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You are on page 1of 17

FIELD MANUAL

FIELD WORK NO.1

PACING ON LEVEL GROUND

COURSE AND SECTION: CE120-0F / B2

SUBMITTED BY:

GROUP NO. 01

SUBMITTED TO:

GRADE

PROFESSOR: ENGR. IRA BALMORIS

Table of Contents

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVES AND INSTRUMENTS

PROCEDURES AND COMPUTATION

QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS

PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET

FINAL DATA SHEET

RESEARCH AND DISCUSSIONS

CONCLUSION

FIELD WORK PEER ASSESSMENT

I.

INTRODUCTION

Pacing is a rapid means of approximately checking more precise

measurements of distance, the idea of this is that you can get the distance

from one point to another by walking straight several times to the other ends

and compute to get the specified distance. Most surveyors before putting

foundation to the ground, they check the place if there are any uneven

grounds or where the foundations should put to. Pacing over rough country

may be done with a precision of one in one hundred. In average conditions, a

person with some experience should have little difficulty in pacing with a

precision of one in two hundred. Obviously, there is not much precision in this

method and the procedure provides only an approximation of distance. The

natural pace of each individual normally varies from 0.50.8 m. Technicians

involved in surveying standardize their pace by walking over known distances

on level, sloping, and uneven ground. But this method is done before our

surveyors, long time ago or even thousands of years, people walk and

measure their land to where be the ends of it, claiming that those are their

lands. So in the historic trivia, a man who walks longer, have the largest land.

II.

1. To obtain individual pace factor

2. To determine the unknown distance by individual pacing

INSTRUMENTS USED:

2 RANGE POLES

CHALK

50 METER TAPE

1. Range Poles

2. Chalk/s

3. 50 Meter Tape

INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTIONS:

RANGE POLESSurveying instrument consisting of a straight rod painted in bands of alternate

red and white each one foot wide; used for sightings by surveyors

CHALK- Used to mark each distances measured by an instrument.

50 METER TAPE- Is an instrument used for measuring the ground or specific

area not exceeding 50 meters.

III.

PROCEDURES AND COMPUTATIONS

A. Determination of Individual Pace Factor (P.F.)

1. The professor measures and designates a 50m course on a level ground.

(Remember to remove the tape while the students will be pacing on the course to

prevent them from using the tape as a basis for a straight course.)

2. The ends of the assigned course are marked with either hubs or marking pins or,

by chalk marks if on pavements. Designated the points as A and B.

3. Set or hold range poles behind points A and B or outside the course AB. These

poles will aid the students to travel in a straight path.

4. Each student should take turn pacing the course from A to B starting with heel or

toe over A, keeping their eyes focus on the range pole behind point B to keep

themselves on a straight path. One has to walk in their natural unaffected

manner, and has to keep counting their number of paces for the entire course

being covered. A partial pace at the end of the course should be figured out to

the nearest one fourth of a pace. Record this as the number of paces for trial No.

1.

5. For trail No. 2, each student should walk from B to A in the same manner as in

the first trial.

6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the subsequent trials to comply with the number of trials

required by the professor.

7. Data should be entered in the preliminary data sheet.

pacing.

1. The professor marks the end of a level course to be paced by each student.

2. Range poles are to be set up outside the level course to straighten the path of

the student.

3. Each student paces the course with the minimum number of trials as required,

recording the number of paces for each trial.

4. The professor after all field notes shall have been submitted, assigns two

students to make an actual taping of the course to determine its actual taped

distance.

COMPUTATIONS:

The computation of sample field notes is done in accordance with the steps listed

hereunder:

A) Computations of P.F.

1. Get the sum of the 5 trials and divide its sum by number of trials to get the mean.

N=mean number of paces=

of thenumber of paces

number of paces

2. Divide the length of the course by the mean number of paces to get the individual

Pace Factor P.F.

P.F.=

length of course

m/ pace

meannumber of paces

1. Get the sum of the number of paces in each trial and divide this sum by the

number of trials performed to get the mean.

N=mean number of paces =

of thenumber of paces

number of trials

2. Multiply the mean number of paces of the unknown distance by the pace factor

(P.F.) to obtain the paced distance

P.D.=(N)*(P.F.)

3. Divide the difference between the taped distance and the paced distance by the

error taped distance and multiply the quotient by 100% to get the percentage of

error.

Percentage of error =

IV.

x 100

number of trials

We have different pace factors, some walks slower and are faster and with

different results. But pace factor is very useful on us engineers it is used to

tape.

2. Name Three most important pointers that an individual must remember to follow

in order to make his/her approximation of the distance of an unknown course to

be as accurate as possible.

Patience is the key to success

Just imagine you are in a runway but not rushing it.

pacing around the area for three consecutive times. The number of paces was

tallied at 535,543 and 539 respectively, for each trial. If the students pace factor

is 0.74m/pace, determine the actual perimeter of the land.

Mean=

535+543+539

3

539

Perimeter=(mean)(pace factor )

(539)(0.74)

Perimeter=398.86 m

4. Every morning, joy walks school from her boarding house and takes only a single

route. For five consecutive days, she tries to count the number of paces she

makes. Monday mornings number of paces made joy is listed as 345 pace. On

Tuesday, 353 paces; Wednesday; 358 paces; Thursday, 348 paces, and lastly,

on Friday 355 paces. That Friday afternoon, a surveyor from city engineers

office who is tasked to lay out a new drainage piping system, measured the exact

route she took and found out that the taped distance is 275 m. what is joys pace

factor?

mean=

345+353+358+348+355

5

351.8

Pace factor =

Taped distance

mean

275

351.8

V.

DATE: 10/08/15

GROUP NO.: 1

TIME: 7:30 AM

TRIAL

1

2

3

4

5

LINE

AB

BA

AB

BA

AB

TAPED DISTANCE

50M

50M

50M

50M

50M

B. COMPUTATIONS:

Mean = Average number of paces

Taped Distance

Mean

NO. OF PACES

92

82.5

83

84

86

MEAN

PACE FACTOR

85.5

0.58 m/pace

Pace Factor=

5

50

= 85.5

= 85.5

Pace Factor=0.58

TRIAL

LINE

1

2

3

4

5

CD

DC

CD

DC

CD

NO. OF

PACES

MEAN

PACE

FACTOR

PACE

DISTANCE

Tape

d

D.

ERRO

R

83.95

0.58

m/pace

48.69/m

54.8

m

11.14%

85

82

82

88

82.75

D. COMPUTATIONS:

Mean =Average number of paces

85+82+82+88+82.75

=

5

83.95

Pace distance=( n )( P . F )

= 83.95pace*0.58 m/pace

= 48.69/m

VI.

DATE: 10/08/15

GROUP NO.: 1

TIME: 7:30 AM

TRIAL

1

2

3

4

5

LINE

AB

BA

AB

BA

AB

TAPED DISTANCE

50M

50M

50M

50M

50M

NO. OF PACES

92

82.5

83

84

86

F. COMPUTATIONS:

Mean = Average number of paces

MEAN

PACE FACTOR

85.5

0.58 m/pace

Pace Factor=

Taped Distance

Mean

=

5

50

= 85.5

= 85.5

Pace Factor=0.58

TRIAL

1

2

3

4

5

LINE

CD

DC

CD

DC

CD

NO. OF PACES

85

82

82

88

82.75

MEAN

83.95

PACE

FACTOR

PACE

DISTANCE

Taped

D.

0.58

m/pace

48.69/m

54.8

m

ERROR

11.14%

H. COMPUTATIONS:

Mean =Average number of paces

85+82+82+88+82.75

=

5

83.95

Pace distance=( n )( P . F )

= 83.95pace*0.58 m/pace

= 48.69/m

SKETCH:

pace.

doing the

trials to

get

the

individuals pace factor.

Members are preparing for their 2nd part of their field work on West Bldg. 5th

Floor in Mapua.

VII.

THE PRINCIPLE:

A pace maybe measured form heel to heel of from toe to toe. While half pace is

from toe of one foot to the heel of the other foot, to keep one on the line while

pacing, it is good practice to fix his eyes on a distant object at the range behind

the pole on the farther end of the line being paced. Since the accepted precision

of measuring distance by pacing is 1/300, it should be used only for estimating

distance such as those used for sketching and making reconnaissance surveys.

Measuring a distance without a meter tape is difficult, but with the use of pace

factor which is the 1st field work in Surveying we can determine the distance by

getting the pace factor of an individual. Pacing on the level ground is the basics

of surveyors in engineering, you have to walk several times and record those

trials so that you will able to get your meter per pace. Walking must be normal as

possible. The last pace is estimated to the nearest quarter pace. It is advisable to

do this in at least five or more trials in order to determine the average number of

paces. The pace factor is then determined by dividing the known distance by

dividing the known distance by the average number of paces required to traverse

it. It is expressed in mere pre pace. Any unknown distance may then be

approximately calculated by determining the number of paces (preferably the

average) one takes to negotiate it and multiplying this by ones pace factor. The

importance to walk naturally is to calibrate ones pace and in pacing distances.

Cares should be taken to walk along a straight line. A slight deviation to the left or

right will definitely affect the accuracy of pacing. Also, and attempt to make each

step a predetermined length is tiring and will only give less accurate results. The

length of a pace will vary with the speed of pacing, the roughness of the ground,

the weight of clothing and shoes used, fatigue on the part of the pacer m the

slope of the terrain, as well as the age and sex of the individual. The pace will

also differ when going uphill. Pacing downhill will produce fewer steps than

pacing same distance uphill. On the second part of the field work, this is the

determination of an unknown distance of the assigned course by the use of

pacing. First, we let a distance to be out course of length and then just like on the

first part we walk naturally on that five times. Afterwards, we compute the data

gathered to get the mean, the pace factor and then the paced distance .In

general the length of the pace decreases as any of these factors increases,

except the speed.

VIII.

CONCLUSION

From the field work 1 that we have done, pacing is the easiest way to

determine the distance that you want to measure. I learned that you can

measure such distance using only the recorded paces and by the given

formula you can now get the result. Surveyors must have these kinds of

skills to achieve the accurate measured distance in their working sites.

Probably the sources of errors are walking too quickly or not maintaining

the same speed as you walked from the previous trials and having trouble

of keeping walking on the straight path. Thats why there are huge percent

of error in the outcome of the field work, I would recommend that always

maintain your speed, as much as possible pick a location where it is not

crowded because it is one of the reasons why surveyors get interrupted

and lose counts of their paces, always have patience because we all know

that sometimes we get tired easily because we go back and forth, and

lastly keep your eye on the road.

IX.

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