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The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Due: 8:00pm on Monday, December 12, 2011
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Carnot Cycle: Just How Ideal Is It?
Learning Goal: To understand the quantitative relationships related to ideal (Carnot)
engines and the limitations of such devices imposed by the second law of thermodynamics.
In 1824, Sadi Carnot, a French engineer, introduced a theoretical engine that has been since
then called a Carnot engine, the most efficient engine possible. The following statement is
known as Carnot's theorem:
No engine operating between a hot and a cold reservoir can be more efficient than the Carnot
engine that operates between the same two reservoirs.
The Carnot engine operates cyclically, just like any real engine.The Carnot cycle includes
four reversible steps: two isothermal processes and two adiabatic ones.
In this problem, you will be asked several questions about Carnot engines. We will use the
following symbols:

: the absolute value (magnitude) of the heat absorbed from the hot reservoir during
one cycle or during some time specified in the problem;

: the absolute value (magnitude) of the heat delivered to the cold reservoir during
one cycle or during some time specified in the problem;

: the amount of work done by the engine during one cycle or during some time
specified in the problem;

: the absolute temperature of the hot reservoir; and

: the absolute temperature of the cold reservoir.

Part A
In general terms, the efficiency of a system can be thought of as the output per unit input.
Which of the expressions is a good mathematical representation of efficiency of any heat
engine?

ANSWER
:

Correct
Part B
During the Carnot cycle, the overall entropy ________.
Hint B.1
Some useful equations
Hint not displayed
ANSWER
:

increases
decreases
remains constant
Correct

Part C
Which of the following gives the efficiency of the Carnot engine?
Hint C.1 Some useful equations
Hint not displayed
ANSWER
:

Correct
Part D
Consider a Carnot engine operating between the melting point of lead (
melting point of ice (
ANSWER
:

) and the

). What is the efficiency of such an engine?
0
0.455
0.545
1
infinity

Correct
Part E
We have stressed that the Carnot engine does not exist in real life: It is a purely theoretical
device, useful for understanding the limitations of heat engines. Real engines never operate
on the Carnot cycle; their efficiency is hence lower than that of the Carnot engine.
However, no attempts to build a Carnot engine are being made. Why is that?
ANSWER
A Carnot engine would generate too much thermal pollution.
:
Building the Carnot engine is possible but is too expensive.
The Carnot engine has zero power.
The Carnot engine has too low an efficiency.
Correct
The Carnot cycle contains only reversible processes. To be reversible, a process must allow
the system to equilibrate with its surroundings at every step, which makes it infinitely slow;
therefore, the Carnot engine, although the most efficient, is the least powerful one! Its
power is indeed zero, since work is being done at an infinitely slow rate.
Part F
A real heat engine operates between temperatures
amount

and

. During a certain time, an

of heat is released to the cold reservoir. During that time, what is the maximum

amount of work
that the engine might have performed?
Hint F.1 Real vs. ideal
How much work could an ideal (Carnot) engine perform? This is the maximum possible,
since the Carnot engine is the most efficient one.
Hint F.2 Some useful equations

Recall that in a Carnot cycle,

,
where we have taken all heat exchanged to be positive. Substitute for
earlier expression for the efficiency. Also recall that

and

in the

.
Express your answer in terms of
ANSWER
:
=

,

, and

.

Correct

Heat Engines Introduced
Learning Goal: To understand what a heat engine is and its theoretical limitations.
Ever since Hero demonstrated a crude steam turbine in ancient Greece, humans have
dreamed of converting heat into work. If a fire can boil a pot and make the lid jump up and
down, why can't heat be made to do useful work?
A heat engine is a device designed to convert heat into work. The heat engines we will study
will be cyclic: The working substance eventually returns to its original state sometime after
having absorbed a quantity of heat and done some work. A cyclic heat engine cannot convert
heat into work without generating some waste heat in the process. Although by no means
intuitively obvious, this is an important fact of nature, since it dramatically affects the
technology of energy generation. If it were possible to convert heat into work without any
waste heat, then one would be able to build refrigerators that are more than 100% efficient!
Consequently, the "impossible heat engine" pictured schematically here

cannot exist, even in theory. Engineers
tried hard for many years to make such a device, but Sadi Carnot proved in 1824 that it was
impossible.

The next figure

shows an "ideal" heat

engine, one that obeys the laws of thermodynamics. It takes in heat
and does work
temperature

. In the process of doing this it generates waste heat

at a temperature
at a cooler

.

Take and to be the magnitudes of the heat absorbed and emitted, respectively; therefore
both quantities are positive.
Part A
A heat engine is designed to do work. This is possible only if certain relationships between
the heats and temperatures at the input and output hold true. Which of the following sets of
statements must apply for the heat engine to do work?

Heat engines cannot convert heat into work without generating some waste heat in the process. Correct Part C The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is defined as follows: Express the efficiency in terms of ANSWER : = and . Heat engines must be cyclical. it becomes a . The second characteristic is a rigorous result even for a perfect engine and follows from thermodynamics. A perfect heat engine is reversible. 2. If a heat engine is run backward (i. designed to convert heat into work.e. Correct Heat Pumps and Refrigerators Learning Goal: To understand that a heat engine run backward is a heat pump that can be used as a refrigerator. they must return to their original state some time after having absorbed some heat and done some work).ANSWER : and and and and Correct Part B Find the work done by the "ideal" heat engine. . with every input and output reversed). You should understand the following: 1.. that is. Express in terms of ANSWER = : and . theoretical or actual. another result of the laws of thermodynamics. By now you should be familiar with heat engines--devices.

in fact it can be many times larger. Take . and it then pumps heat from a colder temperature to a hotter temperature . the ratio of the heat to the work in heat pumps and refrigerators is called the coefficient of performance.1 Note the differences in wording Hint not displayed to . must be put into a heat pump. In a heat pump the coefficient of performance is the ratio of heat exiting the hot side the work put in: . What is the relationship of to the work done by the system? Hint A. this is the ratio of heat removed from the to work put in: . and Part A to be the magnitudes of the heat emitted and absorbed respectively.heat pump (as pictured schematically Work ). that is. For this reason. The heat coming out the hot side of a heat pump or the heat going in to the cold side a refrigerator is more than the work put in. In a refrigerator. against the usual direction of heat flow (which explains why it is called a "heat pump"). cold side of .

Conservation of energy and the first law Hint not displayed Express in terms of ANSWER = : and . Correct Part B Find Hint B.Express in terms of ANSWER = : and other quantities given in the introduction.. what is coefficient of performance? Hint Heat pump efficiency in terms of and C.e. Carnot cycle) heat pump. Correct Part C A heat pump is used to heat a house in winter. Correct . If it is a perfect (i. the inside radiators are at and the outside heat exchanger is at . the heat pumped out by the ideal heat pump.2 Relation between and in a Carnot cycle Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of ANSWER : = Part D and .1 . its .1 Hint not displayed Hint C.

The heat pump is designed to move heat. You also have an equation for % in terms of . the amount of external energy input the pump requires. ANSWER and . Hint E. the more efficient the heat generation the less work needs to be done and the lower the heating bill. and the efficiency E. Indicate the statement that must apply for the heat pump to work. how much would it cost if the actual coefficient of performance of the heat pump were 75% of that allowed by thermodynamics? Hint Money. Thus. and . . If it would cost $1000 to heat the house for one winter with ideal electric heaters (which have a coefficient of performance of 1). : and . You are given that the cost of the temperatures: is $1000. You can measure energies in units of currency for this calculation. and which maintains the baseboard radiators at . heat. Set this equal to and solve for the monetary value of .2 Units of and Hint not displayed Express the cost in dollars.1 The amount of money one has to pay for the heat is directly proportional to the work done to generate the heat. and . Correct Part E Assume that you heat your home with a heat pump whose heat exchanger is at . This is only possible if certain relationships between the heats and temperatures at the hot and cold sides hold true.

That is. Part A The thermodynamic processes that occur in nature ____________. which is very difficult to avoid if the outside air is humid and not much above zero degrees Celsius. try these conceptual questions. or quasi-equilibrium. an underground stream). Second Law of Thermodynamics Learning Goal: To understand the implications of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics explains the direction in which the thermodynamic processes tend to go. processes can be reversible.5 Correct Cost = dollars This savings is accompanied by more initial capital costs. the entropy increases.ANSWER : 187. it limits the types of final states of the system that naturally evolve from a given initial state.. One of the ways to state the second law of thermodynamics is as follows: Any process occurring in a closed system either increases the entropy (disorder) of the system or leaves it constant. The second law has many practical applications. such processes exist only in the imaginations of scientists. for the reversible ones. ANSWER convert thermal energy into mechanical energy : lead to a more ordered state cannot be reversed do not conserve energy Correct Only infinitely slow. For irreveresible processes. For example it explains the limits of efficiency for heat engines and refrigerators. An additional problem is icing of the outside heat exchanger. both for the heat pump and for the generous area of baseboard heaters needed to transfer enough heat to the house without raising . Therefore heat pumps are most useful in temperate climates or where the heat can be obtained from a groundwater that is abundant or flowing (e. To develop a better understanding of this law. which would reduce the coefficient of performance.g. the entropy remains constant. Part B .

it is impossible for ____________. the power of such an engine is zero. an infinitely slow one. The power consumed by the refrigerator equals the rate at which heat is removed from the inside. Correct . which the following statements is true? Hint C.According to the second law of thermodynamics. ANSWER heat energy to flow from a colder body to a hotter body : an ideal heat engine to have the efficiency of 99% an ideal heat engine to have non-zero power. This statement is known as Clausius statement of the second law. The power consumed by the refrigerator equals the rate at which heat is delivered to the outside.1 Definition of the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator Hint not displayed ANSWER : The temperature outside equals the temperature inside of the refrigerator. An alternative way to state the second law of thermodynamics is as follows: It is impossible to construct a cyclical heat engine whose sole effect is the continuous transfer of heat energy from a colder object to a hotter one." Of course. The rate at which heat is removed from the inside equals the rate at which heat is delivered outside. If the work is being done at the infinitely slow rate. Part C If the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator is 1. Note the word "sole. such as work input. it is possible to construct a machine in which a heat flow from a colder to a hotter object is accompanied by another process. a physical process to yield more energy than what is put in Correct The ideal engine follows a reversible cycle--therefore.

Decrease the outside temperature. and releases heat . is from a reservoir at a to another reservoir at a temperature . with a work . Increase the outside temperature. Correct The efficiency of an ideal/Carnot refrigerator that absorbs heat temperature input .Part D To increase the efficiency of an ideal heat engine.1 Graphical approach to the problem Hint not displayed ANSWER : Increase the mechanical work input. one must increase which of the following? Hint D.1 Formula for the efficiency of an ideal engine Hint not displayed ANSWER : the amount of heat consumed per second the temperature of the cold reservoir the temperature of the hot reservoir the size of the cold reservoir the size of the hot reservoir Correct Part E How would you increase the coefficient of performance of an ideal refrigerator? Hint E. Decrease the inside temperature.

Correct Another way to state the second law of thermodynamics is as follows: It is impossible to construct a cyclical heat engine whose sole effect is absorption of energy from the hot reservoir and the performance of the equal amount of work. it is not a trivial matter: Your textbook and discussions should help you to get a better grasp of this equivalency. and perform some basic calculations involving entropy changes. you can see that decreasing the efficiency . From this equation. This statement is known as the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law. to understand the meaning of entropy. However. Because the cold reservoir increases the power of the engine. it is. imagine an object initially at rest suddenly taking off along a rough horizontal surface and speeding up (gaining kinetic energy) while cooling down (losing thermal energy)." You have now seen three different statements of the second law. impossible and could never take place spontaneously. ± From Hot to Cool: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Learning Goal: To understand the meaning and applications of the second law of thermodynamics. Because the cold reservoir keeps the engine from overheating. Note the word "sole. and/or increasing lead to an increase in Part F Why must every heat engine have a cold reservoir? ANSWER Because it is impossible for even a perfect engine to convert heat : entirely into mechanical work. For example. The first law of thermodynamics (which states that energy is conserved) does not specify the direction in which thermodynamic processes in nature can spontaneously occur. Understanding the equivalence of these three statements is important. of course. .. Because the cold reservoir keeps the engine from overcooling. Although such a process would not violate conservation of energy.

the second law can be stated as follows: The entropy of an isolated system may not decrease. For example. For an isothermal process (the temperature of the system remains constant as it exchanges heat with its surroundings).The second law of thermodynamics dictates which processes in nature may occur spontaneously and which ones may not. The heat is positive if thermal energy is absorbed by the system from its surroundings. or stays constant if the system is already in equilibrium. however. which is . the change in a system's entropy is given by . Entropy is usually denoted by . Correct Presumably. the entropy can increase. has a much higher entropy. and has units of energy divided by temperature ( ). whereas the same amount of water in a much less ordered state. or decrease. and is negative if thermal energy is transferred from the system to its surroundings. stay the same. the bucket is not isolated: Heat must be transferred to another object. one of which uses the concept of entropy. Entropy Entropy can be thought of as a measure of a system's disorder: A lower degree of disorder implies lower entropy. where is the amount of heat involved in the process and is the absolute temperature of the system. Using the idea of entropy. and vice versa. It either increases as the system approaches equilibrium. such as water vapor. Any process that would tend to decrease the entropy of an isolated system could never occur spontaneously in nature. The second law can be stated in many ways. For a system that is not isolated. : It decreases. a highly ordered ice crystal has a relatively low entropy. Part A What happens to the entropy of a bucket of water as it is cooled down (but not frozen)? ANSWER It increases. It stays the same.

ANSWER 8. : It decreases. Correct When a solid object is turned into a gas.0 of heat from the surroundings.0 of heat. so the entropy increases. Express your answer numerically in joules per kelvin. It stays the same. ANSWER -50 = : Correct Part F An object at 400 absorbs 25. the degree of disorder increases.53×10−2 = : Correct of the object? Part E An object at 500 dissipates 25. Part D An object at 20 absorbs 25. Part B What happens to the entropy of a cube of ice as it is melted? ANSWER It increases. What is the change in . : It decreases. It stays the same. Let us try some calculations now.most likely at a lower temperature than that of the bucket. Correct Part C What happens to the entropy of a piece of wood as it is burned? ANSWER It increases. What is the change in entropy Express your answer numerically in joules per kelvin. What is the change in entropy of the object? Assume that the temperature of the object does not change appreciably in the process.0 of heat into the surroundings.

SET UP the problem using the following steps: 1.0 of heat from the other object. This observation. Find the efficiency of the engine and the of steam through the engine. Express your answer numerically in joules per kelvin. What is the net change in entropy of the system? Assume that the temperatures of the objects do not change appreciably in the process. After passing through the heat engine. Express your answer numerically in joules per kelvin. One object. identify the initial and final states for each step. ± PSS 20.47 . . absorbs 25. If heat were transferred in the other direction. 2. is in full accord with the second law of thermodynamics. ANSWER 12.1 Heat Engines.00 .entropy of the object? Assume that the temperature of the object does not change appreciably in the process. Steam at a temperature = 280 and = 1. the change in entropy would have been negative. For multi-step processes with more than one step. ANSWER 62. it is released at a temperature and = 1.1 Heat Engines Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 20.5 = : Correct Part G Two objects form a closed system.which is at 500 . and the exiting . Problem Solving Strategy: Heat engines IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: A heat engine is any device that converts heat partially to work. which is at 400 . The measured power output steam has a heat transfer rate of molar flow rate = 3450 of the engine is 600 = 100 . not surprisingly. The constant pressure molar heat capacity for steam is 37. the entropy of the system would have decreased.5 = : Correct Note that the net entropy change is positive as the heat is transferred from the hotter object to the colder one.00 enters a heat engine at an unknown flow rate. Carefully define what the thermodynamic system is. that is.

EXECUTE the solution as follows: 1. . 4. can be applied just once to each step in a thermodynamic process. 2. paying particular attention to algebraic signs. Identify the known quantities and the target variables. IDENTIFY the relevant concepts This heat engine partially converts heat from the incoming steam into work. : The molar flow rate of steam. and heat current is heat transfer per unit ). and the various 's. ANSWER The power output of the engine. The first law. The heat transfer rate for steam leaving the engine. . It's helpful to sketch an energy-flow diagram. is positive is negative when the system is compressed. 3. Power is work per unit time ( time ( ). so you will often need additional equations. The equation is useful in situations for which the thermal efficiency of the engine is relevant. EVALUATE your answer: Use the first law of thermodynamics to check your results. Keeping steps 1 and 2 in mind. Be very careful with the sign conventions for when the system expands and does work. Each is positive if it represents heat entering the system and is negative if it represents heat leaving the system. SET UP the problem using the following steps Part A Which of the following quantities are known? Check all that apply. so the problem solving strategy for heat engines is applicable. solve for the target variables.3.

The temperature of steam as it leaves the engine. Work leaves the engine at a rate as steam at temperature . The constant pressure molar heat capacity of steam. The remaining heat . The heat transfer rate for steam entering the engine. first find the heat transfer rate of the incoming steam from the relationships between work and power and between heat and heat transfer . it is not a target variable. Heat flows into the engine at a rate of as steam at a temperature leaves the engine at a rate of . Correct The efficiency and the molar flow rate of steam through the engine are both target variables in this problem. Even though the heat transfer rate of the steam entering the heat engine is not given in the problem statement. The energy-flow diagram for this system is shown. The temperature of the steam as it enters the engine. To find the efficiency of the heat engine.1 You are asked to find the efficiency of the heat engine. The efficiency of the engine. EXECUTE the solution as follows Part B What is the efficiency of the heat engine? Hint How to approach the problem B.

2 outlet steam.148 = : Correct An efficiency of 0.rate.2 Find the heat transfer rate of the incoming steam What is the heat transfer rate of the incoming steam ? Hint Find an expression for the heat transfer rate of the incoming steam B. you can then calculate the efficiency of the heat engine using the power delivered by the engine. Once you know the incoming heat transfer rate.1 Hint not displayed Hint C.3 Find an expression for the efficiency of the heat engine Hint not displayed Express the efficiency numerically to three significant figures. ANSWER 0. The remaining 85.148 indicates that 14. Hint B.2 The net heat flowing into the heat engine The heat required for the temperature change of moles of steam can be expressed in terms of the difference in temperatures of the entering and exciting steam as .2.8 converted to work. ANSWER 4050 = : Correct Hint B. of the heat from the incoming steam is is expelled from the heat engine as heat in the Part C What is the molar flow rate of steam into the engine? Hint How to approach the problem C.1 Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in joules per second.

90×10−2 = : Correct Knowing the flow rate of steam through the heat engine is important for a few reasons. Hint C. EVALUATE your answer Part D Which of the following changes. the constant pressure molar heat capacity . is related to . enough steam must flow through the heat engine to produce the required amount of power. so the net heat flowing into the steam engine can be expressed as . ANSWER smaller value of : larger value of higher molar flow rate. and since the energy of the heat . ANSWER : Answer not displayed = Express the molar flow rate in moles per second to three significant figures. . Express the molar flow rate in terms of . and .3 Find an expression for the molar flow rate of steam through the heat engine Express the molar flow rate generated power temperature of steam through the heat engine as a function of the . Keep in mind that engine is conserved. ANSWER 8. would cause an increase in the amount of power produced by the heat engine? Check all that apply. In the design stage. During the operation of the heat engine. and the change in . an estimate of the flow rate is used the size the heat engine. smaller value of lower molar flow rate. The heat lost by the steam is equal to the heat gained by the steam engine. . if made individually..

so that it can do work on the outside world.1 First law of thermodynamics The heat added to a gas equals the change in energy of the gas plus the work done by the gas: . If either the entering heat transfer rate increases or the exiting heat transfer rate decreases. Consider the following three-step transformation of the gas: 1. It may be helpful to sketch this process on the pV plane. The gas is then expanded at constant temperature until the pressure returns to 3. . If the molar flow rate increases. The gas is heated at constant volume until the pressure reaches (where ). the power generated by the engine will increase. but the engine is not necessarily more efficient. the efficiency of the heat engine is increased.2 Think about . Dividing both sides of by time makes the relationship between power and heat transfer rates clearer: . Hint A. A Three-Step Gas Cycle A monatomic ideal gas has pressure volume and temperature . By either increasing the entering heat transfer rate or decreasing the exiting heat transfer rate. Part A How much heat is added to the gas during step 1 of the process? Hint A. The gas is then cooled at constant pressure until the volume has returned to . the amount of heat that the engine converts into work per unit time increases. It is contained in a cylinder of with a movable piston.larger value of Correct A heat engine can produce more power either by improving its efficiency or by increasing its throughput. 2.

Express the heat added in terms of . so depends only on Hint A.3 How to find The energy of a monatomic ideal gas is and the Boltzmann constant .Hint not displayed Hint A. Part B How much work is done by the gas during step 2? Hint How to approach this problem B. Correct . use the ideal gas law between the value of . and .3 Find the initial and final volumes Hint not displayed Express the work done in terms of ANSWER = : Part C and take the difference . The number of gas particles do not change during step 1. Solve for at the beginning and that at the end of step 1. .1 Hint not displayed Hint B. .4 How to find To find .2 Find Hint not displayed Hint B. and ANSWER = : Correct . .

The compressor takes in low-pressure.1 Hint not displayed Hint C. high-temperature . Here the refrigerant is at a higher temperature than that of the air surrounding the condenser coils and it releases heat by undergoing a phase change. you won't need to calculate an integral to answer this question. low-temperature vapor and compresses it adiabatically to high-pressure. and . The refrigerant leaves the condenser coils as a high-pressure. Correct An Air Conditioner: Refrigerator or Heat Pump? The typical operation cycle of a common refrigerator is shown schematically in the figure . which is typically in vapor-liquid phase equilibrium. Hint The easy way to solve this problem C.How much work is done by the gas during step 3? If you've drawn a graph of the process. which then reaches the condenser.2 Find the formula for work done Hint not displayed Express the work done in terms of ANSWER = : . Both the condenser coils to the left and the evaporator coils to the right contain a fluid (the working substance) called refrigerant. high-temperature vapor. .

It flows through the evaporator at a constant pressure and when it reaches the compressor 95 of its mass is vapor. Hint A. ANSWER 5. low-temperature vapor and a new cycle begins. The air surrounding the evaporator cools down and most of the refrigerant in the evaporator coils vaporizes.20×105 . In each cycle. Consider an air conditioner that has 7. the refrigerant is at a lower temperature than its surroundings and it absorbs heat. the change in internal energy of the refrigerant when it leaves the compresser is 1.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.20×105 Correct .00 of refrigerant flowing through its circuit each cycle. it cools down. As the fluid expands. how much heat is absorbed by the refrigerant while it is in the evaporator? The heat of vaporization of the refrigerant is 1.50×105 .2 Find the percentage of refrigerant transformed to vapor Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in joules.15×105 = : Correct Part B In each cycle. ANSWER = : Part C 1. Thus.liquid and expands adiabatically at a controlled rate in the expansion valve. It then reaches the compressor as a low-pressure.0 of its mass as liquid and the rest as vapor. Part A Air conditioners operate on the same principle as refrigerators. The refrigerant enters the evaporator coils in phase equilibrium.1 Hint not displayed Express your answer in joules. with 54. when it enters the evaporator coils. What is the work done by the motor of the compressor? Hint Adiabatic compression B.

Sadi Carnot considered a hypothetical piston engine that contained moles of an ideal gas. the air conditioning unit turns into a heat pump and it can be used for heating rather than cooling. The cycle associated with a Carnot engine is known as a Carnot cycle. Suppose you operate the air conditioner described in Parts A and B as a heat pump to heat your bedroom. a steam engine) that would convert heat completely into mechanical energy.2 Find the right expresssion for the first law of thermodynamics Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in joules. ANSWER 6. Furthermore. it was natural that engineers believed it possible to make a "heat engine" (e. the evaporator coils of the air conditioner become the condenser coils in the heat pump. A pV plot of the .g. the coils where the refrigerant would condense in the air conditioner become the evaporator coils when the unit is operated as a heat pump. In this case. In each cycle. showing first that it was reversible.. what is the amount of heat released into the room? You may assume that the energy changes and work done during the expansion process are negligible compared to those for other processes during the cycle. and. vice versa. Hint How to approach the problem C. he showed that the engine must necessarily put an back into a heat reservoir at a lower temperature .1 Hint not displayed Hint C. is the quantity of heat put into the engine .If the direction of the refrigerant flow is inverted in an air conditioner. defined as where is the net work done by the engine and at a (high) temperature amount of heat . and most importantly that— regardless of the specific heat of the gas—it had limited efficiency.35×105 = : Correct Carnot Cycle After Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson) and James Prescott Joule had shown the equivalence of mechanical energy and heat.

the Part A Which of the following statements are true? Hint A. Finally. The working gas first expands isothermally from state A to state B.1 Heat flow in an adiabatic process Hint not displayed Check all that apply. The net work done by the gas is proportional to the area inside the closed curve. Hint How to approach the problem . The gas is compressed isothermally to state D. the cycle must be traversed in a : clockwise manner. Correct Part B Find the total work done by the gas after it completes a single Carnot cycle. giving off heat gas is adiabatically compressed to state A. absorbing heat reservoir at temperature from a . ANSWER For the gas to do positive work. its original state. The heat transferred as the gas proceeds from state B to state C is greater than the heat transferred as the gas proceeds from state D to state A. in state C. The gas then expands adiabatically until it reaches a temperature .Carnot cycle is shown in the figure. . Positive heat is added to the gas as it proceeds from state C to state D.

and the gas constant ANSWER : = . reservoir.2 Compute the change in internal energy Hint not displayed Express the work in terms of any or all of the quantities ANSWER = : Correct .2 Find the work done by the gas Hint not displayed Hint C. . Hint General method of finding C. and . Correct . and the volumes of the gas in states A and B are. . .1 Hint not displayed Hint B. the temperature of the hot . Part C Suppose there are moles of the ideal gas. the heat absorbed by the gas as it expands from state A to state B. Find . . and .B.1 Hint not displayed Hint C. respectively.3 Relation between and Hint not displayed Express the heat absorbed by the gas in terms of .

Hint How to approach the problem D.Part D The volume of the gas in state C is . the magnitude of the heat that flows out of the gas as it proceeds from state C to state D. . So using the first law. Part E Now. This is a general result: Any two adiabatic processes operating between the same two temperatures result in the same amount of work. . ANSWER : = . find the ratio in terms of Hint E. (the temperature of the cold reservoir). regardless of the pressure and volume differences. This is because BC and . or . and its volume in state D is . by considering the adiabatic processes (from B to C and from D to A). and Correct Observe that the three parts together imply that DA are adiabatic processes. . So .1 Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of . whereas .3 Express and in terms of and Hint not displayed .2 Rewrite in terms of and Hint not displayed Hint E. How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint E. Find .1 and .

Hint Express the efficiency in terms of and G. have always sought to raise the upper . No volume variables should appear in your expression. Find the efficiency of a Carnot engine.4 Express and in terms of and Hint not displayed Hint E. or ).5 Solving for in terms of and Hint not displayed ANSWER : = Correct Part F Using your expressions for and (found in Parts C and D).. and your result from Part E. the cold reservoir for power plants is often a river or a lake).. Correct Because is generally fixed (e.1 Hint not displayed Express the efficiency in terms of ANSWER : = and . by definition. ANSWER : = Correct Part G The efficiency of any engine is.g. nor should any constants (e. find a simplified expression for . .g. engineers. Carnot proved that no engine can have an efficiency greater than that of a Carnot engine. trying to increase efficiency.Hint E.

temperature . Carnot Heat Engine Pressure versus Volume Graph Conceptual Question Imagine the Carnot heat engine represented by the vs. During the isothermal expansion.1 Entropy of the gas after one complete cycle? Hint not displayed Hint A. where each process is reversible. an amount of heat energy flows into the gas at a . This explains why (historically) there were some spectacular explosions of boilers used for steam power. the change in entropy of the gas and the change in entropy of the surroundings are each exactly zero after each complete cycle. However.2 Carnot cycle Hint not displayed ANSWER : positive zero negative Correct In an ideal Carnot engine. let us investigate what happens in a real process. diagram given in the figure. Part A What is the sign of the change in entropy Hint A.

Hint Heat flow and temperature difference B. However. ANSWER : greater than equal to . the temperature of the surroundings must be________the temperature of the gas.1 Hint not displayed Hint C.2 Comparing the entropy changes Hint not displayed Complete the sentence above. Hint Magnitude of the change in entropy C. This results in an increase in the gas's entropy of .1 Hint not displayed Complete the sentence above. the magnitude of the entropy lost by the surroundings is ________ the magnitude of entropy gained by the gas during a real isothermal expansion. ANSWER : greater than less than Correct Part C Because of this temperature difference. Part B In a real isothermal expansion. heat energy will naturally flow into the gas from the surroundings only if there is a (slight) temperature difference between the gas and the surroundings.temperature .

This results in a decrease in the gas's entropy of magnitude . an amount of heat energy flows out of the gas at a temperature . Hint Total change in entropy D. Part E In a real isothermal compression. the net entropy change of the entire system is ________ during a real isothermal expansion.) During the isothermal compression. heat energy will naturally flow out of the gas into the surroundings only if there is a (slight) temperature difference between the gas and the surroundings.less than Correct Part D Because of this difference in entropy change. ANSWER : Correct Part F greater than less than . (This is an approximation. Complete the sentence above. However. but we can wrap the gas sample in lots of insulation to isolate it from the surroundings. there is no entropy change for either the gas or the surroundings. ANSWER : positive negative zero Correct Because there is no heat flow during an adiabatic process. the temperature of the surroundings must be ___________ the temperature of the gas.1 Hint not displayed Complete the sentence above.

Does Entropy Really Always Increase? An aluminum bar of mass 2.00 water in the lake is 15. the net entropy change of the entire system is ________ during a real isothermal compression.0 Part A at 300 is thrown into a lake.2 Find the heat absorbed by the lake Hint not displayed . This is unavoidable and a manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics. Complete the sentence above. ANSWER positive : negative zero Correct Therefore. although the net entropy change of the gas is still zero after a real Carnot-like cycle. the specific heat capacity of aluminum is 900 . the magnitude of the entropy gained by the surroundings is __________ the magnitude of entropy lost by the gas during a real isothermal compression. The bar eventually reaches thermal equilibrium with the lake.Because of this temperature difference.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A. because during both the isothermal expansion and compression phases the net change in entropy of the system was positive. ANSWER greater than : equal to less than Correct Part G Because of this difference in entropy change. Complete the sentence above. the net entropy change of the entire system is positive. The temperature of the . What is the entropy change of the lake? Assume that the lake is so large that its temperature remains virtually constant. Hint A.

We don't have enough information to determine whether the entropy of the aluminum bar has decreased or increased.3 Entropy change in an isothermal process Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in joules per kelvin ANSWER 1780 = : Correct Part B Has the entropy of the aluminum bar decreased or increased? Hint B. Correct Part C Since the aluminum bar is not an isolated system. it should be applied to the bar in combination with its surroundings (the lake). Assume that the entropy change of the bar is -73. Rather.5 . we can deduce that the entropy of the bar has decreased. we can deduce that the entropy of the aluminum bar has increased. the second law of thermodynamics cannot be applied to the bar alone.1 Total change of entropy Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in joules per Kelvin . what is the change in total entropy ? Hint C. Since the final lower temperature of the bar means lower average speed of molecular motion.1 How to approach the question Hint not displayed ANSWER : Since the entropy change of a system is always positive.Hint A.

consider them as processes occurring in systems that are not isolated? ANSWER True : False Correct All the processes listed above require energy input to occur just as a refrigerator requires electrical energy to run. A movable piston seals the right end of the cylinder. Part D The second law of thermodynamics states that spontaneous processes tend to be accompanied by entropy increase. just as we found out in the case of the hot aluminum bar cooling down in the lake. as shown in the . Systems can become more ordered and lower their entropy as time passes. and the total entropy increases. the following spontaneous processes:  the growth of plants from simple seeds to well-organized systems  the growth of a fertilized egg from a single cell to a complex adult organism  the formation of snowflakes from molecules of liquid water with random motion to a highly ordered crystal  the growth of organized knowledge over time In all these cases. the total entropy change of the bar and its surroundings (the water in the lake) is positive. Could we. Heat into Work An ideal gas is confined within a thermally isolated cylinder. Consider. systems evolve to a state of less disorder and lower entropy. then. It consists of atoms initially at a pressure of . However. apparently violating the second law of thermodynamics. however. this can happen only as the entropy of the environment increases.ANSWER : = 1710 Correct Even though the aluminum bar lowers its entropy.

Hint A.1 Expansion or contraction? Hint not displayed Hint A. As heat is added.1 Find the formula for internal energy Hint not displayed is added? . the pressure in this gas __________. A given amount of heat is slowly added to the gas.2 Isothermal process Hint not displayed ANSWER : increases decreases remains constant cannot be determined Correct Part B Is the internal energy of the gas the same before and after Hint B.figure. while the piston allows the gas to expand in such a way that the gas's temperature remains constant at Part A .

For this particular problem.1 Relate . . is all of the heat energy absorbed by the gas in fact turned into work done on the piston? Hint D. The phrase "in a cycle" does not apply in this situation. and Hint not displayed ANSWER : yes no Correct Part E . so the second law does not forbid heat being converted entirely into work.ANSWER : yes no Correct Part C Does the second law of thermodynamics forbid converting all of the absorbed heat work done by the piston? Hint C.1 Second law of thermodynamics into Hint not displayed ANSWER : yes no Correct Part D The (Kelvin-Planck statement of the) second law of thermodynamics reads as follows: It is impossible for an engine working in a cycle to produce no other effect than that of extracting heat from a reservoir and performing an equivalent amount of work.

.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed .1 Find a formula for the work done on the piston Hint not displayed ANSWER : yes no Correct Given the same initial pressure of the gas. the larger the force on it. the heat energy input and output per cycle.Does the magnitude of the force that the gas exerts on the piston depend on the piston's area? Hint E. the greater the area of the piston. Internal-Combustion Engine Prototypes Ranking Task Six new prototypes for internal-combustion engines are tested in the laboratory. However.1 Find a formula for the force exerted on the piston Hint not displayed ANSWER : yes no Correct Part F Is the total work done by the gas independent of the area of the piston? Hint F. the piston does not move as much) when the piston area is greater. For each engine. From this we can infer that the force must act through a shorter distance (i. and the designed number of cycles per second are measured. Hint A. the work done on the piston when heat energy is added is independent of piston area (because and ). Part A Rank these engines on the basis of the work they perform per cycle.e.

2 First law of thermodynamics applied to an engine cycle Hint not displayed Hint A.Hint A. To rank items as equivalent.1 Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest. ANSWER : View Correct Part C Rank these engines on the basis of their thermal efficiency.1 Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest. overlap them. . Hint Definition of thermal efficiency C. To rank items as equivalent. To rank items as equivalent. ANSWER : View Correct Part B Rank these engines on the basis of their designed power output. overlap them.3 Net heat transfer Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest. overlap them. Hint Calculating power B.

The system should not be close to equilibrium. . Lifting the piston described in the previous statement by removing one grain of sand at a time. ANSWER Any mechanical interactions taking place in the process should be : frictionless. Any thermal interactions taking place in the process should occur across infinitesimal temperature or pressure gradients. Freezing water originally at 5 Correct . ANSWER Melting of ice in an insulated ice-water mixture at 0 . : Lowering a frictionless piston in a cylinder by placing a bag of sand on top of the piston. Correct Part B Based on the results found in the previous part.1 Reversible processes Hint not displayed Check all that apply.1 Hint not displayed Check all that apply. which of the following processes are not reversible? Hint How to approach the problem B.ANSWER : View Correct Irreversible versus Reversible Processes Part A Which of the following conditions should be met to make a process perfectly reversible? Hint A.

1. while the heating coils on the back of the refrigerator are at a temperature . Hint Relate the heats exchanged to the work done A. Give your answer in terms of ANSWER = : Hint A. Part A If the temperatures inside and outside of the refrigerator do not change. For all parts of this problem. assume that all of the energy generated by the light bulb goes into heating the inside of the refrigerator.2 and . of course.1 Find the coefficient of performance Find the refrigerator's coefficient of performance . Correct Relating the heats and the work to the appropriate temperatures The absolute temperature scale may be defined by the following ratio: . find an expression for . where from the cold reservoir (the inside of the refrigerator) and refrigerator's motor. how much extra power does the refrigerator consume as a result of the malfunction of the switch? Hint A. the light bulb within the refrigerator remains on when the the door is closed. Recall that we are assuming the refrigerator to be a Carnot engine operating in reverse. . If is the heat absorbed is the work done by the is the heat given off by the refrigerator. where and are the respective heats expelled to a cold reservoir and absorbed from a hot reservoir for an ideal Carnot engine. Owing to a malfunctioning switch.1.1 The coefficient of performance is defined as . so that heat is aborbed from the cold reservoir and expelled to the hot reservoir. Give your answer in terms of and .Refrigerator Light The inside of an ideal refrigerator is at a temperature . you must assume that the refrigerator operates as an ideal Carnot engine in reverse between the respective temperatures. The power of the light bulb is . That's what a good refrigerator does.

Answer not displayed Hint A. (We could say.ANSWER : = Correct Hint A. Correct You'll note that for typical household refrigerators. the refrigerator absorbed an amount of heat from the cold compartment during every fixed time interval . before the light was on. and . and .6 Putting it all together Hint not displayed Express the extra power in terms of ANSWER : = . . the temperature of the cold compartment should not change (according to the problem statement).2 How much heat is absorbed from the cold reservoir for the properly working refrigerator? Suppose that. . For this to be true. for instance.) After the light comes on.3 How much work is done by the malfunctioning refrigerator? Hint not displayed Hint A.5 How much power was consumed by the properly working refrigerator? Hint not displayed Hint A. will the refrigerator have to absorb in a . how much heat time while the light remains on? Express your answer in terms of ANSWER : = .4 Convert heat into power Hint not displayed Hint A. this result suggests that for a given value . but the fixed time interval will cancel in the final answer.

ANSWER 3.1 Change in entropy The change in entropy temperature for a reversible process that transfers heat energy at is .. The heat energy transferred to the gas during the isothermal expansion phase of each cycle is indicated. ANSWER : View Correct Part B Rank these engines on the basis of the change in entropy of the gas during one complete cycle. Part A Rank these engines on the basis of the change in entropy of the gas during the isothermal expansion phase of the cycle.20 = : Correct Six Carnot Engines with Varying Reservoirs Ranking Task Six Carnot engines operating between different hot and cold reservoirs are described below. kelvins). the temperature inside the refrigerator is .e. Part B Suppose the refrigerator has a 25-W light bulb. and the temperature of the heat dissipation coils on the back of the refrigerator is .1 . Hint Change in entropy for a complete cycle B. To rank items as equivalent. the extra power needed to run the refrigerator with the light on is much smaller than . Hint A. The next part of this problem shows this for a specific case. Keep in mind that you will need to use absolute units of temperature (i. Find the extra power consumed by the refrigerator. Rank from largest to smallest. Express your answer numerically in watts to three significant figures.of . overlap them.

1 The first law of thermodynamics applied to a heat engine Hint not displayed Give the letter(s) of the design(s) in alphabetical order.2 Does the second law of thermodynamics apply? Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent. ACD). overlap them.. you are asked to evaluate the six designs shown in the figure for innovative new heat engines. .g. without commas or spaces (e. Part A Which of the designs violate(s) the first law of thermodynamics? Hint A. ANSWER : View Correct Six New Heat Engines Conceptual Question As part of your job at the patent office.Hint not displayed Hint B.

1.2 Description of entropy .. and you are asked about the change in entropy by the time it just melts. without commas or spaces (e. ABD). the temperature of the water remains nearly constant throughout the process.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A. of the system from the time of mixing until the moment the ice completely melts? The heat of fusion of ice is . ANSWER BD : Correct Part C Which of the remaining designs has the highest thermal efficiency? ANSWER device A : device E Correct ± From Hot to Cool: A Change in Entropy In a well-insulated calorimeter. In other words. Note also that the ice starts out at the melting point. Note that since the amount of ice is relatively small. Hint A.g. you can assume that the temperature of the "ice water" remains constant as well.0 of ice at 0 .ANSWER : CF Correct Part B Which of the remaining designs violate(s) the second law of thermodynamics? Hint The second law of thermodynamics applied to a heat engine B.1 Hint not displayed Give the letter(s) of the design(s) in alphabetical order.0 Part A What is the net change in entropy of water at 20 is mixed with 1.

3 Heat needed to melt the ice Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in joules per kelvin. in this spontaneous process the net change in entropy is positive: The entropy increases. In 5 minutes of operation of the engine. how much work is performed by the engine? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A. Use two significant figures in your answer. for the heat of fusion for water.35×10−2 = : Correct As you would expect.3 Calculate the heat rejected Hint not displayed . Part A During this time. This is evident not just from the calculation but also from the fact that a crystal becomes liquid and hence the degree of disorder increases. Melting Ice with a Carnot Engine A Carnot heat engine uses a hot reservoir consisting of a large amount of boiling water and a cold reservoir consisting of a large tub of ice and water. the heat rejected by the engine melts a mass of ice equal to 6.2 Temperature conversion Hint not displayed Hint A.00×10−2 Throughout this problem use . ANSWER 8.Hint not displayed Hint A.

86×10−2 Part A at a temperature of 29. is therefore the sum of all heat changes in the engine.Hint A. ANSWER 10.4 Calculate the heat absorbed Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Calculating the change in entropy Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in joules per kelvin. ± Entropy Change of an Expanding Gas Two moles of an ideal gas undergo a reversible isothermal expansion from 2. before it does any work. by the first law of thermodynamics. the heat will be a negative quantity since the heat is lost from the engine.57×10−2 4. What is the change in entropy of the gas? Hint A. the heat will be a positive quantity since the heat is being added to the engine. when the Carnot engine rejects heat to a reservoir.2 Calculate the work done by the gas Hint not displayed Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A. it is very important to keep in mind the signs of the heats exchanged in an engine. The work done by the engine.6 = : to . Similarly.5 Using the first law of thermodynamics Hint not displayed ANSWER : 7340 Correct = As you can see from this problem.1 . When the Carnot engine absorbs heat from a reservoir.

Part B Compare the efficiency of this composite system to that of the original engine. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables ANSWER : = Correct . the greater volume allows the molecules of the gas to explore a greater range of positions. An and an using as input the heat Compute the efficiency of this composite system.20 An ideal Carnot engine operates between 505 cycle. ANSWER overall efficiency has been reduced : overall efficiency has been increased overall efficiency hasn`t been changed Correct Exercise 20. Problem 20. Part A and 180 with a heat input of 300 per How much heat is delivered to the cold reservoir in each cycle? ANSWER 175 = : Correct Part B What minimum number of cycles are necessary for the engine to lift a rock of mass 450 .Correct As the gas expands. so the disorder of the gas (the molecules of which can have an increased randomness of position in an increased volume) will therefore be increased as well. . Part A and .51 A Carnot engine operates between two heat reservoirs at temperatures and inventor proposes to increase the efficiency by running one engine between intermediate temperature and a second engine between expelled by the first engine. and .

20.60×10−2- cube of ice at an initial temperature of -18.3 kJ of net work per cycle.3 Part A Two Carnot heat engines operate in tandem as follows: engine A takes in 13.0 kJ per cycle from a heat reservoir at a temperature of 470 K.50 = : Correct Multiple Choice Question . in turn. is closest to: ANSWER 398 : 449 395 475 422 Correct Multiple Choice Question . ANSWER 3.20. in SI units. is placed in 0. which performs 4. The heat rejected by engine A is received by engine B. rejects heat at a temperature of 320 K. Engine B.26 Part A Figure 20.0 water at 42.0 Part A in an insulated container of negligible mass.through a height of 105 ? ANSWER 3700 : Correct cycles Problem 20.4 .58 A 1. The temperature at which engine A rejects heat to engine B.700 of Calculate the change in entropy of the system.

using 9.20.0°C. 432 K.4. and d of the cycle are 375 K. respectively. Paths bc and da are adiabatic processes.0 moles of an ideal gas. b. the heat intake during the isobaric expansion.5 An ideal Carnot engine operates between reservoirs having temperatures of 125°C and -20.A diesel engine operates reversibly on the cycle abcda.50. Each cycle the heat expelled by this engine is used to melt 37. and 250 K.25 × 106 J/kg. The heat of fusion of water is 3.0 g of ice at 0. Part A How much work does this engine do each cycle? . 450 K. c. 20. The operating temperatures of points a. The adiabatic constant of the gas is 1.00°C.34 × 105 J/kg and the heat of vaporization of water is 2. in kJ. is closest to: ANSWER 29 : 25 37 33 41 Correct Short Answer Question . In Fig.

[ Print ] J . You received 222.56 out of a possible total of 225 points.ANSWER : 7080 Correct J Part B How much heat per cycle does this engine absorb at the hot reservoir? ANSWER : 1.9%.94×104 Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 98.