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# ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

FIELD MANUAL
FIELD WORK NO.1
PACING ON LEVEL GROUND
COURSE AND SECTION: CE120-0F / B2

SUBMITTED BY:

GROUP NO. 01

## DATE OF FIELDWORK: 10/08/2015 DATE OF SUBMISSION: 10/16/2015

SUBMITTED TO:

PROFESSOR: ENGR. IRA BALMORIS

I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES AND INSTRUMENTS
PROCEDURES AND COMPUTATION
QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS
PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET
FINAL DATA SHEET
RESEARCH AND DISCUSSIONS
CONCLUSION
FIELD WORK PEER ASSESSMENT

I.

INTRODUCTION
Pacing is a rapid means of approximately checking more precise
measurements of distance, the idea of this is that you can get the distance
from one point to another by walking straight several times to the other ends
and compute to get the specified distance. Most surveyors before putting
foundation to the ground, they check the place if there are any uneven
grounds or where the foundations should put to. Pacing over rough country
may be done with a precision of one in one hundred. In average conditions, a
person with some experience should have little difficulty in pacing with a
precision of one in two hundred. Obviously, there is not much precision in this
method and the procedure provides only an approximation of distance. The
natural pace of each individual normally varies from 0.50.8 m. Technicians
involved in surveying standardize their pace by walking over known distances
on level, sloping, and uneven ground. But this method is done before our
surveyors, long time ago or even thousands of years, people walk and
measure their land to where be the ends of it, claiming that those are their
lands. So in the historic trivia, a man who walks longer, have the largest land.

II.

## OBJECTIVES AND INSTRUMENTS

1. To obtain individual pace factor
2. To determine the unknown distance by individual pacing

INSTRUMENTS USED:
2 RANGE POLES
CHALK
50 METER TAPE
1. Range Poles

2. Chalk/s

3. 50 Meter Tape

INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTIONS:
RANGE POLESSurveying instrument consisting of a straight rod painted in bands of alternate
red and white each one foot wide; used for sightings by surveyors
CHALK- Used to mark each distances measured by an instrument.
50 METER TAPE- Is an instrument used for measuring the ground or specific
area not exceeding 50 meters.
III.
PROCEDURES AND COMPUTATIONS
A. Determination of Individual Pace Factor (P.F.)
1. The professor measures and designates a 50m course on a level ground.
(Remember to remove the tape while the students will be pacing on the course to
prevent them from using the tape as a basis for a straight course.)
2. The ends of the assigned course are marked with either hubs or marking pins or,
by chalk marks if on pavements. Designated the points as A and B.
3. Set or hold range poles behind points A and B or outside the course AB. These
poles will aid the students to travel in a straight path.
4. Each student should take turn pacing the course from A to B starting with heel or
toe over A, keeping their eyes focus on the range pole behind point B to keep
themselves on a straight path. One has to walk in their natural unaffected

manner, and has to keep counting their number of paces for the entire course
being covered. A partial pace at the end of the course should be figured out to
the nearest one fourth of a pace. Record this as the number of paces for trial No.
1.
5. For trail No. 2, each student should walk from B to A in the same manner as in
the first trial.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the subsequent trials to comply with the number of trials
required by the professor.
7. Data should be entered in the preliminary data sheet.

## B. Determination of an unknown distance of the assigned course by

pacing.
1. The professor marks the end of a level course to be paced by each student.
2. Range poles are to be set up outside the level course to straighten the path of
the student.
3. Each student paces the course with the minimum number of trials as required,
recording the number of paces for each trial.
4. The professor after all field notes shall have been submitted, assigns two
students to make an actual taping of the course to determine its actual taped
distance.

COMPUTATIONS:
The computation of sample field notes is done in accordance with the steps listed
hereunder:

A) Computations of P.F.
1. Get the sum of the 5 trials and divide its sum by number of trials to get the mean.
N=mean number of paces=

of thenumber of paces
number of paces

2. Divide the length of the course by the mean number of paces to get the individual
Pace Factor P.F.
P.F.=

length of course
m/ pace
meannumber of paces

## B) Computation of an unknown distance and percent error

1. Get the sum of the number of paces in each trial and divide this sum by the
number of trials performed to get the mean.
N=mean number of paces =

of thenumber of paces
number of trials

2. Multiply the mean number of paces of the unknown distance by the pace factor
(P.F.) to obtain the paced distance
P.D.=(N)*(P.F.)
3. Divide the difference between the taped distance and the paced distance by the
error taped distance and multiply the quotient by 100% to get the percentage of
error.
Percentage of error =
IV.

x 100
number of trials

## 1. Why is it important to know the individuals pace factor?

We have different pace factors, some walks slower and are faster and with
different results. But pace factor is very useful on us engineers it is used to

## measure a specific distance, especially if the surveyors forgot to bring a meter

tape.

2. Name Three most important pointers that an individual must remember to follow
in order to make his/her approximation of the distance of an unknown course to
be as accurate as possible.

## Keep calm and relax

Patience is the key to success
Just imagine you are in a runway but not rushing it.

## 3. A student tries to measure the perimeter of a small Park of his community by

pacing around the area for three consecutive times. The number of paces was
tallied at 535,543 and 539 respectively, for each trial. If the students pace factor
is 0.74m/pace, determine the actual perimeter of the land.
Mean=

535+543+539
3

539
Perimeter=(mean)(pace factor )

(539)(0.74)
Perimeter=398.86 m

4. Every morning, joy walks school from her boarding house and takes only a single
route. For five consecutive days, she tries to count the number of paces she
makes. Monday mornings number of paces made joy is listed as 345 pace. On
Tuesday, 353 paces; Wednesday; 358 paces; Thursday, 348 paces, and lastly,
on Friday 355 paces. That Friday afternoon, a surveyor from city engineers
office who is tasked to lay out a new drainage piping system, measured the exact
route she took and found out that the taped distance is 275 m. what is joys pace
factor?

mean=

345+353+358+348+355
5

351.8
Pace factor =

Taped distance
mean

275
351.8

V.

DATE: 10/08/15

GROUP NO.: 1

TIME: 7:30 AM

## A. PACE FACTOR (P.F.) DETERMINATION

TRIAL
1
2
3
4
5

LINE
AB
BA
AB
BA
AB

TAPED DISTANCE
50M
50M
50M
50M
50M

B. COMPUTATIONS:
Mean = Average number of paces
Taped Distance
Mean

NO. OF PACES
92
82.5
83
84
86

MEAN

PACE FACTOR

85.5

0.58 m/pace

Pace Factor=

5

50
= 85.5

= 85.5

Pace Factor=0.58

## C. MEASURING DISTANCE BY PACING

TRIAL

LINE

1
2
3
4
5

CD
DC
CD
DC
CD

NO. OF
PACES

MEAN

PACE
FACTOR

PACE
DISTANCE

Tape
d
D.

ERRO
R

83.95

0.58
m/pace

48.69/m

54.8
m

11.14%

85
82
82
88
82.75

D. COMPUTATIONS:
Mean =Average number of paces
85+82+82+88+82.75
=
5
83.95
Pace distance=( n )( P . F )

= 83.95pace*0.58 m/pace
= 48.69/m

VI.

DATE: 10/08/15

GROUP NO.: 1

TIME: 7:30 AM

## E. PACE FACTOR (P.F.) DETERMINATION

TRIAL
1
2
3
4
5

LINE
AB
BA
AB
BA
AB

TAPED DISTANCE
50M
50M
50M
50M
50M

NO. OF PACES
92
82.5
83
84
86

F. COMPUTATIONS:
Mean = Average number of paces

MEAN

PACE FACTOR

85.5

0.58 m/pace

Pace Factor=

Taped Distance
Mean
=

5

50
= 85.5

= 85.5

Pace Factor=0.58

## G. MEASURING DISTANCE BY PACING

TRIAL

1
2
3
4
5

LINE

CD
DC
CD
DC
CD

NO. OF PACES

85
82
82
88
82.75

MEAN

83.95

PACE
FACTOR

PACE
DISTANCE

Taped
D.

0.58
m/pace

48.69/m

54.8
m

ERROR

11.14%

H. COMPUTATIONS:
Mean =Average number of paces
85+82+82+88+82.75
=
5
83.95
Pace distance=( n )( P . F )

= 83.95pace*0.58 m/pace
= 48.69/m

SKETCH:

pace.

## Members are all

doing the
trials to

get
the
individuals pace factor.

Members are preparing for their 2nd part of their field work on West Bldg. 5th
Floor in Mapua.

VII.

## RESEARCH AND DISCUSSIONS

THE PRINCIPLE:
A pace maybe measured form heel to heel of from toe to toe. While half pace is
from toe of one foot to the heel of the other foot, to keep one on the line while
pacing, it is good practice to fix his eyes on a distant object at the range behind
the pole on the farther end of the line being paced. Since the accepted precision
of measuring distance by pacing is 1/300, it should be used only for estimating
distance such as those used for sketching and making reconnaissance surveys.

Measuring a distance without a meter tape is difficult, but with the use of pace
factor which is the 1st field work in Surveying we can determine the distance by
getting the pace factor of an individual. Pacing on the level ground is the basics
of surveyors in engineering, you have to walk several times and record those
trials so that you will able to get your meter per pace. Walking must be normal as
possible. The last pace is estimated to the nearest quarter pace. It is advisable to
do this in at least five or more trials in order to determine the average number of
paces. The pace factor is then determined by dividing the known distance by
dividing the known distance by the average number of paces required to traverse
it. It is expressed in mere pre pace. Any unknown distance may then be
approximately calculated by determining the number of paces (preferably the
average) one takes to negotiate it and multiplying this by ones pace factor. The
importance to walk naturally is to calibrate ones pace and in pacing distances.

Cares should be taken to walk along a straight line. A slight deviation to the left or
right will definitely affect the accuracy of pacing. Also, and attempt to make each
step a predetermined length is tiring and will only give less accurate results. The
length of a pace will vary with the speed of pacing, the roughness of the ground,
the weight of clothing and shoes used, fatigue on the part of the pacer m the
slope of the terrain, as well as the age and sex of the individual. The pace will
also differ when going uphill. Pacing downhill will produce fewer steps than
pacing same distance uphill. On the second part of the field work, this is the
determination of an unknown distance of the assigned course by the use of
pacing. First, we let a distance to be out course of length and then just like on the
first part we walk naturally on that five times. Afterwards, we compute the data
gathered to get the mean, the pace factor and then the paced distance .In
general the length of the pace decreases as any of these factors increases,
except the speed.

VIII.

CONCLUSION

From the field work 1 that we have done, pacing is the easiest way to
determine the distance that you want to measure. I learned that you can
measure such distance using only the recorded paces and by the given
formula you can now get the result. Surveyors must have these kinds of
skills to achieve the accurate measured distance in their working sites.
Probably the sources of errors are walking too quickly or not maintaining

the same speed as you walked from the previous trials and having trouble
of keeping walking on the straight path. Thats why there are huge percent
of error in the outcome of the field work, I would recommend that always
maintain your speed, as much as possible pick a location where it is not
crowded because it is one of the reasons why surveyors get interrupted
and lose counts of their paces, always have patience because we all know
that sometimes we get tired easily because we go back and forth, and