeatedly shut out from nearly the whole of an extended diocese by a single word bishop does not approve of these proper for any one A to solicit efforts. in the exercise of the power thus But assumed. decide whether any individual has acted right or wrong. and with pernicious effect Have ? not the noblest designs of Christian charity.

THE CHRISTIAN While therefore we 83 ClTlZEff. see nothing hostile to our free in- who acknow- Catholic spirit of those. ple see to it church in the state. cho- principles. the only say. The way is vigi- Let the peo- office open and easy. without which it maintained. giving as they do to a the only life. these principles must gener- if we can to the greater. the We must look light of past times must at the natural sympathies and strong affinities of these principles. or promise of eternal is If this life. and clothing that clergy with the awful prerogatives of granting or withholding these sacred ordinances. we be- lieve that nothing but a standing miracle could save us from the consequences of a general prevalence of High Church sen for few men. We must then look sults of these things. ally prevail must yield be truth. with that more arrogant and superstitious communion which has ever freedom of opinions in religion and of freedom in the walks of civil life. the steps are natural and rapid from the corrupted spirit of religion to veneration for its empty externals and fiery . and the supercilious air of the prelacy awaken our gilance to guard our rights and principles. there is no known covenant of mercy. guide us. known power on earth of commis- sioning ten thousand clergy. stitutions in the ledge every other evangelical communion to be equally with themselves. that the les3 freedom of our country to the salvation of our souls. and her and the rebel We fires for the heretic in the say then let the baleful advances of popery. a part of the Church of Christ. and let the ministry be careful to hand down unimpaired and unsullied both the symbols of their and the spirit of its devotion. Which has alike warred against all and ultimate re- at the legitimate and the all her inquisition. among and us.

! ever admonish us of what human nature can be and what human power can perpetrate in the name of religion. pecuniary damages sustained by the Puritans. % Not less than eight prison and at the slain in Scotland thousand persons are said to have died in stake in England alone. for The names without including those having refused to submit to of sixty thousand sufferers. lest we yet be required to give the same clesiastical reasons for their rejection. that shall demand the re-enactment of scenes of terror still fresh and vivid before us. that our fathers gave * Not less than from fifty to a when dis- hundred thousand Jews were supposed to have died from persecution. on account of religion. between Charles The II. and William. while hundreds of thousands were expelled from her dominions. Protestant Christians were slain in memorable anniversary and within the space of thirty days following. till you reach the mandate for entire confoimity or the lighted fagot that shall frighten heretic and consume the to face in water. are recorded. the face answereth thing and there Standing where thing under the sun. . thousand thirty many of whom had been decoyed to Paris. the Acts of Conformity. for the purpose of destruction. during the reign of the amiable Isabella. Bartholemew's sands of papal Rome day in Francef . the and the butchered thou- millions of confiscated estates and of the English hierarchy. new is it that which to man to that intellectual The man. on this religion. THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. let debasement and moral corruption. and other places. we is no do do. us never contribute As dissenter. Let the wars of Grenada and the slaughtered jews of Spain* the carnage of St. have been esti- mated between fourteen and fifteen millions sterling. for the Roman honor and purity of the t More than France. We would be watchful and jealous of the symptoms of ecusurpation and refuse the badges of every exclusive order. so the heart of that hath been. shall be.. 84 zeal for its symbols.

whatever may be the bearing of ecclesiastical organizations But it tained. and secured to such as they shall appoint by their spiritual heads.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.* country or burnt may be said. them more it we shall be excused distinct. an exclusive privilege and power claimed by some single and separate denominations. they would designate them. is meant." as here used. the " divine right" must be mainand the " apostolical succession" preserved. assigned to this it transcends the limits review. This has been reserved for the Romanists and the high church riiiht sion of * We hope to be freed from the charge of invidious comparisons by so closely associating the papacy and the prelacy in this discussion we have found finities are now so but it impossible to avoid . as the only true church. to the exclu- and this succession are sion of While some of other sects occasionally advanced their claim to the same other churches. This right claimed by the Romanists and by one section of the Episcopal denomination. to illustrate and administer the For ordinances of the Gospel. and as their natural . of either party denied. 85 senting from their Church and driven in exile from their at the stake. By the "divine right" and "apostolical succession. af- extensively claimed and by comparatively so few. they claim the all ministers con- nected with them. 8 for not being able to keep . and without sanction from the Gospel. ecclesiastical forms sanction of the Scriptures. they declare without authority from Christ. All other professed churches. all may have and succession. and as their peculiar and arrangements. upon Although civil institutions. it has not been to the utter excluall other branches of the Christian family. this requires a brief considera- tion.

" — ler. the Episcopal Church expressly declares. for the Altar and " Letters to Mil- Episcopal ordination." who have No to ad- received a commission one supposes that Dr. act of a faithless Did this and profane sovereign unite the discor- dant and corrupted elements of the English communion to Jesus Christ as his church. the English church became established in its present Episcopal character. Howe. once whose writings are still of high authority. " In her standards. whence did Henry VIII. 86 party of the Episcopal denomination. Forever after. and says. the pride of his party. rather than in his holiness on the Tiber. and breathe into the dry * Bishop Hobart says. led this haughty own wife.* If the prelacy of the Episcopal church is of divine right or of exclusive scriptural authority." " Aliens from the church have no covenanted title. and the whole Episcopal denomination. with but few exceptions. practically exclude all other churches Gospel. ecclesiastical it was ordained by his Parliament. from the fellowship of the . Its head was found at Westminster. with his revengeful and adulterous designs. Mr." The late Bishop Ravenscrofl and others are equally exclusive.. " That none can possess authority minister the sacraments but those from the bishops of the church. that there have been three times — and that no man orders of ministers from the Apostle's shall be accounted a lawful minister without " The only appointed road to heaven is through the visible church on earth. and his revenge- pontiff. Ho- bart would allow any to bebishops." Thus severed from Roman supremacy. " that the king is the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England. secure j His unfaithfulness it ? ful spirit towards the to his Roman vorce." Comp. To these our at- tention is of course at this time restricted.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. but Episcopal. in Henry VIII. for refusing monarch of England him di- to interdict all commercial intercourse with Rome. and to annex the supremacy to his own crown.

be said. that Elizabeth consolidated the English Establishment in Did Christ ever its princes. exclusive charac- honors in Tracing common powers become invested with an exclusive " divine right.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. This very claim destroys so. and every clerical and ecclesiastical power was revoked. many of whose clergy were acknowledged to be regularly constituted ministers. and in virtue of this succession. . It their claims to this succes- their own principles. Was ? and did by the same it it ? secure right." bearing away from that establishment all its boasted prerogatives ? Does the apostolWhere does the Romish ical succession rest here 1 church find this succession. with their regal present form power and the sword. while the establishment of the Presbytery at the north re- mained unassailed. and the divine right on which it repudiates. having received Episcopal ordination. leave former were wholly it excommu- nicated by the Pope. does relies it * We ? Amid it the darkness. with the northern presbyter and. it may is at hand. as coming Romish communion. confusion and blood of have never yet been able to discover the validity of these claims to " the succession. that this Establishment or the Epis- copal Church are of divine right.* and immunities there." as borrowed from the would seem that the prelacy destroyed sion. bones of Was sepulchre the vitality of spiritual being this this all 87 done by a divine apostolical succession right. at best. its by tracing it to Rome. upon for the Roman See. the it and ter. . and the answer It 1 revengeful and lascivious constitute its its Man of Sin. it can. transmitted from the polluted hands of the Be high pre- its with the simplicity and spirituality of the gospel. the conspiritual flock ? Take the and head of his servatives history of this Establishment in the line of compare tentions. but share with the very church down from part and parcel of the papacy.

88 In the East or in the those troubled ages. then. " Extreme obscurity overhangs the history of the middle ages. receive her divine right ply. and in the ^'Mother of Harlots. and the facts which are discernible through that obscurity prove that the church was exceedingly ill-regulated. without a perpetual miracle. We read of bishops of ten years . admitted to holy orders. succession) was ever introduced. p. T. where was the divine right and the suc? The Romish church. where this has never settled the ques- its origin. We read that sees of the highest dignity were openly sold. on his kinsman. whence nothing ever We flows to cleanse or refresh.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.. does the prelacy of England. taint (a Irregularities could not have wholly excluded. that during that long period.* * On the principles of the possibility of tracing an says. they ever reAs soon would we search for the pure springs of Jordan in the dark and tideless waters of the Dead Sea. a mere stripling. Babbington Macauley says." Some subjects are most ably de- fended amid confusion and night. III." Am. . " Who High Church there appears unbroken succession. "right" lay. of violence . and habitual drunkards. Vol. transferred backwards and forwards by popular tumult bestowed sometimes by sometimes by a warlike baron a profligate woman on her paramour . no such consecrated ivhen mere children. whence the Episcopal cession professedly borrows tion. where? At Rome test or at Avignon And when ? West ? the threefold con- was waged. their letters to be Archbishop Whately Ed. and through which dark Whence channel the " succession" flows." amid the conflicts of rival darkness and abominations of the popes. no can undertake to pronounce. and prided succession ? From Rome. are not astonished at this searching for " a divine right and apostolical succession. we may well ask. (Essay 299. usually designated as the dark ages. broken men We officiating been read of bishops who barely knew of prelates expelled and others put in their places by of illiterate and profligate laymen. .

Bishop Butler and Arch- bishop Tillotson. many popes who were of and that the But where Christ. all Baronius. There remains fifteen or sixteen hundred years. the media descendendi. learned must have the least assurance. Church of England can to bishop even so far "that no clergyman of the trace up his spiritual genealogy from bishop back as the time of the Reformation. it is not at all destructive the divine right transmitted from Christ succession may proof that it committed to possibility of old . office years old Ireland was .THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. the this. and universally spread over the land. as the much to destroy all nothing is due respect demand of more than can be due to to the them and nothing has so effectually thrown contempt upon a regular succession of the ministry." The state oi worse. and never clearly "What then. but through ignorance and credulity. on Episcopal principles. and yet correspondent of the London (Episcopal) Record informs us. was transmitted from still of . during which the transmission of his orders is buried in utter darkness. that it is well known that the baptism by Episcopal hands of Archbishop Seeker. as the calling of no succession regular but what was uninterrupted and the making of the eternal salvation of Christians to depend upon that uninterrupted succession." But may be it through which said." "It is probable. and after mentioning the manner in which ordinances were administered. legitimately lie here. 1 8* . or such hands ? We will soon any such conclusion. he adds." he adds. of which the most . there that tends so clergy. acknowledges A boasts of apostolical succession. " till a consummate I am 89 fully satisfied that stupidity can be happily established. has been called cession in question. or the hands comes down. Bishop Hoadley well says." strenuous defender of his church. "we are at a loss to conceive how any clergyman can feel confident that his orders have come down correctly. is the by him ever state the im- boys. and the unlearned can have no notion. becomes of the suc- proved.

the . dissenter. with ceived into favor. 90 And we would here ask. under the sanction ol her majesty the head of the Church Establishment and of the bench of sworn defenders of an exclusive succession. not for their question of some interest how men who virtue are so tenacious "divine right. where th» and the Scotch presbytery.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. asking and enforcing no we receive rites but the sim- ple ordinances significant of the Spirit and of the Cross and even these * It is a of this we own require. lish . its doctrines and s° ? prefer to leave both Rome and Canterbury. it is schismatical. so that not even the grace of God can extend " covenant mercies" to its own subjects dream of such But ? living for trifling us in the gospel. what consistency with her iron-handed and covenant. so pure in left to simple in We its forms who would examples. without favor from the the prelate to his own ministrations though claiming unbroken succession from Christ himself. unauthorized and invalid. with no validity if Here are ? not of divine right while . on the ground of these exclu- sive pretensions. war with the prelacy legalized ministrations. so legitimate. divine and valid. while south of that narrow stream. not from any pretended virtue in his incarnate hands or of the " presbytery" that succeeded him. to to Eng- spiritual lords. are admitted privileges." can recognize three separate denominations as legally in possession of its immunities papacy. build both the church and our name who rest here as Christians. and borrow divine right and our succession from Jesus Christ.* is Why PresbyteFianism north of the Tweed." ever at Scotland re- is " her league faith. the prelacy : as in Canada. but from the gift of his grace and the On this hopes . valid becomes the crown. with a spiritual and divine religion. foundation and all we of every Holy Spirit to all that believe.

The church was Aaron. indulgences. confirmations and extreme unction. From its very nature . which the price of Simon Magus might pur- chase. that talks more of ministrations. as God the grace of She expects Leo X. to and be traced back in the line of the whose ministers are to be acknowand are owned to be such by the attending Christ. to be ? We understood^ the apostles. and not the worshippers of a formal Christianity. the sovereignty of God in regeneration ministrations that sciousness of its God shall exalt own we abase guilt We life. not sent as Tetzel from in their ministrations of truth not . its liturgy and shadow- ing rites. from baptisms. than of justification by faith. qualifications We that renewal and its and such have here a living. believe there a is preach the gospel and administer that this right Church of may its divine to that right ordinances. what gitimate succession to the say to the that there The apostles. divine right.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and alone in the work of With such reunion to himself. " covenant mercies. called of God. but and 91 and symbols of things unseen as the pledges spiritual. require the soul with the con- and wretchedness. ledged as his. And we would by no means speak yet lightly of the ministerial succession. a succession and holiness of shall are satisfied. and a true apostolical succession." its the church. save. as such. or call in question the divine right to all the powers and immunities which belong We succession. The inquiry becomes important. looks for her ministry. We ask for our clergy the attending and attest- ing symbols of the Holy Spirit. influences of the Spirit. yet first we wish were no successors apostles constitutes a le- apostles of Christ to had no successors.

and true Neither succession to on which every spiritual succession are not here. men to more enough It is or transmission of for us to say. true church If the charter must be founded and the . . nor the its immunities rest here. 92 their apostolic office They were ended with them. then. sy. the . and enti- human ministrations to respect. the nominal descent is but an empty name.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. succession. accepted ministry. authorized. what constitutes a legitimate we must ascertain what constitutes a valid. to carry out the designs of Christ in founding a new religion. we speak of them only For this end. can constitute the officiating The servants of the synagogue. spiritual. can form no succession. by whomsoever handed down. in distinction from their character as apostles. the true Israel of God. power of working miracles. that the power from one set of another. can no unite them ministry of the tle With and divinely acknowledged clergy. to administer external ceremonies. the gift of tongues and inspiration were conferred upon them and who shall presume on a succession to these divine investments ? When we ask. To answer this inquiry. and accepted Saviour's original designation. than the garments of the rabbies and priests of the Jewish service. elements essential are to the accredited ministery of Christ not to be found in anything merely external these. ap- pointed and invested with power for a special purpose. The thing is utterly impossible. we them. what constitutes a succession to the apostles of Christ. as ministers of the Gospel. the qualifications for the ministry. and the divine approbation. their to the evangelical. shall find the true succession without controver- We shall not at this time discuss the question of and the various evidences of an spiritual qualifications. mere consent.

doctrines and principles of the Bible. These principles do not sanction the least laxness of sentiment or practice. office of the min- and we look for the authority of this ministry in the divine right whickrests church in the to confer it . the true apostolical principles and doctrines of all and ecclesiastical rights. or what shall entitle to a scriptural it character. to carry out their principles and the purposes of the gospel. It is one of the inherent and inalienable prerogatives of Christians. either as to the church or the min- So istry. to confidence. call- ed of God. respects the proper organization of a church. comes into the possession of a divine right. We affirm that when any body of men become associ- ated upon the principles of the gospel. the Bible are the charter of if not. the spirit of these is essential to a valid ministry. we unhesitatingly answer yes . but which by no means be- longs exclusively to any one denomination. and they must have a ministry. on personal or individual responsithey repel the claims of every one bility. for this Christians. both scriptural is here set apart for the administration of the ordinances. or the divine right essential to such a communion. And when asked is there any such thing as a divine warrant or scriptural authority for the istry. The only question that can here arise.THE CHRISTIAN The 93 CITIZEN. are a true and apostolical . not be there. has all the elements of a true minister of Jesus Christ. and The succession cannot be. far from encouraging a presumptous advance towards the ministry. Christ and his may Spirit. and for the pur- . but upon the highest and clearest scriptural authority. and united in the fellowship and ordinances of the gospel. and with proper spiritual qualifications. Church of and whoever Christ.

ad Eccls. and they constitute a true church invested with a divine right. is in any place. Euseb. "when Lybia. there the midst of them. p. unto him that even there he had a church. . under their proper pastors. 7. or any offices of trust." says Peter King. meeting together in one place." Smyrn. the "faithful. p. VII. 56." 4. become "the powers God/' and that are ordained of in his name may which the Scriptures authorize. . Philomel. or that '' Epist. given. Vol.THE CHRISTIAN 94 poses which for cultivating it was spirit. 39. Fccles. are gathered together in am I in Christian powers and imor three says the Saviour. my name. cap. the Where two munities of a scriptural succession. came sufficient Exhort. sius Alexandrinus says that. lives. est. lib.* Governments. that quoque loco Ecclesia. are there any divine rights of kirgs. when properly organized." Christians 259. 31. for the performance of religious worship and the exercise of Christian discipline." says Lightfoot. 134. " church. and the good of the body politic demands. 15. 158." With this corresponds the Scripture representation of the Church of Christ which he has sanctified. its CITIZEN. In no other sense. ckXcktoI. receiving its doctrines. Visible churches (p. ad Cassitat. " The Church of God. is a society of Christians. the prerogatives all make to 457.47) have died gene- generation. This but we cannot say that he hath that worship or serve has had since the beginning ever had a visible church. like the soul of man. lib. p. "are those God throughout the world. p. 2. Cyprian Epis. which church. ration after elect." and nlarol. cap. &c. though unseen. and kingdoms. A " the usual and common acceptation of the word. the the "brethren. God company p. And no one will deny that " the powassume and exercise * Ireneus quae est speaks in of church. Ea Diony- Lib. " The constituent parts of a church are called a5s\<pol. a See Ecclesia Romana. yet the true church. there in Tertullian Ubi tres thinks that Ecclesia three were so many Euseb. and in no other way. Lord High Chancellor of England. he adds.

can claim an exclusive possession of right . and truth and grace like the unchained elements of As we life. be called. and say to all others. as the mind and soul of man are freer and more indomitable than mortal sinews. what it is. no valid.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. supplanted. let continent to the government but that of England her empire. others. the rejecting corrupt. men free." so clear. to- by way of eminence. in governments. becomes the " power that is ordained And of God. and making all " the powers that are ordained of God." ordained and assume to the over authority rejection try from the of state of list Can she ? and nence and exclusive her folly Eng- Shall erase this coun- reject our ministers rights. you have no divine rights. all land. dethrone her and dismiss her envoys citizen king Is there 'no nations of others. at is. as to the them. you are no incomparably more absurd than the high for universal temporal authority. all denationalize France. and are every day minister modes structure and when 95 was founded. and that authority which rises on its ruins. or er of God. that constitutes that lays the it is equally foundation for a divine ." and bears the sword in his name. the government. No more can any one church claim pre-eminent and exclusive prerogatives. venerable and powerful as she "pow- the With ? ? all her claim pre-emi- and the world would laugh and spurn her powers. free to see what it is all. the And government of administration. armies and navies. government " are ordained of God. surely no one government amid the thousands of this world. agents that ad- changing in their upon which principles inalienable lights it may be of men. utterly destroyed." though they ers" of have no unbroken succession. and legitimate succession in your ministry church This ! demand is .

from which every thing may have fled. the religion charter on which the church is founded. or regard the asphaltic slime pits mercing the fallen im- towers and palaces of Babylon. Cranmer and Bunyan. wasting on his ocean rock. . inherit would ask is is true. church." Bible divine right thus secured. heraldry. and the governing its and the Bible only. by whomsoever confer- ? Here a right borrowed from is a spiritual Christianity. These oracles of God become our confession of faith and our common law. and his wandering family as the ruling powers of continental Europe. and deny it to Bax- ter. the succession of which cannot be resolved seals. The Church of God. by will and deed embrace its truth. its if the divine transferred. any thing else can. Who would look for spiritual the succession of a Christian church and a spiritual ministry in the hordes of merciless and profligate monks. persecuted for righteousness' sake and doing wonders in the name of Christ ? We should as soon think of Bonaparte. nor secured by any or vital all and of God . holy men of God." says Chillingworth. " The is that spirit. or in the " fox-hunting clergy" of England.THE CHRISTIAN CiTIZEN. inalienable rights. into symbols. the living city of millions. keys. mere externals. human investments. not as senseless but its who ever have the Bible. Apostolical to the We. laws and cherish its spiri- immunities and succeed honors and powers of the red . to the rejection of the rightful sovereigns. The of Protestants. submit to tual vitality. It is obligation. recognized word of God. rites. the the organi- on the immutable principles of moral zation of the one that makes and enforced in a government it : and it is the reception and belief of the doctrines and principles of power of the gospel." constitutes the other the Bible. 96 and right its succession in the church.

with Oberlin warm-hearted amid mountain snows of Switzerland with Felix NerT on the icy Alps. The cold and dead. yet radiant in the charity and glory of Christ. And though the ' divine right' passes name may sound as lofty and its ministrations be increasingly splendid and costly. We resist shall not be in the charged with church. which are essential to the functions of their office. and with those spiritual qualifications. may shrine we qualifications depart. being indifferent than in the to state. and find our fellowship with Leighton. would we government in the one. rebuking sin on the throne. We cannot leave this subject without a brief notice of 9 . and gathering the credentials of their office and their from the renewing power of spirit God. And no Fenelon in we do less rejoice to commune with exile persecuted. but the divinity has de- The church of Christ and his ministry are not here. We trust that from brief and imperfect statement this of an important argument. must remember. as resolutely as we the assumptions of self-appointed rulers in the other. While we admit then a qualified divine right to every Christian church and to their ministers acting under the great commission. any more would sbut the avenues against an unauthorized ministry.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. all is stand beneath the splen- gilded minerets. the . valiant for the truth and powerful amid the profligacy of courts : or with Massillon and Bourdaloue. that when these commission expires. and the their away. and Pearce and Fuller. and with Owen and Doddridge. We are happy to 97 recognize as Christians. and all the humble followers of Christ. Sherlock and Tillotson. did dome and parted. doing good in his name.

rather than And no one can * "It appears highly probable. the minister at the And must himself become the victim. ecclesiastical organization under the gospel." says Bishop Whately. Priest of our profession. the origin of that distinction in the Christian ministry which one of the strongest supports of the principles is We before us. it. This to learn. in the in the imposing temple service. shall are the victims that are to bleed in his Claiming ? High altar another dispensation is Priest with powers divinely delegated. allow that the Jewish church had her rich ceremonial. are miracles and inspiration ? and who receive the Holy Ghost and speak with tongues. affords this. had The church. That support for any peculiar and exclu- peculiar and duties to follow in the footsteps of Christ. that or the chief part of it. her many grades and her High officials of however. the whole pel. In- troduced by its divine Author.* its unassuming synagogue. with no great change . that was brought. mission Where ? ask. (or congregation. we claiming where are found the attending credentials of the apostolical comapostolical succession as to office. and little as to externals. the wherever a fail to I might Jewish synagogue existed. beneath even associated prelatical hands The Gospel never assumed. as make an existing congregation. her temple service imposingly splendid. not originating wholly with the officers of its said about the synagogue became the in- Apos- officers of the simple services were continued. Ecclesia). " say.98 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. that we have so little the ministry and the constitution of church government. the ceremonial of the ancient economy. ? in any of its forms and early services. These of novelty. stitutions tles. morally certain. Christian" Hence this author justly concludes. to embrace the Gos- Apostles did not there so much form a Christian church. form and simple it rose wi'h spirituality. for a priest to sacrifice hands the do Where ? What ? which he the altar at is we have yet and what has .

and of the parish of Carthage. Pope Victor. another word.THE CHRISTIAN see how 99 CITIZEN. " that I ever found but there is used. 193. p. p. 14. See Lord King 193. no gorgeous vest- . I do not remember. bishoprics of Asia. the parish of Ephesus. in this sense." in the language of a particular church. 2. irapo\Ku?v. § parishes had their respective " bishops or ministers. and the frequent assemblings of his followers. by any of the ancients it . abundantly confirm these opinions. and but one church to a bishop." * " Whatever a bishop did. lib. t Ireneus to parishes. or a single These congregation. 3 and 4. 193. 14. t See Euseb. there is found nothing of the imposing cere- monial of the Jewish temple service ments of the ministerial office. and no apparent distinc- powers of the apostles and tion in the their immediate successors." — same name each being indifferently called bishops or presbyters. as the preachers of the Gospel. p. of Corinth.^ We read of the parishes of Asia." " Bishops " They had one and the and presbyters were of the same ordrr. one bishop to a church. unaffected and unostentatious ordinary devotions of the synagogue. sustained by Polycarp's exhortation to the Philippians.* tablished They es- churches every where. 24. 5. * As for the word diocese. and that is parish. and the ministers of Each these churches were called Bishops or Presbyters. simple. § See Dissertations of Appollonius against Alexander the Heretic.— Cap. subsequent to his ascension. were the Tracing the re- peated services of the Redeemer with his disciples. which they frequently denomi- nated the bishop's cure. church had its bishop. Euseb. Cap. 5. lib. " is the same as parish." says Lord King. . of Athens. the same did a presbyter. and these were generally not as nu- merous nor as extensive as the ordinary parishes of city and country clergymen at the present day. twice speaks of the Twv : Euseb.J So that a Lord King. as Cap." Clemens Romanus. lib.

people church " 10 to another were read before the whole diocese." " At the ordination of the clergy the whole body of the were present. p. parish or church. Epist." ple. "The 4."! in- " All the people of the parish (or diocese) 5.. choose a know- They were " plead. " Public letters from one 8. was the orphans. and usages of our ordinary parishes. 41." 9." one communion altar or 2." says Cyprian.— THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. of digent. which his whole flock received " There is but one altar. at the sacrament from him. ad Philad. diseased. " The curator and over- all that were needy and as church censures. in a word. met together in one place." Ignatius. — De universes fraternitatis suffragio " by who were met together in one place for all the brethren that very end. Acturi causam apud plebera universam. or be more p." The whole diocese of the bishop did meet all to- gether to manage church affairs. " The table in his bishop had but whole diocese." not restored without the ledge and consent of the whole diocese. prisoned.* The 3." says Cyprian. im- all all new to the peo- the people bishop . " as there bishop also baptized ceived this ordinance in his diocese. offender. "where. 100 All the people of one diocese." the brotherhood. " the bishop preaches and prays. as Origin describes an at appearing " before was offender the whole ?• " When in the bishop one place " by the suffrage of all to was dead. "their cause before met together church. strangers." were present 6. Also Justin Martyr." says one bishop. * Epist. 30> ." What can more limits." as Justin Martyr says seer of all " he . 1. is but that re- all charities of the church were deposited with the bishop." says Justin Martyr. § 4. i strictly correspond with the character. common the widows. and. 10.

along the banks of the Tiber." says Lord King. The dio- Rome. so called. 52. t Populi universi suffragio. p. Philadephia. Ed. Carthage and Alexandria. tles of Polycarp" may ceses of Antioch. throughout cias. The whole for remained each as a region around Rome. and he adds.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. et per urbes singulas ordinati sunt episcopi. was studded with separate parishes or dioceses. and Trallium. p. with their pastors as bishops. Epist." . but the beautiful simplicity of the days of Christ and his immediate followers in the ministry of mercy to lost mankind. concerning which a modern diocesan we have any notices remaining on ancient records. says Cyprian. 139. Having shown that there is no proof that the doctrine of " divine right" or of an exclusive " apostolical succes- * See Lord King. were exclusively confined to a single congregation. p.* after Christ. the very largest of them were no greater than our particular congregations are. (Epist. 101 unlike the wide territory and multiplied congregations of ? Not only so. Of this the " Epis- Magnesia. here duties arranged. but " the real size. 119). [ This was true of the bishoprics of Smyrna. built up and sustained as Christian churches are Hence. furnish abundant proof. 55.f all this to rule we find no archbishops and no popes rising with the divine right of an apostolical succession. "bishops were ordained Per omnes provinall provinces and cities" now. § 10. A. . Hundreds of churches as bishoprics. were to be found. Ephesus. each having whose its distinct bishop. 42. " of these bishoprics. that he own In was chosen by his people. three hundred years single congregation.

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. find council. and rest in the light of light of truth and life From every the dense night of more than ten long broken. shall resort there for au- no support to our arguments. Germany. were imposed upon the people and no such peculiar effito ordinances and ceremonies as subse- cacy attached quently appeared God and and being . . nor consent to meet any bor- rowed from to leave its that source. Robt. We in opposition to pope against pope . thorised to assert that no authority is feel au- obtained from the gospel itself. Switzerland and France as if waked at once by the same mighty power. * Rev. 23."* council . is till star of the Reformation of another and a brighter day. burst the chains of delusion and welcomed to her suffering sons the liberty of Christ. earlier times. Wyckliffto Luther the pure centuries prefer to bridge the whole* mystic puerelities. moment cessary to advert for a and "juvenile fathers " which labyrinth of we feel it Word to the multitude of crowded the dark ages that night. satisfied with the the authorities adduced. p. ushers the We till dawn that morning hour increases. the advocates of every system of error so confidently borrow support. Having seen also. that no distinction was known among the clergy during most of this period and as we shall yet see that no forms of worship or liturgies . from and corruption. Nothing is more uncertain and unsatisfactory than that long array of authorities in support of clashing systems and sentiments which are summoned from this dark abyss where " we . 102 sion " was ever claimed during the first the for papacy or the prelacy we three centuries after Christ. of ignorance of wholly unnemystic . Ferguson. fathers against fathers thority against authority. and the morning is fully ushered in.

our home. it lived and reigned — amid mountain rocks and eternal snows.pt new ministerial order and we can merely glance at it and refer the reader to history. rejecting a cold and miserable formalism. absolving penitents — i. governing his flock. ven like tomless Babel of old. vital and valid . administering the true sacraments ." says Lord King. but where "be- lievers" meet. ordain- ing of ministers. that constellation forth at last of wonders and toils. life and hope. has its base deep laid as the bot- pit. These were the church. But we must briefly trace the rise and progress of th. excommunicating offenders. for the full record of the most gigantic structure. reorganize To and reanimate the church of God. praying with his people. taking care of the poor. if not reaching hea- in love with truth our rest. 103 and rising as from the sleep of sepulchres. where was your church be- We was where truth. "The duties of a bishop. crowded. whose remonstrant successors. there is our church. nor Geneva. grace where the Char' ter of the kingdom of heaven was sacred and inviolate. and not to it Rome. whose summit. There is the ministry of Christ. chased. Whether in exiled families. preaching. the enquiry of popish and prelatical pride. and God. came saints sighing in silence from the bosom of night. the joy spiritual Christianity. or with the and despair at the abominations of cruelty and sin. Here was can be no where else even now. worship . and to the church universal the resurrection of and triumph of a church. to We the look Canterbury. "were preaching the word. suffering fore Luther and the came spirit of 1 God reply. the Holy Ghost its sanction and heaven its hope. e. ever conceived or reared amid the ruins of the apostacy.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

yet they did not at once sepa- rate from " their old church this . is the modest rise of that collossal system of diocesan and Here. In the church. arduous duties so numerous and extended as to find and bishop. and and innocent under the direction of the mother we can discover. under the influence of his station." but retaining endearing relation. and maturity of learning and piety. during the occurred. age. to the destruction of the other. or . diocese or parish of Alexandria. gations. were part of the bishop's function and office. or the pastor of * See Origen. as church. arise. they by permission enjoyed stated seasons the ministrations of others. at who from their many respects far as power which like clouds from the bottomless pit have overshadowed the earth. distinct the of to have city. and pontifical blending the spiritual with the earthly. Tertul : some popular Justin Martyr. The presiding officer of an ecclesiastical assembly. says (tfwwywyul) began to from the remoteness of their residence from the usual place of worship . age or circumstances were naturally in subordinate. to desire some assistance in the performance of his church become to necessary to branch new and off into third century. It is not difficult to see. making the spiritual kingdoms of this world above all its civil powers. Firmilian. might give to one man a commanding influence over many minds. how unequal endowments. honoring the one."* In an extended congregation for the minister it would not be unnatural growing weary under its care or wasting with the infirmities of age. nor for a it separate congre- seems actually this In the extreme suburbs congregations Eusebius. 104 and government.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

commerce and wealth had given ascendant powers.105 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. learning and piety. Their primitive ministry was no more. especially the most distinguished. History has tained. learning. The their respective borders. Antioch and Carthage. tinctions In this church and the Christian in the doubt had their rise way and history has written the . it was not until the close of the sixth. clothed with uncommon powers — stand- ing amid his juniors. on the seven hills. in the capital of the country. venerable for age. cient to its whose an- and commanding ascendency becomes transferred minister. are the achievements and the memorials. and their original Christian simplicity had passed away the corruptions of the church and of the age had favored the extension and abuse of that power with which they were clothed. robed. claiming the mistresship of nations and the prelatic empire of the world. became transferred to their respective churches. whose spiritual heads were not insensible honors of an overshadowing influence. pride pontifi- the regal prelacy. to : rivalship existing between these cities. the foregoing positions unsus- Rome. perhaps against his will. through fifteen hundred years of ecclesiastical corruption. clerical cate . central church. soon finds himself unconsciously. his sons and admirers. he is the patriarch of the churches. not left Constantinople. Alexandria. that anything like prelatical or papal jurisdiction and pre-* . even of churches whose powers and whose ministry are essentially the sa'me. had powerful and extended churches within which pride. Whatever may have been the result of the enlarged powers of the venerable minister of Alexandria in the to the third century. the dis- ministry no results. and enthroned in scarlet. mitred. The gorgeous and oppression.

: THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. Lee. Gregory of Rome. however." head city. that remembering perhaps the oc- city in the third century and to pacify Rome. and denied the right of his brother to such exclusive assumptions " It was Lucifer was antichrist it could belong to So indignantly did the patriarch of protest his wounded pride. 9-11 . pp. currences of his own it. by Alexander Petrie. remonstrated. or too far committed by his denunciations of honor under another name. of Oath. he received that homage and gratitude due to beneficent greatness. and claimed to be styled the " universal patriarch' or bishop. Chh. pope. as the city 1 '' where he officiated was the chief residence of the emperor. doubly it . as yet the " imperial aspirings of of John. and there was no general resistance to his claim. and with all himself " the servant of the servants of lips the living synonym church. the Patriarch of Con- jurisdiction and bounds. From the imperial character of of " Gregory the or from the ascendant talents Great/' he was acknowledged as holding the among first place the patriarchs. XVI. bestowed upon him the more magof universal pope. ." and jealous of the Rome. p." the imperial city . But Gregory was too his brother of nificent title modest. as Rome God of papal power. Cap. became emulous of the as- cendant honors and influence of Gregory. yet " with express limitation stantinople. 106 eminence was known. the father of that whole race . no bishop on earth. Rome. Lending the aid of his overshadowing influence to the feebler and remote churches.* * See His. and Campbell's Lectures. this humility declares :" in mitred Gregory was imperial in the to the world. 27L II. vigorous from the apparent piety that sanctioned the Patriarch of Alexandria.

but at it is It has its the archives. at Rome. This is seen not alone on the page of history. and not even nominally pon- and papal tifical till near seven hundred years of corrup- and darkness obscures the true tion We know of nothing rivalship. patriarchal supervision in the third century. are unrestrained. for the sword. It is foregoing the memorable dispute who should be the distinctions in the ministry. papal are no more primitive nor apostolical not from prejudice towards any class of we oppose that light. we might have seen the northern presbyter of Scotch zeal. Thus we have the rise of unassuming. been heard.107 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and from their necessary influence upon those that adopt them. apostolical like these high church principles . than this." and how many a papist and adherent of Episcopacy would have found their way it is to the tower. fresh and firm in the remembrance of his national and religious wrongs. high Presbytery in domination tions of its The another hemisphere. all and prelatical. the fleet not easy to say. its some And as proud indica- human . institutes and civil organiis seen not alone Canterbury. and had the clamorous demands once made in England by the Presbyterians. and moment energy when at this and the stake. men but from deep conviction of their unscriptural character. growing slowly through more than three hundred years tion from : its civil into diocesan jurisdic- and geographical relations at length assuming prelatical powers. aspect and late doings of in Scotland. and pate . memorials in all This influence sations of the world. carrying something more to his " confes- London than sion of faith." with his " solemn league and covenant . but that greatest and . in the papacy of the Episco- seen also in the Presbyter.

as Henry VIII. nor in any Cromwell been age. now We numerous clergy of the English Estab- so vigorously resisting the Oxford tracta- shall rely chiefly on the opinions of the most learned and pious of the English church in past times. allude to the worthy men We shall but of the Episcopal church. life. And let it be remembered that we are not alone in these views of entire dissent from the principles before us. nature does not vary essentially any where. hung with of the Protector. had as vain of his theology. We human nature with these principles any They show themselves most in the papacy and would not where. Those better acquainted with them from experience of their disasterous results on the moral and religious interests of the church. shall give their testimony to the truth and reasonableness of our positions. and the Independents long enough in power to learn all its blessings. trust the prelacy. that the Christian citizen as well as the Christian preacher is called to op- pose them. whose sentiments and authority are held in the highest estimation at the present day. ture of their principles. shorn of their unshared excellence. dearer than civil relations. notwithstanding the na. who are struggling against them in this country and to the prelates and the lishment. We all servility not allowed to begin their work upon these and simple tural faith on the arm rejoice that these principles men were of scrip- trust in Christ for salvation.1^8 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. rians. it is now more in and of other principles. because they have there lived so long and gathered such encouragement from their and more so from the very nature of And ganization. . their eclesiastical or- defence of ourselves." and the other. the one might have been a sec- ond " defender of the faith.

Melancthon. Burnet's Hist. than we do. : civilians and divines. 10 I. 2. we 109 are not acting in our sectarian cha- by those who better know the principles before us. These articles were signed by nearly eight thousand ministers. Nor was . Function of the English church. as established at the era of the Reformation. BuTo a similar effect was the declaration of the cer."* This declaration was signed by thirty-seven distinguished the Smalcaldic Articles. We racter unsustained appeal to the Episcopal church vindication of every position men we led to shall adduce our for itself for the truth and we have taken. In reference to ecclesiastical discipline. that all the reformed church- es renounced the principle of any divine right of Episcopal ordination.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. but only of deacons or ministers. among whom were Luther. We repeat it. and of priests or bishops. is a de- of the Episcopal original principles Church of England. may not have been consider the political and religious bearings of these principles as others may have been compelled to do. As a single instance. and their equality by divine right. in the power of ordination. 321 fol. of Ref. about the same period. which states as follows " In the New Testament there is no mention of any degree or distinction of orders. &c. and by thirteen bishops. and who have felt more of their influence than we hope ever to experience. In the next place the parture from the system under review. no historical fact is more certain than this. in 1533. we may mention which strenuously assert the identity of bishops and presbyters. though the support.

"* To a similar effect were the decisions of Dr. — most distinguished friends of the Reformation. " At the beginning. and prefaced with an epistle by the king himself. and that the powers of ordination and ex- communication belong equally to loth. says " Cranmer. were both one wherefore one made the other indifferently. ed It to a large was one of a number of queries propound- council of the most distinguished divines and bishops." Dr. that " priests and bishops are by God's law one and the same. Archbishop shops and priests were at The m> one time. Day.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. . Redman. "By scripture (as Jerome saith) bishops and priests be one. As a specimen of the answers which were then given. Cox. * Burnet I." Dr. and generally of the adds. but both one office. hastily decided on On English reformers. Dr." These were the Church during the whole reign Foreign churches were recognized by principles of the English of Edward VI. of Canterbury. 223. says. Accordwere embodied by the bishops in the Necessary Erudition of a Christian Man. as by the some have insinuated. In this ingly. and were no two things. afterwards bishop of Ely under Elizabeth. liberation. Yet bishops as they are now. the contrary. under Henry VIII. it was re- garded as one of the cardinal questions of the Reforma- and was examined by them with great care and de- tion. Edgeworth. in the beginning of Christ's religion. we transcribe the fol- lowing. were after priests t and therefore made of priests. these principles it is declared. 110 this subject. The Bishop of London. which was approved by a vote of both houses of Parliament in 1543.

as first in establishing the church on archbishop under Elizabeth. to the king. and was sent At Martyn Bucer was another. who was Dr. is most. 235. against Cartwright asserts " no form of church governis by the Scriptures prescribed to. "at St. " hierarchy. and that those who had no orders. should be of like capacity with others to enjoy any place That these were the of ministry in England. The English in vindication of the was archbishop whom we cannot suppose ignorant of the sense of the Church of England. A large number of foreign divines were invited by Cranmer from abroad to aid in the Reformation. its present footing.THE CHRISTIAN Ill CITIZEN. 207. and dwells feeling on the loss sustained by the church. and on the cer- tain happiness to 29."! ments of the clergy who solemnly appeared first senti- " at this time. " it can- ment not be proved that any certain. see Strype's Annals III." these was the celebrated John Knox. II. evident. the death of Bucer. lf are out of the Episcopal church 336. with much its present In this sermon he terms Bucer a " chief master workman" placed there by God . or commanded the church of God. chaplain also by the privy council to preach at Ber- wick. Cosins his chancellor." And so Dr. How little does all this Strype's life of Parker. Stillingfleet. under Elizabeth. * Among is commanded us by the word of God. the Reformers as in the fullest sense churches of Christ." says Bishop "Whifgift. particular form of church government. look like doubting whether the " promises'* of the gospel belong to those who t Strype as quoted by Neal. who says Strype. Martins Cambridge do. a sage and prudent person. a funeral sermon was preached by Parker^ afterwards the most active footing.* one hint of the restoration of the English church. which Bucer had departed. Yet he frequently or afraid or unwilling to defend it. officiated. it was enacted by Parliament " that the ordination of foreign churches on should be held valid. ! . do. and were instantly employed in clerical duties without On re-ordination.

etc. that there is These declarations too. but ly to other ecclesiastical constitutions. were made against Cartwright the Puritan. see the mutability of church government. " God hath not expressed the " form of church government." adds 11 may asserted and fully proved. he defended the validity of ordination. Bucer." certain form of government is prescribed in the Bishop Bridges. *The only attempt which testimonies. asserted the exclusive divine right of preshytcrian ordination. in his sermon close of Elizabeth's reign. originals before him. professor of divinity in who was bridge at the same period. may to the different orders of clergy in the church. But lish his position. did so understand them. . no unalterable divine right not mere- with the Stillingfleet. that Protestants Little did Zwin- he or his associates imagine. largely Iren : Part II. lifc Loe. meant to deny what Cartwright maintained. (in his controversy with Bellarmin and Dureus) that "presbyters being by divine right the same as bishops." was on It set other presbythis ground. declares as the doctrine of the reformed. Whitgift and the rest therefore. gle. at it Paul's cross. of the church.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. would ever unite with Papists. c. § 3. that speaking in behalf of the English Church."* The Stillingfleet. discipline. and employed chiefly in the controversy with the papists. etc. towards the excited so that Sir Francis Knolls wrote to Dr. Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity. is have referred by saying we have tha. Cam- learned Whittaker." They who are pleased but to consult the third book of the learned and judicious Mr. Brancroft.t much ever heard of to evade these " church government" here. "no word. viii. and cited who surprise John Reynolds one them to estab- in the clergy. as performed by Luther. Dr. if they spoke to the point in debate. they might warrantably ters over the churches. viz that the Scriptures had laid down any one immutable constitution for the orders of th@ clergy. in calling When this was first done by that ordination in question.

after. sus- and yet nine-tenths of the Christian clergy throughout the world are declared * Iren. is valid have already shown doth evidently prove that episcopal government is not founded on any unalterable which I 1 divine right. WicklifF and his followers. the early confessors of the English church. that this was the common He adds. . the Netherwas not until forty years es in Switzerland. before these late unhappy divisions. Pilkington and others and . in It the time of Archbishop Laud. Waldenses. have thought. that even Bellermin ac- knowledged the weakness of Dr. many English bishops as Jewell. Hungary and Poland. that all pastors. and even long after acknowledged by the that. for his opinion on Reynolds replied this subject. Luther. Chap. and universally regarded man as the most learned of the age. Huss to the then appeals in confirmation of his state- and his disciples. whether called bishops or pres- byters have according to the word of God like power and authority. present time. France. Calvin." He ment. Bullinger and Musculus to .' ''* Authorities from the tiplied in Church of England might be mul- unbroken succession taining the same to the liberal principles . stoutest " It is champions of episcopacy. that ordination per- formed by presbyters in case of -necessity. and many more of to Bradford. Savoy.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. Lambert. that these high church principles gained much footing in the English church. VIII. Stillingfleet says. Part II. B's pretension. author with Cranmer of the articles and Homilies. 10* $ 7. doctrine of the reformed church- Germany. lands. Brentius. 113 of the translators of the Bible. " It may be added" he says " that they who for five hundred years have been industrious in reforming the church.

gance We . have been A for a considerable time coextensive and identical. Where the in the ages of primitive Christianity whole bright era of the Reformation gospel of God. writes as follows : " It appears plainly from the sacred narrative. there authority for such an act of arro- is ! adduce in support of our positions the authority of the principal ecclesiastical dignitary of the Church in Ireland. Archbishop of Dublin.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. conceded all that find other Chris- This work alone ought to settle the subject in debate forever. in the . have been perfectly inderegards any power or control. general. acts their and their countless churches excommunicated from the fellowship of Christ. under the church and diocese seem to title of angel or bishop. though there faith. by ties of faith. having it any one recognized head on seems to have been. invalid. affection and respect. and by their mutual agreement. Whately. for all of were which the Lord was one them. in a catholic and spirit. that though the many churches which branches of one Jesus Christ Lord. Episcopal whose masterly production we fully tian denominations ask. Dr. pendent as far as it rest. yet they were each a distinct. but not He if says. and each church or dio- cese though connected with the seem hope and charity. united by the common principles on which they were founded." He to speaks of distinct and independent communities. of the heavenly head. independent community on earth. 114 unministerial. one baptism. at least the not the universal practice of the apostles. one is the apostles founded spiritual brotherhood. where in where. each governed by its own single bishop as our independent churches . to appoint over each separate church a single individual as a chief governor. earth.

or strongly con- demnatory of the very errors with which they are especially chargeable. to. and maintain what are called modern fashion. " It is any sect or indicative of the very excellence which they are especially deficient. transmitted from hand to hand in on a rock unbroken succession from the apostles. i. ." curious to observe how party to assume a title in very says in a note to common it is for this. sound learning but error stitious credulity. as contained in the Holy Scriptures. to ground on which It is It is not in faith but in . cing. advan- advancing not in a a super- seek for some higher and better to rest our doctrines and institutions. church principles.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. " those who are not satisfied with the foundations thus laid. are now 115 confirming the fact already alluded . and of every Christian church that claims the inherent right belonging to a community." he adds. limits of a primitive bishopric were not ordinarily more extensive than the congrega- American clergy generally. " they seem is to called me. or Church of England principles. e.' are in fact subverting the ground. to be in some degree removing our institutions from a foundation to place them on sands. than that on which they are placed by the Author and He Finisher of our faith. The phrase Catholic religion." Having decidedly condemned the " claims of ministers on some supposed sacramental virtue. Speaking of those who " claim to have what tions of our apostolical succession. as the phrase according to the ' principles both of our church in particular. but not in the right road. that the on the banks of the Tiber. which Christ and who seek to his apos- take higher is. in proportion as they proceed on these principles. and confirmed by the sanction of God's word." he says. and which tles is the very foundation have prepared us for .

" Everything pertaining right of succession. fill with doubts the sincerely pious. apostolical age. to this appeal is obscure. 381. their "internal character" and " the state of the argument " respecting them. and We fully agree with the archbishop. disputable. united with undefinable securities of grace mere ordinances. Prefixed to the work acles . is the most who commonly in the mouths of those are the most limited and exclusive in their views. actually attempted in the till to the name of churchmen of Oxford begin boldly popish pretensions to justify faith in the * of intelligence to this power. D. Essay on the Ecclesiastical Mir- xiii) that. is J. uncertain. these " are not to be at once some of them were true miracles how many were not true. And even is the A volume fanaticism. to A. Newman. Fellow a labored " those miracles recorded as having been wrought in the early centuries of the church posterior to the The writer takes the ground (p. from A." appeals Speaking of antiquity in support of claims to to the divine he says. and actually disputed to such a degree." and "that we treating of " tho anticedent probability " of these miracles.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. 400: introduced by an advertisement from the pen of the Rev. and find a result more fatal to still. the writer goes on and "sets down the evidence for and against certain miracles as we . 116 universal. and who seek to shut out the largest number of Christian communities from the go«pel covenant. rejected "— " that cannot be certain of Oriel College. After . have driven men avowed infidelity." This obscurity and absurdity of claims and suc- by cession. that even those who able to read the original authors to judge how The tendency of may are not yet be perfectly competent unstable a foundation they fur- nish. and the credulous to working of miracles Christ. D.* has recently been -published at Oxford containing a revised translation of a portion of Fleury's Ecclesiastical History. this procedure the to drive is doubting into confirmed though perhaps secret infidelity." that is. H. viz.

by Narcissus of Jerusalem. Constantine's Lu- discovery of the Holy Cross by Helena. its conclusions. that the water of baptism cleanses from sin. No. in some power of God with us. cix) " that in behalf of these at least. 95. it is more be forgiven. lxxxv. or that eating the consecrated bread is eating Christ's body. the oil 4. and we are not surprised. Its affinities some of cannot the clergy of See the Rev. Jewish Temple. lated by Heneric. and makes the assertion (p. see Tracts for the Times. only as another indication of the result to which the principles before us lead. be mistaken. relics at Milan. 3. the 5. in his mind. The 7. What Mr. The whole discourse is worthy of attention. on the " Christian Priesthood. The of Arius. which convey.'''' and affirms.." " that. his They "In affirm. is not known. Withingham makes of the sacrifice of Christ. p. as the miracles of the church are evidence for the church. as it were. 6. the present presence us to Balaam. 117 we have. The death rebuild." ing 1. The change the river Lycus by Gregory Thaumaturgus. if Balaam's ass instructed there fairly to startle us in the church's is doctrine. that in this re- clearly claimed and efficient than in a former dispen- sation. minous Cross. over the Jew of old. : The miracles which he The Thundering Legion. and the episcopal and priestly succession have in them something divine. he will be it found that the greater part of the miracles of Revelation are as little evidence for revelation at this day. and what advantage that gives us. this But meet with them." They power say. that sins spect. fiery eruption on Julian's attempt to The recovery of the blind man by miracle upon the African confessors muti- That miraculous power is actually claimed for ministry Episcopally ordained. A recent discourse from the prelate of the Episcopal church in Maryland. thus sustains are the nine follow2. Mr. that Maryland revolt from Reply. John's ." is " constantly conveyed through the evidence for them. 9." speaks of" the ministerial may intervention. what and . that. far out- weighs the evidence against them.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. of water into Miracles wrought on the course of The 8. as channels. the sacraments special sense.

at the best. to trust in externals rather than govern the inner man. or it even scriptural. to its their external symbols curing and honoring the would by a And satisfy the life . rather than the vital principle of godliness. become and he well knew that men. find- easier to observe forms than to cultivate principles . It by design. it is claims of orders and polity. From what we know of the assumptions and not unscriptural or forbidden. the un- How . construct an divine. formulas and all and services. would appear. that any settled and express church organization and service. every thing had been that. to the exclusion of all other religious associa- The most we can tions. by which we might and pronounce ecclesiastical polity. which must. that." per. they demands of an easy and ruinous superstitious adherence to this is and its lamentably true. suited circumstances. authorized according — the outward forms of the church that the sacraments are a continued miracle " and their "dispensation by episcopally ordained ministers is equal to the working to 1 of miracles — and baptism be the cleansiug and quick- if ening of the dead soul. we wisdom see the of this omission. this is after the pattern seen in the mount or at Jerusalem. spirit of holi- instead of se- of Christ in the soul. confidently say of any is. even now. The Redeemer foresaw. omitted in the gospel.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. 118 the hands of commissioned persons. temple. pretending to divine right and exclusive scriptural authority. that Of none can we affirm. with certainties as to ecclesiastical order religion. to say nothing of the Lord's sup- THEY DO WORK MIRACLES. the forms and orderings of to all ages and be but the outer external devotion. would transfer minds from the hidden ness. would perverted and abused ing it . rites.

As it is. More about the commission of Christ and valid ministrations. what was the divinely ordered style of the primitive churches. repentance towards God. the human mind is ever wandering from the substance and the principle of godliness. than of justification by what ties. with its foundations of hope. and magnifying the importance of and contending the in Uteris. and Christ formed The ordinances hope of glory. as a body of death. and in the soul. but to preach the gospel. is almost lost. conI thank me not to says. till its very ministers will carry their formulas. it to leave a Bible. We say. and what their services. and has added thereto. are like essential veri- while the gospel itself. Christ sent baptize. lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. early met these To and severely rebuked them. Much little much hear about the vital about the energy of of baptismal regeneration. but as an unseen support to the cumbersome ceremonial that is bound. God little Holy Ghost. 119 much more so. the church faith. the Corinthians. when we contend for And we may mere externals. and of the renewing and indwelling of the rites. the in the soul. could we settle from the gospel. rest assured. that we have lost the . not with the wisdom of words. for difficulties. upon it. tending about God I men and ministrations. where costly and they have never thought The apostle. H&rct religion. their discipline and prayer books. mode of baptism. would seem. and throwing men upon the resources of enlightened reason and intelligent piety. there was profound wisdom in leaving the question of ecclesiastical order and forms so uncertain. of the gospel. he baptized none of you . and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ. exactly. for mere externals of We h&ret in cortice.

Amen. I will not hear you . and complicated ministry. when ye make many or when. " offered prayer with a mo- " He dest and a bashful voice. which. there gospel " The was a beautiful and impressive simplicity. Tertullian says. saying. could claim the exclusive sanction and support of the word of God ? In the primitive. hear the Saviour condemn the external and heartless service of the Jews. . as well as in the apostolical churches." After speaking of the Lord's prayer. 120 unction of religion. as the As we church militant. whose mouth he was to God . more vain oblations when ye spread forth your hands I will hide mine eyes from you. even to their prayers and offerings of who can trust for a moment in forms and And as we admire the modest carriage professed piety. mighty in truth. " That we may add there- unto and offer up prayers unto God. bukes the formalism of own and his cause. amid growing corruptions and midnight darkness. for they did not vocally join with him in prayers. of his disciples and the learned Paul. we prayers. in later days. ceremonies ? and unadorned simplicity of the Son of God. yea. for Christ by Israel. liturgic formalism. and unaided by adventitious adornments who . and are fighting our not. the multitude of your sacrifices is and battles. whom God reTo what purpose unto me ? Bring no revert to the times of Isaiah. cumbersome ceremonial." says Cyprian. minister. to the understanding and the heart. so prayed as did most affect the people. like the addressed itself. majestic in holiness." Modestis precibus orare.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. but only testified their assent to what the minister prayed by saying. according to the variety of our circumstances and condition. rose to the mawould expect that the jesty of imperial Romanism and prelatical domination." "Now these .

nor the least word or syllable tending thereunto. find an African council deciding as to not be used at the Eucharist. and varied his petitions according and emergencies ." " that the words say. we venerate the simplicity of the gospel. or expressions of the prayers are not enforced or prescribed. num. love the spiritual. p. so let it be. Apolog. Epist. Christi 58. if it is not the least mention of any of the primitive writings. " which part of divine were not service. the most impressive Primitive Church. p."* Even sacramental table. with eyes closed and hands lifted to simply." " them in to present circumstances be more intelligible. the minister or at the " bishop sent up his prayers and praises. its services and servants. <$> 2. and find when unaided by human * See Lord King. it there were no prescribed liturgies for general use. otfyj S6va[ug. We its admire. as their pastor closed their the skies. on Also Cyprian. or There standing I can find.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. 11 In the is fifth what prayers shall would appear. that the or. p. 30. § 60. 163." adds the I same anthor. 102-104 treating expressly of the public prayers of the ancient Christians. the people stood. that when imposed stinted liturgies. p. wholly silent as to the use of any forms amongst them. 167." With these simple and hearty ministrations." We unadorned modesty of it. " direct. Cyprian. but the words and expressions of them were left to the prudence. primitive churches had no forms of prayer. and judgment of any particular choice " bishop or minister. but every one that officiated. Epist. we II. Epist 16. II. 1." says Lord King. Part Orat. De the devices. p. responding Amen." century. 121 made up a stinted great and imposed forms. delivered himself in such terms as best pleased him. " Baronius ad An. " according to his ability. 44. 309. symmetrical character." says Justin Martyr. Cap. 703. 58. Chap. at which time. $ 4. other prayers. that . Domini. Tertul.

" These are acknowledged to be without Scripture authority. till and saint's-days. with almost countless festivals. we leave to others all such badges and emblazonments. have been perverted. . and station are not symbolized by stars. and most of them introduced centuries. by the coming and going of festivals and holy-days. partly of Jewish and partly of pagan origin. more impressive by the infrequency of their recurrence. we wholly decline. God gave us has but a solitary holy day. fasts chael's-masses. our All their correspondencies and society and the gospel. * . to the supplanting of the spiritual and true worship of God.* One prayer has become a thousand. encumbered and Living as we do. like stars in the firmament of pagan deities. and Jesus Christ but a single prayer and two simple ordinances left and even these few institutions . less than one hundred and twenty of these are retained in as says an American prelate: "The church the Episcopal church . counterparts in church arrangements. Christ's-masses. where mind and merit are not measured by " ribbons " and " garters . not as unessential simply. One day of rest is lost amid a multitude equally sacred.122 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. but as positively unauthorised and hurtful. ihe simple ordinance of baptism actual regen- and the Lord's Supper. Candlemas and Childermas. are crowding the calendar. The honors of state and the powers of the arm have only clouded civil its beauty. has marked the calendar of her seasons. and efficient. incongruous with our government. to the church between the fifth and thirteenth . ob- scured and desecrated by human auxiliaries and additions. all solemnly if not enforced tered." where office enervated. empty heraldry and proud armorials. Mi- feasts. when rightly adminisand added thereto are confessaving to the soul eration Not .

The ex- press declaration of some of the most ancient writers. were utterly unknown. " where a promise to fallen man is be found. as to any such usages of the church. and opportunity . is member of the visible — i. and " we have yet to learn. may and while clinging to a righteousness of our own. forfeit the benefit of His ? Nothing can be more clear. " In the course of time. when Christianity was prowas tected and even adopted by the state. ? not supercede his own methods of grace . till the saving benefits of an exclusive ministry are every where forced upon us. ajid enjoining of specific ordinances. There was religious forms so few. are conclusive on this subject. the purchases of penance. e. and the utter silence of all. its have institutions of the gospel been so perverted. are justified and enforced for the edification and spiritual improvement of the church ample provision formulas we for this. as there was in recording of essential verities. but has not Christ made without a liturgy and attending In adopting these. what would be the positive in- spiration in the omission of unessential usages. that to that he is a not limited on the previous condition. that liturgies were not used.THE CHRISTIAN and extreme unction. the Episcopal church upon earth. confirmations." If the few and simple apostolical usage for all these was more than wisdom and we had result if appended devices There ! in leaving the gospel so simple. for three hundred years after Christ." says an American prelate. sionals. We know these humanly devised forms of religion. forms and prayers. than that all forms of prayer and prescribed methods of worship. without his authority. absolution with all 123 CITIZEN. .

without the terms of his petition being dictated by the pleasure of his diocesan . and when it seemed exrecommend it to the favor of half-converted pagans by outward pomp and circumstance. . that the brief creations of his professional necessity. into the bosom of * eternal tenderness. it was thought to be at once safe and seasonable. where. the pulsations of the pious soul should beat natural and free. 124 thus given of establishing public forms and ceremonies of worship without fear of danger. Coleman's Antiquities. or pray for alism is now carried to to wait the oracular head."* The used is when forms began to be They were born in darkness. would be compelled announcement of its spiritual nize the providence. almost imperceptibly. would terminate in such results pray in his family. from the ne- form was ad- towering liturgies of the in process of time the papacy were perfected. however. p. and and scarcely that no Christian could in his closet. whence sprung the more refined selections of the English Episcopal prayer-book. and a nation ments of God. to increase the number pedient to of sacred solemnities. Little did the ignorant preacher of the fourth century dream. and even to incorporate into the system of Christian worship various rites and ceremonies from the customs of the declining pagan superstition. were to be dissolved at bowing under the bereave- that prayer meetings his pleasure.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. filial would no . unknown. Form cessities of unqualified ministers. after probable. We all warm. till It is into use. have survived. ded. like the breathings of the heart of love. came that they to write their genealogy. Form- the mercy-seat. at times. and none precise time. 443. before its it could recog- improvement. — many to restore Jew- parts of the ish ritual.

He suddenly became tures. as he lost abandoned the precepts of a scriptural religion. Tertullian and tion Cyprian. and no doubt. or even of any regular forms of prayer beyond the 3." says Archbishop Whately. than prescribe to the child. temple. * is The whole and became the son of subject of forms and liturgies. its wants or deny the reality of the one. its Israel in Babylon. The Jew. the vital principle of piety. coming originating." They were unknown is in the three first centuries. "Nothing is more clear. or the spirit of religion will soon die. into the churches by degrees. "than that they are destitute of any plea or pretence from Scripture or antiquity. and language of till then. and soon forfeited the securities of his national existence. from the peculiar necesisties of the clergy of that period. settled. Owen on Liturgies. 2. temple service. the the breathings of its love. after the third century. than to his ecclesiastical polity It beits spi- and his to the essential truths of the Scrip- and thought more of his high priest and his sacrithan of God and his Messiah. See Dr. and the Roman soldier the sentinel of the holy city.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and Judea." says Dr. or refuse the claims of the other. fice. and instead of Jerusalem. Lord King. "No account given. with we find its king and conquering armies. And where did the apostacy of the Jew begin ? gan where he substituted the forms of religion for rit and attended more . " of the precise method of church service. as far as their support derived from the gospel and the primitive churches. thanksgiving and praise. should be jealously watched. They were wholly of human device and imposi- Lord's prayer. that he lost entirely the spirit of piety. more attempt to define 125 and dictate the universal language of prayer. in its mother's arms. so idolatrous of externals and forms of devotion. 11* . 1.* The necessary when influence of forms in religion ele- vated above their place. may be easily Owen.

such was the result of a divinely ordered system of If rites. as in the philactary and sackcloth. is mortified humble Son simplicity. to him. he came. because and though looking.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. human hand that adminis- with the superadded de- . the Holy Ghost separated from the one. He found no such faith in the Messiah of the prophets. ceremonies and forms. at his rites so long been the victim and the and ceremonies. worshipper of and and enters upon the crucifixion of the He had of God. when perverted. and when Christ came. when . for his promised Deliverer. not so much wing of the cherubim. that he had wholly He saw God. and which proffers salvation only Redeemer 1 To see the only symbols economy. . he tithes his annise and his cummin. in the Shekinah. so religious that Sibboleth length. which without divine authority for and its spiritual support. what must be the result of that system. and instead of the weightier matters of the law. and Christ from the other. and thanks God that he is not as And for what does other men. as in the gilded the Deity. At brew. was not there. baptism and the Lord's Supper. but from the ters them : we say to see this. comes into the place of a simple economy. in he was a circumcised Hebrew the pride of his birthright. lost the idea of their import. attention to his soul for faith in his : all this prepare him ? For careful promised Messiah ? No. He was confident in the safety of the one. he was without the mitre or the sceptre the Jew. lifted wholly out of their place. he is is no longer Shibboleth. and an heir of God. by the simple badge of an HeHis one rite was as much to him as " authorized baptism" or " immersion" can be to any one now. so that neither are upon faith in the of this valid or of virtue. 126 Abram. instead of adoring his Deity.

and lost its savor. and through our worked out the principles of These same opinions lie at the civil own revolution. life. light wherewith be darkness. all. practical piety. Common tal and morality in the world. on the more important question of evangelical words. how shall if be salted it the light And ? great is the darkness is the salt have if the ? Though advancing somewhat beyond the bounds of our relations. during the persecution in England. shall not be found to us. when we remember what these owe to civil their religious associations. This leads 3. in the time of the Reformation. these principles affect the subject of practical godliness. only as men exceed the and are wise and holy. as though advancing beyond the is not remote from the subject or the best interests of civil socithe principles of a spiritual reli- gion are kept alive. a class which. as christian citizens. must be as fatal to the ends of the gospel. human government. lives only as experimen- vital piety lives in the church. .127 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. not at met the natural influences of ordinances. and religious basis of all liberty. that any inferior interests are safe. Here of the world and the salt of the earth. the living piety and final sal- And vation of men. to to con- sider the influence of the principles under review. rejoice that I as Paul early- that such perverted trusting in baptised none of you. limits that we which belong to they are secure. ordinary morality of of this. We have spoken of of religious opinions. as foreign to the delegated rights is it And we wonder of man. as the ultimate facts of the gospel. how piety in other . to the renewal. vices of fallible men. and us. he said. For ety. is it only. I extend this discussion. pushed into the place of the ex- pressed conditions of salvation. In other words they are essential.

or that the great body of the latter class. eternal citizenship of the then tends CITIZEN. whether of good here or hereafter. "Whatever his faith or his spiritual hopes. under the denomination of Calvinists and ArmiNot that all who belong to the former class sub- scribe to erally. a christian citizen merely. equally is uniformly friendly to free institutions. but he earthly state vitiate to is is such. as sharing in the work of securing our acceptance with God. we find but two grand divisions. more gen- nians. belongs to his com- monwealth. In examining the history of the church in past ages. which religious As we our free to not. Having already alluded to a particular class of religious sentiments. and what the relations they hold. so opposed we to that shall find it. The Waldenses and the Lollards once composed the former. Protestantism arose same order. ecclesiastical observances. and those who mingled with the doctrines of grace.THE CHRISTIAN 128 And more than this. in respect to the momentous subject of man's salvation. for the higher and kingdom of God. when to the partial extinction distinction has of the papal appeared. . these divisions consisted of those justification who held to through the merits of Christ alone. and coming to their immediate bearing on the questions of personal piety and salvation. The fundamental principles of a system are one thing. not for the such. and the countless hosts of the papacy. cessary to state more fully. if we mistake evangelical faith. every sentiment of Calvin. becomes ne- it what some of these sentiments are. Before the Refor- mation. this Since the Reformation. the latter. have confined themselves within the limits prescribed by the cautious policy of Arminius. have found the high church system opposed institutions.

and that his gracious purposes are dependent on The former this contingency. been main- more spirit and determination. the controversy has repeatedly changed its aspect on minor But the great and fundamental difference be- points. of the utter alienation entire destitution of holiness. life. enjoyed in equal degrees by all. tween the friends and the enemies of the doctrines of The former believe in human heart from God. The •' principle of grace. by the choice of the individual ence — thus securing to yield to that influ- the favorite point. " who maketh it is the man us to differ. prepare them for heaven choice it. regeneration Holy Spirit is : hold. the doctrines of the . and secure eternal former consider God's choice of as a choice to to lapsed powers. as they term human its the with indignation. the progress of biblical criticism and mental philosophy. in a state of nature latter reject this doctrine that a imparted is individual of our race to restore his which effort and thus that this to make each will under the men to eternal life. whenever it becomes so. and grace remains unchanged. certain individuals holy or believers. that these individuals solely will from be holy or believers. and not God." and church ordinances ripen into the maturity of holiness. that himself.THE CHRISTIAN CItTzEN. mode the of defending them is 129 With quite another. But from the time of Charles II. than in the Church of England." In no part of Christendom has the contest between the friends and enemies of the doctrines of grace. and made effectual. that spiritual the result of a special operation of tho the latter ascribe this change to the ordi- nary influence of that divine a«ent. to tained with the latter part of the last century. and maintain portion of divine influence cultivation of : the or : the latter contend determination results God's foreseeing.

whatever inconveniences attend —Grant's English Church. where there Church of nothing Christ. and the natural tendencies. 130 loosest Arminianism were generally prevalent in that communion.— THE ^CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. after stating the case thus strongly in the form of an objection. which can be acknowledged as a and no covenant or promise known to exist. II. its reception. love."* Lord's Supper the communicant Savior. of eternal life." translated from a state of nature into a state of grace." . while the same performed by a pious sectary. could in themselves secure. he declares that the fact is so. 7—8. the deadening influence of a religious establishment. is an absolute nullity. states the doctrine thus " This opinion supposes a charm. these doctrines in the English Church. with the guilt Spirit brought near to his is manner which no ardor of tions of faith. Vol. to state : an extreme case. " Truth is sacred and immutable. who has in his heart devoted himself to God. is — in this regenerating ordinance. instantly is "born again infant presented for baptism. too. a vicious minister of the Church of England can confer something necessary office to salvation. we usually find high church principles asserting some peculiar and mysterious efficacy in ordinances performed by an Epis- The copal ministry. the high church historian. as a sacrament is. of the human Connected with heart. there is Holy In the sacrament of the of rejecting the accumulated means which God has himself appointed for their salvation. and obtains a title to the influences of the and the forgiveness of sins. a secret virtue. by which. in a these principles. turns men over to the uncove- nanted mercies of the heathen. The followers of the late * Grant. p. nor aspira- no is According to prelatical bishop. The simple want of subjection to a prelatical priesthood. strange as it may seem." Yet. and must be received. owing to the low state of public morals.

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.
Dr. Hobatt unite with that gentleman,
"

None

131

who

says that

can possess authority to administer the sacra-

ments, but those

who have

received a commission from

Church"

the bishops of the (Episcopal)

that

the guilt, and imminent the danger of those,

"great

who

is

negli-

gently or wilfully continue in a state of separation from
the authorized ministrations of the church, and participate

of ordinances administered by an irregular and invalid
authority

;

peace and unity of the

wilfully rending the

by separating from the administration of its
authorized priesthood obstinately contemning the means
church,

;

which God has prescribed
guilty of rebellion

Judge

who

Some high churchmen

impunity."*

not go the

full

only do

it

but their

negatively.

own

Companion

to exist.

we

in a

and

manner

with

are indeed,

other denominations

They
;

they

They will not admit any church
They see no reason whatever to

for the Altar, edition of 1814, pp.

edition of this work,

one,

all

Since this article was written,

been altered

there

length of these statements.

do not positively unchurch

*

will not suffer his institu-

be contemned, or his authority violated

tions to

204.

are

they expose themselves to the awful displeasure

:

of that Almighty Jehovah,

who do

They

for their salvation.

against the Almighty Lawgiver and

find

that

we have

198

—200, 203—

looked into the last

some of these expressions have
mind less offensively, but no

to strike the

suppose, will contend that Dr. Hobart ever changed his sen-

timents on this subject.

We

have here the plain exposition of his

views always maintained by him, and as now maintained by his foland we are therefore fully authorized to appeal to the statelowers
;

ments quoted above.

If there

were reason

to believe that in soften-

ing or generalizing the expressions, Dr. Hobart meant to give up any
part of the ground taken, the case would be different.

presume, no one will say.

But

this,

we

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

132

admit any other. They " are yet to learn" in the words of
Bishop Ravenscroft, " where a promise to fallen man is

on the previous condition,

to be found, that is not limited

he be a member of the visible (Episcopal) Church

that

Now

on earth."

this

negative exclusion

this refusal

acknowledge any other communion as a Church of
Christ
though not so presumptuous or offensive as the
to

positive declarations of bolder

the

same thing

no authority

men, amounts

in all its practical results.

for the rites of other denominations,

none

act as if there ^were

;

and

make

others act so likewise.

all his

endeavors

Indeed, with the final

and perfect revelation of God's will in our hands,

we

own, and we are yet
to

to

say

authority for any church ordinances but our

see no

except

sees

must

which he

in a matter

deems of so much importance, must use
to

precisely

to

He who

where any promise is made
what is it but to say
communion

to learn

those of our

more modest terms, " we do believe there is none ?"
To make any nice distinctions between wn-belief and

in

cZw-belief, in
idle.

far

It is

such a case, does seem

to

us extremely

a subject on which the Scriptures are very

from being

silent,

on which

all

we may

antiquity, if

churchmen, has spoken in the most decisive
and if with all these means of knowledge we

credit high

manner

;

are yet to learn

man can be

where any covenant or promise

single church,

it

is

vain to hope that a

will disclose anything but

who, under

for fallen

found, except within the boundaries of a

all

this light,

institutions of their

have been walking

for those

have rejected the most sacred

Maker.

we apprehend, than that
man leaves thousands

coming eternity

unmingled wrath,

Here, in a condition worse,

of the heathen, the high church-

of Protestant

in faith

churches,

which

and love from the time of the

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.
Reformation

Rome,

present hour

to .the

;

while the Church of

mother of abominations,

that

133

is

freely recognized

as a part of Christ's mystical body, a pillar in the temple

And

of the living God.*

candidates

that

for

the

in

England, have

back from ordination,

for venturing to

ministry, as well in this country as
actually been held

the importance

so great is

sentiments,

attached to these

express the contrary opinion.

Far be

it

from us

however, that such are

to intimate,

The church

universally the sentiments of Episcopalians.

of England, our readers are aware, has witnessed a gra-

dual revival of religion, within the last forty years.

mong

A-

the most active promoters of this revival, were the

two Milners, Dr.

Scott,

Mr. Wilberforce, Mrs. H. Moore,

Mr. Gisborne, Mr. Legh Richmond, and the great body

who were associated in support of the ChrisTo these persons, under God, the Eng-

of writers

tian Observer.

church

lish

which now

is

indebted for nearly

exists within her

all

the spiritual religion,

communion

;

and

for the

share she has taken in the noble efforts of Christian be-

nevolence.
for

them

Actuated by such a

to lay

any

stress

spirit,

on outward

it

was impossible

rites

and ordinan-

ces, as constituting an important part in a title to eternal
life.

*

"

I

do believe the Church of Rome," says Archbishop Laud, "

Were

be a true church.

Church

of

it

were hard

to

for the

England, since from her the English bishops derive their

apostolic succession."
valid the orders~of
.that

she not a true church,

we have

a

its

still

" It
(the

is

obvious from our acknowledging as

Roman

Catholic Church) apostate clergy,

stronger affinity towards that church, than to

other bodies of professing- Christians,

who

hold a doctrine nearly as

pure as our own; thus making the form, rather than the faith, the
constituent and vital principle of a

church.

Grant, to be the high church sentiments.

12

Such

is

Vol. II. p. 7.

admitted by

not by the progress of dissent. Richmond deliberately supposes. (speaking undoubtedly for those of own its sentiments. 134 They modes were." In like manner.000 : "of these. page 155. these principles in the University of The Rev. that Arminian principles first preached In the year 1595. Legh Richmond. that there are perhaps 1. but by restoring a decayed establishment to earlier its With and better principles. * Mr. Mr.600 truly pious men. 123. found not on any express injunction or the merits of their cause delineation of church government in the Scriptures. an Cambridge." It is are Vol. and Bicker- remarks on the Dangers of the Church of Christ. may be gained and the prospects of Protestant piety in Great Britain. totally dis- for claims the jure divino principle affirming that the apostles " left no command which rendered episcopacy universal: ly indispensable in future ages. these while they labored to promote the cause of evangelical religion in their own church." This is thought by some " a too liberal allowance.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. upon the present p. the Christian Observer." high time for those who p. views. Cox. " The Record of February last. they extended the hand of Christian fellowship and affection to the pious of every communion." See Dr. now commonly were a sions. Further light state of the English church. strongly attached of worship spiritual religion and . it is distinctly. by Episcopalian. stith's says. that should be revived. indeed. who love Protestant truth to speak . all were naturally own their to desirous. computes the nu- merical hierarchy of the English establishment at 18. P. Theopneuston. Gisborne example.) " Episcopalians says. were > High Church equally certain. III. for there is none. total associated with * which preten- departure from the original doctrine of the English Church. by referring to the Letter of the Rev. 17. Golightly. C.

do beseech you uttered many to bitter perseverance. and that hath been taught ever since her Majesty's reign." then proceed to state the crime of Barret.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. St. and defended in public schools* and open commencements. tofore. He revoked what he had preached there. quality. " were so generally esteemed in England. being the lights and ornaments of our churchJ" Nor is it wonderful that these novelties produced so much excitement vin. meet in the to repress these novelties as our statutes do appoint. in the faith. therefore required which was accordingly Mary's church. his "impudent challenging of Calvin. articles of religion. of error in the doctrines of faith. Beza. &c. added. that the book hath been accurately translated . Theo- dore Beza. ad clerum. sermon his heads of the colleges. So great was the offense given by great severity on the subject. " during this reign. that they resorted to to the measures of In reporting their proceed- ings to the Chancellor of the University. they say. pardon this my —And rashness . 133 William Barret. in sermons. for." says . " This sermon being so offensive to the church. in most bitter terms. " I also that I words against Peter Martyr. Cambridge. Peter Martyr. about faith. the Institutes of Cal- Stapleton. and the res 1 of the same religion. which was afterwards called Arminianism. and others. Jerome Zanchius. Francis Junius. predestination. viz. as set forth and homilies appointed to be read in churches. fellow of Gonville and Caius College. and contrary to the doc- and condition of trine. according to the sense. without contradiction universities it by such means of doctrine They we thought . and so strongly savoring of the leaven of popery. whom we touched in that never knew in our church here of Barret a public recantation made in They matter.'''' . Zanchius. nature.

but finally." " This article speaketh of the elect. that church during the reign of Henry VIII. but they shall perpetually We wretched sinners do not precontinue and endure. ology at Cambridge and Oxford. and even fixed in the parish churches for the Moreover each of the universities." That these were the principles of the early fathers of points depending thereupon. they rise not." . 136 into English. as cardinal points of the gospel. people to read. says whom : as that it specimens. Their choice of Peter Martyr and Bucer. the English present foundation. are the strongest possible demonstrations of this fact. before the beginning of the world. THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and Edward is equally certain. shall it is God that layeth the first foundajjjon of our sal- vation. continually insisted upon. vent God or go before him in the work of justification. in no faultbe. says. firictthe and kin- dred points. an enemy of Calvin. Paul preacheth predestination. given to none other than those the work and gift whom God the Father. Church was " predestination settled and the were received as the established doctrines of the Church of England. as many cf them as are designed for the ministry. hath predestinated in Christ to eternal life.. doctrine of election. after in the students have finished their circuit in philoso- phy. whether we Cranmer. of jhe In their writings we saints perseverance. are lectured first of all on that book" Heylen.. both Calvinists. says " Faith is of God." springeth alto- shall believe' or not believe. The following passages Tindal says : are offered " God's elect cannot fall. whence gether. as the first professors of the- VI. of the reign of upon its whom under Elizabeth." Bradford the Martyr.

THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. they say. without any virtuous or godly motion. ciples deem their errors. and catholic principles of Cran- mer. and with such the ground of their ecclesiastical preferences. that the historical fact can be clearer than this. for insist so strongly principles. in some degree. so long as they are not made exclusive. are chosen to be is were careful these writers resorted to by Arminians. even on in this country sentiments. as the standard of to the faith are reviled and persecuted. in his Fathers of the English Church. There are many who embrace the same we have no difficulty. Jewell and Ridley. men. 12* will become . It is natural for us to feel modes of worship. not because they believers. by the Rev."* sinful Testimonies of tent . Latimer. Our love for religion itself becomes. kind might be swelled to any ex- this indeed they already fill six large octavo volumes. Homily for " Whitsunday. But when we hear strong attachment to the the principles and institutions of our churches pointedly * The reader will observe how are elected on account of their foreseen faith. made believers. of faith Men itself. but adhering we on churchman- from the early prin- In exposing what we are not only defending which unchurches every other are speaking in behalf of those in who the Episcopal Church. therefore. from which the above extracts as collected No are taken. who in these High Church latter days ship. Legh Richmond. in which we have been educated. are chargeable with a departure of the Episcopal Church. identified with an attachment to that with which it has always been associated. without one spark of goodness in him. viz off the evasion afterwards The very : to cut that men existence the thing contemplated in predestination. ourselves against that spirit we denomination. Man of his 137 own nature is and disobedient.

we shall some general remarks on the system of high church and Arminian principles. all this is associated with the severest reprobation of the doctrinal sentiments we maintained in our churches. those are in a state of who are in a state of grace or The former are described as "-children condemnation. that they were a stronger hand. who to the human of wrath. The Scriptures divide the whole family into two great classes. ." the latter as the " children of God-'> one as "alienated" and " enemies in their The minds by . the foundation of these high pretensions. to inquire It is farther into Their in. our communion. offer 4. are in our view. not our . and through the press almost every part of our country in who would join those when . and others equally attached to Leaving the English Establishment. utter futility strated. It is never put has been a thousand times demon- indeed a striking down with fact. and by Archbishop Whately of Dublin. than by Episcopal writers.THE '-CHRISTIAN 138 -CITIZEN!. and to ex- amine the principles of those who are thus unsparing their condemnation of ours. diametrically opposed Word of Gad. or trampled more triumphantly in the dust. in conversation. are repressed with the most solemn admonitions. The conditions of salvation as laid down by the high church writers. as a departure from the ordinances established by Christ . that they are departing from the appointed way of salvation and when . when such sentiments are zealously in- culcated.intention however. we think. Stillingfleet and Sir Peter King. and those favor with God. at present. from the pulpit. condemned. especially more by Bishop recently. more especially as maintained by the followers of the late Bishop Hobart. that are called upon to speak in our defense. this part of the subject in their hands.

when committed." " children of God. he must of course be saved. this sentiment Baptism : and in we suppose most high churchmen coin- " In this regenerating ordinance (baptism) fallen cide. that heirs to the possible to the simple act of baptism prepares the soul for heaven ? It makes its subjects " heirs of the kingdom. baptized persons) as regenerate called into a state of salvation. they repent of sin to put their trust in Christ." The one of Christ's body. The most important question." " in a state of grace or salvation. that can be asked this side of the eternal world. children of Now. is efThis makes them in a moment " children of God." affirm more strongly. made members as of kingdom of heaven. What man." God and as having " no hope the other as " partakers " heirs of the kingdom " of his dear Son. as . But must go on to True. which translates him from a into a state The change in of condemnation of grace or favor with God ? followers of Dr. to that great change in their character the and which no man can see the Lord. man is that state born again from a state of condemnation into a is " Our church. is this. Hobart answer. and end of life. is this the doctrine of the New Testament ? the act of a fallible man thus remove the condemning sen- condition. Christ . p. . Now. and without God in the of the promises " and world made . " in all her services." says Dr. we Can ask. wicked works members 139 the other as " reconciled " to ." and should any individual among them die at that moment. we ask. is it God . 186. Hobart in his volume of sermons. without fected by baptism * See ! Companion for the Altar. considers bap- grace" state of tized Christians (i."* must continue in this state. e.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

trie soul will agree. 140 tence of God. " Camdon We Chapel. that the church holds what is He adds." &c. 1 services. that the prayer-book was compiled Spirit. evening. morning. the whole Bible have we any in intimation of such a fact 1 What too." according to the forms of (the) prayer-book. regenerate. and yet deny that every baptized person is. unless the all The ? renew- ing influence of the Spirit. and secure the salvation of supposition. Then shall the min' porate him into thy holy church. ther. No wonder that feel that the many evangelical and consciencious of this church prayer-book should be "reformed. oi It is Is this regenera- not perhaps gener- chiefly the from the three Roman Catholic's . erate. on What he means by this regeneration is that account. The Rev. and the The utmost 1 ? Are be termed "life from the dead?" they without exception crucified world crucified subject stretch of charity will not authorize the supposition. for he adds. which speaks of baptism in the following terms " guage of prayer." ister say. to receive him for thine own child by adoption." and salvation by grace tion by the ally known. I do not see how I can be commonly honest. " the church does not hold that all who are thus regenerate. does invariably attend the ad- But where ministration of the ordinance of baptism. is the testimony of experience on this Do all baptized persons in the Episcopal church give evi- dence of so entire which that great spiritual change.* * In this unscriplural sentiment. after referring to the really think no fair. that this child is regen- and grafted into the body of Christ's church by baptism. as to to is them to the world. " So long as I officiate called baptismal regeneration." . can never need any further moral change. and the litany. no straight-forward dealing can get rid of the conclusion. most merciful Fa- hath pleased thee to regenerate this Infant with thy Holy ! Seeing. we are aware that Episcopalians are sustained by the express terms of their prayer-book. says. dearly beloved brethren. and to incorAnd again. of above expressions. Mr. Spirit." not so clear. and absolute. that it We — even incorporated into the lan- yield thee hearty thanks. in order for fitness for heaven and yet he says again.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. " he is born again from above. Melville. is impious.

This outward formly represented mere symbol of a as the change which was supposed already " Can any man place them title to ?" How x." me different ____ revision to render No if invariably followed j liturgy. this " Christ. to in a " state of grace " they " have received the Acts they uni- forbid water. if I I inrlu- — needs a further Word of God. baptism never alluded is to but once. should be deficient in did not acknowledge that susceptible of improvement. men them " a could the apostle more directly contra- not surprising that so it is why high church principles light." says Peter." not to baptize." instantly to place them in a " state V No of salvation In ! all which the the directions apostles gave to sinners. " that these should not be baptized To rite to . exhorta- and entreaties tions. While wonder that it it is he had ever imagined. But . " candor and truth. the influence of the dict the Holy baptize these — to give No Spirit ?" Holy Ghost ? Considered in little stress was was laid on bap- How &c.141 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. The apostles too — did they act like men who believed the of baptism to be. they had. all their labors. reasonings. % mere symbol of a change already experienced^ tism by the apostles. it either safe. .invariably followed by deliverance rite from condemnation. as recorded in the Acts. when and by " this re- once : generating ordinance. and then as following. Seeker and Porteous. only to bring their them to baptize at hearers to Christ. but to preach the gospel. Wake. not leading to faith in Christ. as a spiritual have taken place. and so think thousands more who are compelled use it. ? then. or consistent with the Archbishop Whately says. and the renewal of the heart from on high Why. 47. " sent would have been his language that baptism * but because as well as we." says Paul. by renewing vastly improved from this." '•-' I think our liturgy So thought Tenison. .

) is nothing. . is more direct contradiction of the Word of " REPENt. he that feareth Him." he says. " will not of themselves be effectual to Other high churchmen our salvation. and obe- the sacrament of baptism." But these pretensions reach we can obtain a Others with farther." proving something but wholly inde- are the contradictions to the in the sentiments in question ? . faith. God has added. but a new birth is not only any outward Such God involved nothing. Hobart declare.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. 142 ences from on high of administering it. (God. the the most awful and is Armed with such power." nothing to the therefore is know and believe contrary of this. dom.) and worketh righteousness is accepted of Him. and the practical effect precisely the same." " Believe on the Lord " The gospel is Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved. Here." Such are the conditions of salvation as pointed out in the Scriptures." salvation to every one that believ- " In every nation. Not one word is said of baptism or peculiar church rela- tionship as indispensable to salvation. and wra-cir- new creature rites. still Dr." God. in a single sentence. Regarded ! rogative ever conferred on man. that " the only mode through which those blessings (of the gospel) title to is " Repentance. had only the apostle to persuade power momentous pre- in this light. and they were instantly conmade " children of God. Word of rite. that your sins may be blotted out. that the entirely distinct from pendent of them. " Circumcision (to which baptism succeeds as a all different form of the same cumcision is demonstrably." if possible a the still power of God unto eth. we apprehend." dience. " Thy faith hath saved thee." and " heirs of the king- verted. and as if to silence pretensions of this kind. men to receive the wash- ing of water at his hands.

believe that their depravity only such easy expedients is removed. lay him low in the dust him to utter despair of relief from any human intervention or aid. —they . for a moment. and to continue in the observance of stated rites. and to drive most distinguished bling tendency." says the " Oh." exclaimed Paul. on the spiritual state of those who are educated in their belief." am. in dust and ashes. ask. that all tural representations of the condition by nature. and its ple reception of ordinances — feel that it is trifling. in view of the Now we deep depravity of his heart. to the scrip- and character of men Their direct painful.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. will entirely fall short of any such views of their character and condition Is there whom now no one whose eye rests on these pages. Even in the before God. " and repent that I my mother in iniquity. They urge him to instantaneous and unreserved submission to God. . confirmed. " and in sin did wretched man we hum- " I abhor myself. Nothing can be more certain than this. remove to 1 to to since it ? make them requires it Do they not curse avoided by the sim- that they have only to be baptized. would now turn. 143 to consider the influence of such doctrines." says Job. are deeply humbling and tendency is to alarm the sinner. they have been made christians by bap- they observe the services of the church . and heirs They enter on a course of of the kingdom of heaven 1 religious duty tism ." " I see the evidence of this was shapen Psalmist. strange and unaccountable Is 1 it not the tendency of the views in which multitudes are educated. that impenitent sinners. We 5. under the influence of the sentiments in question. seems the language just quoted from the scriptures. is there not the utmost danger. their sins washed away. and they are regenerated. and themselves made children of God. conceive me. saints.

" it is which that grace imparted.'" every sabbath.* they are saluted as " children of the and heirs of heaven. which is A right- neither bor- rowed from the Redeemer's merits. at which time. they are re-assured of " a title to all the privileges and blessings of Christ's purchase." vows of reli- given to is At length they are confirm- to profit withal.. announced to them. nor perfected by the Holy Spirit.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. 144 . not to be fully persuaded of'the certainty and baneful effects of this influence. eousness is thus created in the soul. they are by that it. the God is —"nourishing every man ed. We have and had too much experience in this kind of service in these sentiments.— all hold a constituent part in divine worship which. told. if ? all this Do on the unsuspect- they not imagine that they simply persevere in the course on which they have thus entered ? As they have been baptized.Holy rite firmation. The responses and observances of the sanctuary. that the. and received the last ordinance of consecration from one professedly delegated to open the kingdom of heaven. rise heaven. that they " have a title to the kingdom of vice. and they are taught to believe so. and as they rise from the is along with connected^ and they are cultivating their good feelings or gious natures Ghost grace of of con- kingdom Having taken on themselves the their godfathers and godmothers. as additional securities of God's-vfavor. It is a righteousness wrought out by the * Where Where ? is there any authority in the Bible for such a ceremony !! ." Now what is the influence of ing disciples of this system they are sure of salvation. they think of course. Every repetition of prescribed devotional serbecomes an advancing step in their sanctification.

is told to question. to What violence that for ? How is pos- of their guilt and danger necessity can there be. that on authority which while repentance. " It has already commenced. We appeal to every man who has preached such persons. spoken of in the scriptures. faith and obedience. the panoply of meet and conquer the powers of hell ? Such is things they consider as belonging to a different society." the opus operatum. this is " the curing a " title to effectual to his the " only mode" of se- the blessings and privileges of Christ's Who purchase. Here simple and easy service of church prescription. the sinner rests his he has no wish hope and . will not of themselves be salvation. is not to lock view of Him who We do not wish to say ly unable to discover how it searcheth the heart? invidiously. the . It is 13 a" title to salvation. feel sure of salvation. whether he has not found to his instructions fall utterly powerless on their minds. differs from that of the Papists. but the thorough going we are utter- High Church doctrine on this subject." to listen feelings.145 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. to pointed statements as sinners which men Where God. it with any but indignant state of and as having no just or natural application to themselves. in the (a) and this system. An is exclusive divine right to confer claimed equally by both. in their view. with a seriousness and pungency borrowed from the word of God. in proportion to the tiplication of prescribed ordinances? mul- pressed with If the necessity of a spiritual regeneration." would not mode" and under the belief of such a system. and we are advancing cheerfully forward to its full such persons sible for completion. whether the whole tendency of up the soul in a state of fearful insensibility to their real condition. their answer is ready. are to press into the with kingdom of heaven? the need of that armor of Paul.

Yet we are constrained to ask. in the nature of the systems." See Mr. It is with pain that we have alluded. sects or denominations. and. at all. that he be a member of the visable ( i. e. the same. and " The Churches of of England and France. tems there certainly is something like identity.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. Ferguson's Lectures p. was the refusing to while exposing the errors of : We agree with the continue such acknowledgment. and that which dissolved our union with this church. was the acknowledging the Pope as our ecclesiastical head. that is not limited on the previous condition. says : " matize or curse the principle of protestantism." is the axiom of the one and we find much the same in the declarations. 10. with its all forms. There is no salvation out of the Roman Church. Melville. says " That which made us a part of this church." and rate it is we are sepa- I utterly reject and anathe- a matter of regret that from Rome."* We have no disposition to run the parallel far- " ." they say. " Baptism is the only mode. " I have yet to learn where a promise to fallen man is to be found. " are one and tant within the pale of the prelacy. Rome. to these remains of the " old doctrine" amongst any members of a Protestant church." etc. Palmer's Letters and Tracts for the Times. save in the extent to which abuses In the structure of the two sys- carried." ford Episcopalians as to this affinity. . ) Episcopal Church upon earth. that they We Ox- are not sur- deny the right of Episcopacy to claim war against every thing Protes- the Protestant name."f * Bishop Ravenscroft. as a heresy. which in the view of both secures this title. Romanism. what is the specific difference ver but little if may have been 1 We two can disco- any. 146 outward act. prised. ther. t One of the Oxford divines.

and are all along treated as the gospel treats those only. review. and the difference of strength . " address their auditors almost promiscuously as Christians. because professedly and by the sacrament of baptism they are such. that in- which only to ripen to the full not admit that there is among men. and lay them. to bring home the searching truths radical distinction of inspiration. is sinful. The beyond which. presupposing in fusion of grace or principle of moral goodness." The'se remarks were called forth by the following passage from the Sermons of the late Bishop Hobart. school. tion of them. any all.147 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. which has been created by a change of their moral natures. which enters so deeply into man's Their advocates present character and future prospects. Our view. which God nounces men sed to desperate wickedness. or to create "a belief in that plague of the heart. address their hearers alike . who are new " The preachers of this creatures in Christ Jesus. " No limit can be prescribed gence in pleasure tion of human to all persons. not merely as needing to be exhorted to higher advances in goodness and virtue. requires a careful cultivation in They do maturity of holiness. except in name . the righteous and the wicked. seem to us to The opinions and practices under (b. is. indul- variety in the constitu- character." says the London Christian Observer. therefore be addressed. All are pro- suppo- have some goodness from the beginning. but to become Christians in the spiritual sense of the term.) destroy that broad distinction between sin and holiness. all. with the authority of the Almighty upon the consciences of men aware. and we are not class of divines is cal- culated to disturb the conscience of the sinner. They are not accustomed therefore. and should. on the other hand. that the preaching of this . that a large por- are not Christians.

kingdom of heaven. Is it at some period of their lives. places at different degrees. it might lead. (we what kind) according to the strength of all the not of passion in differ- ent individuals. if any. and in a conformity wholly inconsistent with the piety that the preachers of it whom we now to enjoins. that gave birth to this passage and the consequences to volume which in which it appears. tions of these preachers. We sinfuL" are alarm- the oversight. that most of the congregation are. it leads to a in respect to Christian character saying to to believe it. that few. a fatal delife We know speak.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. many % And thus." al- But " the children of God. who are that they are Christians. sometimes lude to a future and endless retribution of misery. except those all. under indulge in those pleasures of the gospel forbids."* To what does this want of discrimination in preaching directly lead As ? in regard to truth it want of discrimination and communion. to feel that * Review Observer. within the circle of their ministrations. especially in the We see nothing in know Bible warranting allowance in pleasure. as of Bishop Hobart's Sermons in the London Christian . the point. are found suffi- ciently depraved. not a fact indeed. surely the " heirs of the which the world. which are the divinely appointed seals of experimental piety lusion. invited and urged to partake of those ordinances. where indulgence becomes Well does ed at " the Christian Observer add." cannot consider themselves as exposed to such Such are the accustomed address and instruc a doom. 148 in the passions of different individuals. they deserve such tremendous punishment. It is wicked too grossly want of discrimination arises from a and religious experience.

a confidence and hope should thus be engeadered. that is eternal.we conceive. one together. any evil must be. that most. and the favor of God. of necessity destroys the scriptural dis- between the righteous and the wicked for it will be remembered. common family. which leads to this indiscriminate treatment of the mixed multitudes of a worshipping as- And this sembly. which tion of at High Church ordinances. which rest not on any distinct sense of union of soul to Christ. which How are said to natural expand is it . feel as moving on 149 we mistake not. a belief in native grace. from every soul that has been brought under the protec- vor. together with the supposed efficacy attached to baptism. and has less of practical virtue and efficacy. (c. is more evangelical than of our jurisprudence. if not all. with the assurance of his everlasting complacency. not on a feeling of unreserved to the law and government of God. under the saving culture of their reli- gious services." and have tinction . If their congregations as a body. or a remnant of moral It is goodness in the heart. have adopted " the mode" and " the anly mode" of securing " a title to the blessings and privileges of Christ's purchase. that ishment the security such ministrations. This we cannot but be- lieve is destroying the very foundation of the Christian system.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.) It is owing to this fact. than is found in the code of law civil : and that bright feature makes exposure to eternal punof its oaths. that 13* Unitarianism . those native and nurtured principles of resemblance to God. but on a hope built upon man's na- submission whom we attitude tive and cherished fitness for God's eternal presence and fa- once sweeps away the fear of eternal wrath.that into the perfection of holiness. against were conscious of having stood forth in the of rebellion.

and his dependence on special and distinguishing grace for the renewal of the entire Where heart. it become followers to not been for the deci- ded piety and evangelical sentiments of that portion of the Church of England to which we have affectionately alluded the and the and Arian probably have indomitable Socinian of spirit classes of civil liberty. few terms. are prevalent. in a High Church principles." we have we to be are not called our fears. 150 has always made so little community where progress. and him for which sends Savior. Are any offended with that kind of preaching which shows man his utterly depraved and ruined condition. to prepare any great extent. they can find a an almighty relief to refuge from such humbling and painful admonitions. prayers of holy us that We all is yet men sin of schism. the speculative question of the Trinity. and the'sighs and in that venerable communion. assure not right. bat . un- who der the soothing messages of those. with consciences too tender guilty of the " upon to decide damning . It is not.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. which makes men Unitarians it is a settled dislike of the doctrine of man's the soul for heaven. There is no demand for Unitarianism in such a community. treat all their hearers as made "heirs of God" in baptism. have already intimated. and as need- ing only the steady culture of inherent grace. to : want of holiness by nature. how many of be found reposing under its this char- august protection and ample patronage. England would found the thirty-nine barriers of the Es- tablishment less formidable and her shade more expansive and refreshing acter may : and even now. these doctrines can be escaped on easier any inducement will find And had of Arius or Socinus. that the foregoing are applicable not to the Episcopal Church as remarks such.

Dr. feel with the excellent on Hooker. 151 members who have departed from to a portion of its catholic principles." never to We In this it is our purpose engage. have publicly spoken in terms far stronger than any which we have used. that " ten words spoken in the spirit of meekness. we Church upon the for our support of shall here rest for our vindication at the present time. viewing the sentiments before us. and not men. may with feelings whom we of entire kindness towards those from is. safe or creditable to Christianity to cherish at as we have relied almost exclusively firm friends of the Episcopal other opinions. are subversive of the gospel plan of salvation. that and our earnest prayer subject. of Concerning ginal founders. it And There to it is In avoid the charge of unchari- with those of whom we a charity which the world is neither covet. in the same light that we do. nor feel all. that the principles before us. this opinion we wish tableness. are better than volumes of controversy. we cannot be expected to see them urged industriously on those of our own communion. have expressed our convictions. The respected and learned prelate of the Ohio diocese. principles. differ. has given most extended and able work to the public his in its vindication against the attacks of Episcopal writers. the its ori- of the most pious and devoted members of that church. we have that all parties. And we speak It against is spoken this . or to share not worthy. both in England and America. Believing the principles in question to be unscriptural and dangerous.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. without occasionally expressing our sentiments. with that necessary formalism which attends them. many this defection. and self-abasing doctrines. as utterly subversive of the doc- trine of justification by grace. Mcllvane. and we can urge no .

with the able and Christian expostulations of Archdeacon Hare. I would fain hope. which environs and with mountains of frost. " which has been brought forward somewhat prominently by certain very amiable and pious men in our days." says he. the blessed communion of all faithful peo- collective is ple. You would join with me. except the same Episcopal body unto the end of the world. — according to to the most which the chief . as the apostles none must flatter — and that it was supposed that none themselves they it. and of the way of salvation. all representatives of the Episcopal body. the catholic spirit as chills. close this array of evidence in support of our posi- and in of our course in this justification brief review. fill the pages of this only wonder and regret. that our Lord's promise was not made to the body of His church. — but exclusively. 152 stronger adverse arguments." men should have taken up such a notion. any man can stop short of the rejection of the whole system of formalism and ecclesiastical exclusiveness. to that body of which He the Head. and tendencies of a divine Christianity. We tions. which leads straightway revolting conclusions. which would wrap up the free spirit of have the slightest share in the gospel in the swathing bands of forms and cere- monies. such clear and distinguishing views of truth. namely. in all nations confined to the and through ages. and would tether it to a " That amiable and pious name. in the earnest desire to purge our church from all remains of that Judaizing Romish superstition.— THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. whom we recognize as a bishop of the Episcopal Church of England. are embraced in it. than review of Oxford that with We divinity. "I cannot but make mention of a notion.

still cannot bear to think that the veil of the temple should have been rent we still cannot bear that the Gentiles should have a free approach to the Holy of holies neighbors should come to . interdict recklessly declared to stand on a level with the heathen. we cannot bear that our by any other road than ours. we awe from up under anything that they should not look carefully anxiously round for some if it every object of our peculiar interest and affection. — most compulsory. have resolved that it is to of its the best is make the only one. * * * I can only express my regret that. not content with proving that it form of church government. and to be the uncovenanted mercies of God. demonstration. and a righteous self-distrust fore it is : no. form of government. advocates. few examine its fewer examine the foundations of other — founded on churches with patience. and there- We the only true one. left to and pious that able men should not shrink with such a notion. where such strong arguments in favor of Episcopacy may be drawn it many from the history and idea of the church. is the which the selfishness of man takes refuge and barricades itself and it can hardly be thrown down altogether. truth. so long as we continue here last wall of the citadel in . Our form of government must be below. nay. that they should take less than the clearest. into idols. and honesty. not because foundations it . remember how prone we all are to convert appalling conclusions.THE CHRISTIAN 153 CITIZEN. not because because it is ours. by a part of Protestant Christendom is cast out at once sweeping is from the pale of Christ's Church. is still it is the only good a good one. and have tried to rest it out upon . and candor. but Our church must be the only church. even This the objects of our purest worship. our church is ours. most did not irresistible — mode and of escaping from such might be deemed unaccountable.

for his people is form of church government or one man can set up. 154 grounds. might have justified us. on the sible than strength of which it has been attempted to establish the absolute necessity of Episcopacy to the existence of a Christian Church. And we should re- had the advocates of these doctrines and principles. but a to new creature. been contented to enjoy them. weakens their cannot discover the shadow of a word in I the gospels to counterbalance the interpretation referred Feeble and flimsy as are the scriptural arguments. in the name and that all nations were to of the Father. in passing them unnoticed joice. at this time. to. to render the salvation not tied to other. and the almost uniform disposition of religious denominations in this country." The to the little regard which has for some years been paid principles under review. carefully beware of that most and narrow-minded of monopolies which would monopolize the grace of God. in the view of many. — narrower it which Christ wrought any its Let us rejoice that still. on which the Romanists maintain the inalienable macy pri- of St. they are far more specious and plau- those derived from the same source. nor anti-Episcopacy. without claiming the right to invalidate the basis of . nether Episcopacy availeth anything. Peter. which in fact only scriptural For cause. or that man Let us rejoice that in Christ Jesus anything that to can pull down. as to doctrine and forms. my brethren. and of the Holy Ghost. The way to life is narrow hurtful us not throw up any fresh mounds by enough: let side. and of the Son. be preached be baptized Let us rejoice that the gospel was to all nations. to leave each other in the undisturbed enjoyment of their respective and peculiar preferences. within their own commu- nion." " Let us.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN.

Car. of Detroit. as unscriptural and all vain. others are deeply feeling the same. N. Rev. Rev. of No man world. but they corrupt the truth. the dearest rights of mankind. nor desire for contro- versy that has governed us. M. with ' Go- Noli me tangert. Rev. P. and admonishing of the evils. and as the Christianity. and with their characteristic intelligence and charity are speaking plainly. are its bound to unite in the spirit for its universal spread.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. every man's right and every These things belong whose ceaseless pulsation is the electric life man's most 'necessary possession. Dr. 155 other churches. on No man lives unto himself. pretensions entrench. of Canandaigua. not alone in feeling the necessity of such a review. the is common for We are all directly interest- they relate to mind. all ministrations but their These exclusive own. not the morbid sensibility of a solitary . vindicating their views of the gospel against the urgency of exclusive principles — showing that mind alone that is it is affected. R.. Duffield.' in- He lives and acts on mind. ed in these things. we find Dr. is " Truth every man's concernment. in connexion with many of the Episcopal Church. L. Thompson. M. souls immortal. * Without concert or interchange of views. No man scribed on his portals.* It is not sectarian officiousness." to the heart. of New Jersey. Smith of S. dies alone. and counteract the common influences of our war upon make And we are and thus Christianity. Bethune of Philadelphia. not alone upon the rights of other churches. and mind property of man every where. which they apprehend necessarily result from the princi- ples before us. as we have Many given. We heirs of a common warm charity of are members one of another. and to proscribe. Murray. the can entrench himself in his church or beneath the dignity of thic antiquity office or station of and strength. &c.

enough to bury the gospel in a cloister. so it its jurisdiction . Ed. 223-25. . ." 5 Denying the " independence" and pel vitality of the gos- under whatever forms of "visible maintenance. and if is not acfar as the most work permitted to must turn back the current of human affairs a thousand years."* We have reluctantly come to the conclusion we have been we driven farther and farther from what- . that the English now. any system of opinions. pp. but in a sepulchre. not in a church.' likely many. but to the higher glory seems scarcely It local is not indeed to the dis- . Am. denies the very name of christian to may whatever may be found beyond its knowledge such a system. and has been separate from the papacy.— in risible will the paragement of its puri- to be a understood. . and especially as histo- and geographically defined. in proportion as it felt is independence of whatever spiritual religion. rather driven to the conviction. is benign. the purport and tendency of which is to give an unusual prominence and a paramount that importance rically to visible institutions. * Taylor's Spiritual Christianity. are indeed. a discipline of the secret. and would confine the blessings of the its will. 156 li ty In proportion as the gospel and its power ." shall find ourselves M ever whatever is substantial. whatever sonable in the Christian system. to need proof.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. or takes effect. so fondly embraced by ism. and which with a se- vere consistency. stands opposed to whatever auspicious in the present age. along with the last hopes of happiness for mankind. that pale. until we prelacy is is rea- gloomy find a home. (its) and is ^ more appear visible institutions of the spiritual reality. gospel within limits narrower than those of ancient Juda- These exclusive opinions.

declared. is the conflict of argument. and the pious been more Henry completely separated from Romish corruption. had VIII. may now be of Well has Dr. but from the force of private animosities and political alienations. in conflict Genevan. Pu- systems of doctrine are now. day. and And it is ry — will if pre^ Let God the umpire* equally true." in conflict with Luther and the Truth. the reasonableness of Puseyism. not for the last time. more widely separate. be conflict. in the heart of the Episcopal communion. it. " pared for Let the issue be joined. truth our weapons. and itual Christianity lision —there ples are the head of the Church of England. It and not of arms . remained " the defender of the faith. as unnatural and de- manding a revulsion arid return to the whence cient fraternity. that a corresponding spirit is abroad in the world. Two sey. are now. charity be our spirit. not from an}* native or original incongruities. till such opposing princiit is the rising and And has summoned forth spirit of the one. it bosom of the prelacy sprung. we see no insurmountable way Hence we perceive obstacles in the of their speedy and cordial reunion. sanctified. that there must be col- — the Catholic and The world mind redeemed. instead of becoming the ene- my As of Rome. and those of one can mistake their . 14 No equality. in conflict for the maste- the free institutions of law and and arbitrary distinctions. free. warring against the state affinities of the church. must. doubtful whether the Reformation is that an- And to this would not have been saved her severest check. remonstrating . and probably for the last time. that the redoubled energies of the other. Two classes of civil institutions. And but for geographical distinctions." formalism and spir- so closely allied. and error are so blended truth it is.THE CHRISTIAN 157 CITIZEN". and the respective heads of these two hierarchies.

than in mortification just- at the de- possible. Ferguson. that in the amplitude of is and the easy terms of their communion. the severer requisitions of the gospel and in the may enforcement of formalism. there may its be excluded. In the language of Mr. in pity to feat of others. that under existing circumstances. 158 respective religious affinities. And it is more own in defense of our principles. them in silence.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. such. as probationers for eternity. their claims to the every Christian citizen. that It is as and argument. neither intimidate nor overawe us. it pected. its vance are clear and confident. their increase. with The all their confi- claims to venerable antiquity. or the conditions of grace. It them. advocates of high church exclusiveness and formal- ism. and cessary resist their advances. in charity to lofty sentiments before us. dence with which they are urged.* in these principles. the we bound feel meet. than of we speak aggression upon those of others. advocates have We and cannot be ex- if ne- regret the neces- imposed upon us to so. and we admit their more ness. . " cannot —we it is because we dare not concur in such views and senti* Robert Hall. The extension thus gained parts to the And while there manding our above all is but the '''extension death im- body" when the soul has much so is attention. are not silent as to the triumphs of their cause. that The at all. their influence on the popu* confidence and support of lar mind. and the spirituality of religion. de- citizens of a free state. nor inactive in urging Their predictions of ad- claims. or fail to sity do which their we should pass canvass their claims. as fled. acceptance as be forfeited the vital energies of the atonement.

would heal the wound of the first. hope." We come forward in the name of no party. in our view most remarkable remore threatening to her piety and her church. unre- to opinions. sympathy which and which seems diffusing it to her receives influence. that spirit . than were the Normans state securities in this country. be in direct opposition to will of God. 11 — 15." says Dr. Silence monstrant submission spiritual now would Christianity. we are willing abide the to issue. when the advocates of a must speak out. and as Pro- testants. a most solemn obligation. that would exclude us from the Church of God. and as Christians. . "but the time has come. " to choose our side." of these principles. but speak what every Christian minister should speak in defense of truth. * See Revelations.* and inflict death upon the sacred interests of truth. common sense it . and what every Christian And we citizen should seriously review. xiii. freedom and grace lay upon the friends and advocates of a spiritual religion. — it because such doctrines not only insult our is reason. its which animated the beast of the Apocalypse. waking up that strange . and desecrate our sacraments." much longer. " to remain neuter part. and the " I civil rights of mankind. beginning with that trogression in England. treason to the truth and disloyalty to Christ. be falsehood." assured that. in the form of the second.THE CHRISTIAN merits . and which. that we now venture to are called upon by the advocates his church and the souls of We oppose them. Bethune. and injurious — dangerous is because we word and to the to the interests of men. will be itself to take a This we have done long before now. speak plainly. Recent events. but offend our them believe 159 CITIZEN. that the advocates of these principles.

* t down to the present hour. reason and conscience See Mr. revolution more it is possible.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. principles of our " constitutional confederacy."f results. too pure in itself for human respiration. than a For the more remote standing army. Adams' Lecture on the Nature of Government. It is certainly a after remarkable fact." be successfully carried out. the no arguments can enlighten the acknowledgement of principles. " monarchy in the church conducive to monarchy in the state and quite as perilous our government to is civil to freedom. of England. and so vigorously urged. that these principles* being so ably defended. . and the Augustan ages of learning. 3 i. that These exclusive papal associations. for centuries. can a easily or safely be brought about."* cannot be endured nor the mingled . have seen ecclesiastical modi- institutions greatly fying the forms of civil government. with professed divine and yet the prelacy. communion of Is the heart so unyielding. we will not be answerable. that in no way. will themselves re-examine the and workings on the their legitimate interests of We and religious civil mankind. ments on earth." if be regarded in the light of an ex- periment. 160 ground of their defense. separate from the most limited is nominal Christians. than by inculcating the principles of prelatical. " that more efficient support to monarchy. diocesan Epis- copacy. the whole family of human mind so dull . its to centuries of darkness. should have made so little progress with the They have had the patronage and support of the proudest governintelligent portion of the Christian world. p. Charles II. though urged through and no motives persuade truth? and exclusive rights. or if we have come to the conclusion that the " oxygenized element of democracy. and as we have ever found.

Must it not be found in the cause itself? We are free to say. heaven's sources of their faith. the world with Unsustained. they now advance in strength and triumph. in intelligent communities. 14* - at easily home. by their own instinctive vitality. Compare the period of the " Commonwealth " and the two reigns succeeding. nor at war with the innocent fashions and habits of life. at this late day. while its . but and the exhaustless re- hope and charity. and and cramp we regret that limits so restricted. Nor can we measure the exact extent of the English hierarchy affinities to the state remain. claims. we cannot receive as evidence of the actual advancement of hicrh church principles. confine They seem entrenched their greatest minds. anything like a permanent basis or a general prevalence. that there are difficulties in their common for the prin- fruits of their way from their hostility principles of our depraved nature.161 THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. heathen millions converted. under the patronising auspices of the government. They are not singularly hostile to the indulgences of the flesh. remonstrate. But we find no> such proportionate growth ciples under review. and reject their foundation be defective 1 At least.* any unusual to the no such And Ave adminis- are not aware. narrow bounds. like Sampson grinding in * The reputed' extension of the English Church at the mill of in the East Indies and elsewhere. leaving heathenism to absolute idolatry almost entirely unchecked. The difficulty cannot lie here. and the light of the promised day. attestation to their right and succession to the covenant mercies of God. we Must not their think their advo- cates must despair of securing for them. Other denominations have arisen and filled the light of truth and the charity of God. their trophies. and tration anywhere. that we do not envy the circum* stances to which the advocates of these principles are subjected.

losing the aid of their is We light of their genius. in such per- severing exclusiveness and rigid formalism In excom- 1 municating every other church. of our common Redeemer. if they are not doing injustice to themselves. an exclusive system strong attachment to primitive Christianity tions of the church. constrained to ask the friends and advocates of High Church principles. lament their . the pul- sations of that piety. like the blinded Nazarite at Gaza. as well as unkindness to others. be doing and the of Christ spirit ? they not lose the breathings of that charity. pro- pitious for doing We \o and getting good. at the fondness. which is the and the foretaste of repose in all life communion of everlasting ? the saints. And whatever to the honor obstructs or . cordially to unite with every follower of God.THE CHRISTIAN 162 The world the Philistines. should esteem it the highest honor of a free citizen. only to die amid We are its ruins. in instructing and saving the world from the bondage of error and death. springing from the corrup- grew to eollossal greatness of night." the robed Mandarins of pre-eminent sun-light and glory. the whole brotherhood of man : and hail as and it free- would be the richest happiness of our earthly state. but like the walled inmates of that remote and exclusive land. men. and lived into the light. bestow the boon of universal liberty. they appear dark to surrounding beholders. and the CITIZEN". resolute. they not also. strength. wonder v/e to its wasting strength. and entrenching themselves in limits so narrow. only from with which they fasten amid ages identity of its And interests with dynasties of oppression. • unknown to which. •violence to May the law of may love. cling- ing to the pillars of the temple. They may indeed the complacency of the heirs of the " Celestial Empire. and lost to the rich benefits of this enlightened age.

and thephrensy of the " fifth monarchy men. there can be no exclusive ter- universal brotherhood of fer of salvation no separating walls ritories. assuming wisdom without learning. for her own enlightenment and the reciprocal benefit of man- we have nothing to say. that China. also. 163 impairs this union. a radical and reckless spirit in religion know there is a wild " democ- ? which in its actings alone upon the state. superior holiness without practical piety lent in denunciation and reckless. we have . shall if open her vast territory to the ingress of nations. as vio- we . would demolish her wall of separation. and necessary. shut out for ages in pride and contempt of the world beside. regenerate the world. all truth is : we approach ciples. . in love expansion . But while we have the wild and levelling will say. in faint resemblance to the may now It be seen burning and bloody terrors of the Ana-Baptists of the sixteenth century. We we in will say nothing of " democracy" in the state ." and in the church. opposes the purposes of mercy. commercial community claim. all believers under Christ. racy." as kindling the very fires of fanaticism.THE CHRISTIAN CITIZEN. and keeps back the millennial The enlightened and state of man. and the Of the kind. gion. But on the principles of a mankind in sin and in the profby Christ." of the commonwealth of England. error has prin- the advocates of an exclusive reli- ever believing in the high law of " Christian the active law of evangelical diffusion . is u deadly the uncombined element of oxygen.. charity and union of to free With these no shelter from discussion and invasion. . common Christianity. that any form. upon the principles of national fraternity. morality of this. but we have no fears of an aristocracy here. And of this we We are not to despair.* in the duty. spirit of ignorant religionists.

and probably never will have. with these Lord moving upon confusion and night pass we shall see the face of the away . emigrating Cavaliers of the wasted dynasties of the Stuarts. with equal lordliness. But the sword. but assuming and exclusive. and exclude from the covenant mercies of God. trusting in ters . no suc- cession for a spiritual religion to state endowments. and faithful. mitigated the se- an imperial prelacy. shall usher in the pro- mised day ^realizing to the believer the fullness or God. the claim upon the ground of our The Bible and the Bible only. spirit of at the is here the same that. common we may " citizenship." we would go on "unto perfection. What is it in England. that ruled in the that reigned through the tion. have seen. has never advanced the piety of the church. It it has not may secure a species of governmental favor. look even in its weakness. but would have. the spirit of the may reign.THE CHRISTIAN 164 CITIZEN". the religion of Protestants. con- of a "simple" and "spiritual" Christian- the grace of God. —the wa- order. extravagant Independents same time. but such as Christian citizens." And though discordant and jarring elements fuse the multitude. the whole family of Christ. never forgetting their it would original alliance to the remnants of royalty .' Under their "expansive" power and u evangelical diffusion. beauty and glory of a regenerated world. and darkness long tried principles ity. nor take from Caesar any rights or immunities. feeble indeed in numbers and influence. an aristocracy in the church." same sentiments. English persecution. Not unlike the broken down. and broke the iron sceptre of the 'man of sin. And we have held in check the fiery and Enthusiasts. . on eyery other denomination. we 1 In Scotland. and verities of Reforma- principles. but this. in whatever form enjoyed. but a curse the incubus of death ? We seek.

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