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BSC2010 Unit 1

Atoms, Elements, & Compounds

Element: a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance in a chemical
Atom: the smallest unit of an element retaining its properties
Compounds: Combos of different elements

About 25 of 92 elements are essential to life

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen make up 96% of living matter
Most of remaining 4% consists of ?*
Properties of elements depend on structure of atoms (protons, electrons, neutrons)

Atomic Number & atomic mass

- An elements atomic number is the number of protons in nucleus (for uncharged
atoms its the number of electrons)
- Atomic mass is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
- The same element may differ in number of neutrons (same atomic number but
different atomic mass)
Energy Levels of Electrons
- Electrons differ in amounts of potential energy
- Energy is the capacity to do work or cause change
- Potential energy is stored energy
- Electrons state of potential energy is called its energy level
- Location it is in is the energy shell
- Further from nucleus more energy (3rd Shell is the highest energy level)
First shell 2 electrons
2nd Shell- 8 electrons
3rd Shell- 8 electrons

The outer shell is the valence shell

Atoms seek to gain or lose electrons until their valence shell is filled
Electrons prefer to be paired

Atom Stability
- Types of interactions depend on the atoms seeking to gain or loose electrons in
outer shell
Valency: umber of electrons to gain or loose
- monovalent (1 electron)
- divalent (2 electrons)
- etc

Making Compounds
- Bond Formation
o Covalent bonds: atoms stabilize their outer electron shell by pairing up
with another atom in a chemical bond
o Ionic Bonds: (weaker) electrical attraction between two atoms; one atom
gained an electron, one lost an electron.
Non-Polar covalent bonds:
- electrons are shared equally (ex: H-H, O-O, C-H)
Polar Covalent Bonds:
- One atom has the electron more often
- The atom that pulls the electron the hardest is more electronegative
- Ex: O-H, N-H, C=O
Water two polarized covalent bonds the oxygen has a slight negative charge the
hydrogens have a slight positive
Ionic Bonds
- Electron is stolen by one atom from another
Hydrogen bonds: electrical attraction between compounds held together by polar covalent
Bond Strength: (strong-weak)
- Covalent
- Ionic
- Hydrogen
- Van der Walls
Compounds and Chemical Reactions:
Compound: substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements
Molecule: the smallest part of a compound retaining its properties
Molecular formulas: identifies the elements and the number of given atoms in a
Structural Formulas: shows the number and arrangement of covalent bonds in a
Molecular Weight: sum of the atomic weights of atoms in a molecule
Mole: amount of a compound equal to its molecular weight in grams
H2O, 1 mole = 18g
CO2, 1 mole = 44g

Solvent: the dissolving medium (water)
Solute: the dissolved substance
Molarity: the measure of the moles (i.e. molecules) of a solute dissolved in a liter of a
1 M = 1 Mole/Liter
1mM = 10^-3 Mole/Liter
1M = 10^-6 Mole/Liter
How much glucose (C6H12O6 ) do you add
to a liter of water to make a 100 mM solution?
MW of glucose is 180 g/mole
(H = 1, C = 12, and O = 16)
B. 18 grams
Reaction Equations:
2 H2 + O2 2 H2O
6 CO2 + 6 H2O

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 - photo(sugar)

Most chemical reactions do not go to completion and are reversible
3 H 2 + N2
2 NH3
Hydrogen + nitrogen = ammonia

At equilibrium there is no net change in the concentrations of the reactants and


Which of the following statements about a chemical reaction at equilibrium are
B. At equilibrium the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the back reaction
Equilibrium Constant: Keq
Ratio of concentrations of products and reactants at equilibrium
Keq = [product C] [product D] / [reactant A] [reactant B]
Irreversible reactions: reaction goes fully to the right (Keq >> 1)
Reversible reactions: similar concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium
(Keq ~ 1)
Chapter 3 Water and pH
Water is: Cohesive, has a high specific heat, expands upon freezing, excellent solvent

Waters properties from its polar covalent bonds and its ability to form hydrogen
Each Water molecule can hydrogen bond with four other water molecules

Liquid Water
- Hydrogen bonds break and re-form
- Explains fluidity of water
- Water is cohesive and adhesive
Cohesion: ability of a substance to stick to itself
Adhesion: ability of a substance to stick to another substance
Surface tension: how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
- Water has much greater surface tension than most liquids
Water, temp, and Heat
Heat -- measure of the total kinetic (movement) energy
in a body. Calorie (cal) -- heat needed to raise
1 g of water 1 C.
Temperature -- measure of the intensity of heat (C)

Specific Heat -- amount of heat that a substance must lose or gain for its temp to change 1
- Water has a very high specific heat compared with other liquids or with gasses
and solids
Water Expands when it freezes:
Ice Hydrogen bonds are stable
Liquid Water -- Hydrogen bonds break re-form
- Ice formation warms the surrounding area
- Ice floats beacause it is less dense than liquid water
Coastal regions have a more even temperature than interior regions because of
C. High Specific Heat
Hydrophilic (water loving) substances dissolve readily in water.
- Molecules that have polar covalent or ionic bonds
Hydrophobic substances do not dissolve in water.
- Nonpolar substances (nonpolar covalent bonds)
Solubility: amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a solvent
Acid: any substance that will dissolve in water yeilding H+ and an anion -- or any
substance that can donate protons in a reaction



Base: a substance that dissolves and produces a hydroxyl ion -- or any substance that can
accept protons

Strong Acids (Bases) completely dissociate in water

Weak acids (bases) do not dissociate completely

pH Scale: the measure of the concentration of dissolved H+

H20 H+ +
OHKeq= 10^-14
[H ] [OH ] = 10 M x 10 M

= 10^-14
A solution is neutral when [H+] = [OH-]
pH = - log [H+]

pH Scale: 0-14

pH = -log [H+]
Pure water [H+] = 10^-7 M, pH = 7

Black coffee has a pH of 5.0. Pure water has a pH of 7.0. There are _____ H+ ions in
coffee compared to pure water.
E. 100x More
Solution 1 has a pH of 10. Solution 2 contains 10 times more [H+] ions then solution
1. The pH of solution 2 is ________.
E. 9
Buffers: Substances that minimize changes in pH
- that gain or lose protons depending on pH
- Weak acids and bases are buffers

carbonic acid
proton donor
proton acceptor
- Carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffers pH of blood
How many covalent bonds can oxygen make, how many can
carbon make?
D. 2, 4
The molecular formula of carbon dioxide is CO2. What is the structural formula for
carbon dioxide?
D. O=C=O
A straight-chain carbon compound constructed from _______ must contain at least one
carbon-carbon double bond.
B. 6 hydrogen, 3 carbon
Diversity of Carbon Skeletons (hydrocarbons
- Straight Chain Length, etc.
Isomers Molecules: with the same but different structures

Structural Isomers: Differ in the covalent arrangement of the same set of atoms.
Geometric Isomers: Same bonding patterns, but differs in spatial relationships around a
double bond.
Enantiomers (optical stereoisomers)
- Differ in the arrangement of four different functional groups around a single
carbon atom.
- Two enantiomers of alanine, an amino acid. Only the L-form is found in proteins.
The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life:
Hydroxyl group
o Alcohols (specific names usually end in ol
Carbonyl group
o Ketones (if carbonyl group is within carbon skeleton)
o Aldehydes (if carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton
Carboxyl group
o Carboxylic acids, or organic acids
o Acidic Properties b/c covalent bond between hydrogen and oxygen is so
Amino group
o Amines
o Acts as a base (can be an amino acid if it also has carboxyl group)
Sulfhydryl group
o Thiols
Phosphate group
o Organic Phosphates
o The activity of proteins is often controlled by the addition or removal of
phosphate groups
o Phosphate bonds are high energy bonds, and are often used as energy
currency in cells ATP*
Methyl group
o Methylated Compounds
*ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

Which of the following groups is responsible for the basic properties of amino acids?
D. NH2