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Regulating Power for Hydro Power Plant

Advanced
hydraulic
design
of Pelton
turbines
Dr. Etienne Parkinson,
Head
R&D Vevey,
Switzerland
Santiago, Chile, November 2010

Main Topics

1. PLN System
2. Runner Replacement

01/2014

3. Regulating Power in Europe

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PLN System

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01/2014

Regulating Power - Missing Considerations

System Planning

Generation expansion plan to meet


increasing demand (Optimization of
Capex & Opex)

P3B

System Security
System Quality (frequency & voltage)
Economic dispatch (Optimization of
Opex only)

PJB & IP

Operate Power Plant based on P3B


instruction

Missing

Regulating Power needs (Capex & Opex)

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01/2014

Regulating Power - Missing Considerations

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01/2014

Why Hydro Peaker 24 hrs Regulating Power?

Common practice in the world

Significant fuel saving

Opportunity runner replacement after 20 years operation

Available technology at competitive price (small additional


cost is required).

Optimizing Capex & Opex as compared


(Combined-cycle power plant) alternative

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to

thermal

Regulating Power Study Formulation

Identify regulating power needs in Jawa-Bali system in the


off peak period

Calculate fuel cost incurred during off peak produced by


Combined-cycle power plant.

Identify Hydro
replacement

Optimize Capex (incremental cost only) + Opex Hydro


regulating power vs fuel cost by Combined-cycle power
plant

Peaker

unit(s)

which

require

runner

01/2014

Remark: In Jawa Bali System while peak load has increased from 14.000 MW (2005)
to 22.000 MW, no new big Hydro Power Plant peaker is installed.

Prepared by: Mr. Adhi Satriya

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Incremental (additional cost) for modification of one unit : EURO 300,000


Fuel Saving Calculation
A

Assumptions

During the peak hours (from 5 pm 9 pm), existing Peaking Hydro power plants are
performing full frequency for the Jawa-Bali power system.

During off-peak hours (from 10 pm 4 pm on the following day), the frequency regulation are
taken over by the existing combined-cycle power plants.

After modification, one unit of Cirata will reduce/replace the operation/output of 125 MW
existing combined-cycle power plant(s) during off-peak hours.

The new mode of operation will produce fuel cost saving in the Jawa-Bali power system
during off-peak hours as a result of Cirata runner modification.

Thermal efficiency of a combined-cycle power plant: 40%.

Types and prices of fuel for combined-cycle power plants:


1. Natural Gas Price:

USD 5 / MMBtu

2. HSD Oil Price:

EUR 2.36 / gallon

PAYBACK PERIOD CIRATA RUNNER


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Fuel Saving Calculation

Calculation based on Natural Gas Price

Incremental (additional cost)


for modification of one unit

300,000 EUR

Efficiency of combined-cycle
power plant
Natural Gas Price
Energy conversion 1 MMBtu
equals to

40 %
5 USD / MMBtu
293.071 kWh

1 EUR equals to

Installed Capacity
Daily off-peak energy production
Energy production of modified
unit of Cirata during off-peak
hours

1.3702 USD

125 MW

125 MW

20 h

16 h

2500 MWh

2000 MWh

125 MW
12 h

1500 MWh

125 MW

125 MW

8 h

4 h

1000 MWh

500 MWh

Off-peak reagulating power


costs generated by
combined-cycle PP based on
Natural Gas

0.0311 EUR/kWh

0.0311 EUR/kWh

0.0311 EUR/kWh

0.0311 EUR/kWh

0.0311 EUR/kWh

Costs per day

77,819 EUR/day

62,255 EUR/day

46,691 EUR/day

31,127 EUR/day

15,564 EUR/day

Payback after

4 days

5 days

6 days

10 days

19 days

PAYBACK PERIOD CIRATA RUNNER


Prepared by: Mr. Adhi Satriya

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Fuel Saving Calculation

Calculation based on HSD Oil Price


Incremental (additional cost)
for modification of one unit

300,000 EUR

Efficiency combined-Cycle
power plant

40 %

HSD Oil Price

2.36 EUR / gallon

Energy density of HSD oil


1 gallon equals to

Installed Capacity
Daily off-peak energy production
Energy production of modified
unit of Cirata during off-peak
hours
Off-peak reagulating power
costs generated by
combined-cycle PP based on
HSD oil

9.794 kWh / liter


3.7854 liter

125 MW

125 MW

20 h

125 MW

16 h

2500 MWh

2000 MWh

0.1591 EUR/kWh

0.1591 EUR/kWh

12 h

1500 MWh

0.1591 EUR/kWh

Costs per day

397,849 EUR/day

318,280 EUR/day

238,710 EUR/day

Payback after

1 day

1 day

1 day

125 MW

125 MW

8 h

4 h

1000 MWh

0.1591 EUR/kWh
159,140 EUR/day
2 days

500 MWh

0.1591 EUR/kWh
79,570 EUR/day
4 days

PAYBACK PERIOD CIRATA RUNNER


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Runner Replacement

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Why Hydro Power can be used for ancillary service?


Hydro Power Plants can provide Primary and Secondary Reserve Energy

01/2014

most economically and get paid for Ancillary Services !

Compared to other types of power plants Hydro Power Plants are able to provide very
fast and easy ancillary service (power regulation).

Hydro Power Plants are predestinated to take over tasks regarding primary control and
power regulation!

In the usual scheduled refurbishment after centuries of operation a hydro power plant
can be designed for power regulation.

This can be done very economical. The additional costs for certain analysis (strength
analysis, etc.) and for a most likely slightly heavier runner are low compared to the
capability of power regulation.

This solution reduces tremendous the OPEX and leads to least CAPEX costs.

Prepared by: Mr. Adhi Satriya

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01/2014

Why CIRATA HPP Power Plant is a good choice?

CIRATA HPP is since 30 years in operation. Due to


the life time analysis a refurbishment or a runner
replacement is reasonable with regards to
efficiency and maintenance costs.

CIRATA HPP has been equipped already with


some new governors which can be used for power
regulation.

The center line of CIRATA is very low (deep setting


level). This gives a major advantageous in part load
operation. This leads to a smoother part load
operation (less pressure pulsation, less noise, etc.)
and allows the operation from 0 - 100% without
restrictions.

Prepared by: Mr. Adhi Satriya

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INTERESTED AREA

NO DETAILED
INVESTIGATIONS in
1984

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Refurbishment Alternatives!
Option 1: Runner Replacement without
development
Scope of Supply:
Manufacturing, Installation

Option 2: Runner Replacement with new


developed runner
Scope of Supply:
Development (CFD & model test), Transient Calculation,
Design, Manufacturing, Installation

Option 3: Runner Replacement with new


developed runner which can be used for
power regulation
Scope of Supply:

01/2014

Development (CFD & model Test) under consideration


of the operation range, Transient Calculation, Special
analysis, Design, Manufacturing, Installation

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Additional Analysis needed

Special analysis regarding:

01/2014

Lifetime Analysis & Stress Analysis


Critical Speed & Turbine Shaft stress
Spiral case & stay vanes stress
analysis
Wicket gate mechanism (analysis)
Guide vane stress analysis
Bottom ring & head cover
Regulation ring

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Design Differences
The difference of the runner fit for power regulation compared to a
conventional are:

01/2014

runner will be slightly heavier to withstand the dynamic forces in part


load (robust design)
we have to investigate the possibility of air admission to avoid harmful
pressure fluctuations and noise in part load operation
the efficiency of the runner will be slightly lower compared to a
conventional runner due to the thicker blades at the runner trailing
edge
the costs of the runner will be about 10% higher

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Regulating Power in Europe

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European Grid Whats the situation now?


The loads in the grid have been increased dramatically. Peaking becomes more
and more necessity. -> Peaking!
Also the end consumer have changed over the last years. For example new
television are very voltage sensitive. -> Voltage Control!
In parallel the production of sustainable energy due to the installed wind and
solar power plant increased.
Energy out of wind and solar have following main disadvantegous:

intermittency
low predictable
low reliable
non dispatchable

The load in the grid is changing and to remain with all synchronous generators
at synchronous frequency we have to regulate it fast. -> Frequency Control!

01/2014

Frequency control is needed to balance the generated and consumed energy.


Is also needed to allow the connection of tow grids.
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The ENTSO-E Grid at present


ENTSO-E European Network of Transmission System Operators

Supply of appr.
450 million people with

TWh

electricity
900 GW Generating capacity
Annual electrical consumption
appr. 3500 TWh

01/2014

Zone 1

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Zone 2

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The ENTSO-E Grid in the future


UCTE Netz - Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity

Supply of appr.
800 million people with
electricity
Appr. 1200 GW installed
capacity

Increasing grid stability


Hydro Power as
stabilizing factor

Inter-Area Oscillation
Hydro Power as damping
factor

01/2014

World-wide the largest synchronous grid without existing example !


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The Role of Renewable Energy in the Grid


Renewable Energy has
tremendously strengthened
its role in the European
energy mix increasing
tendency
Germany 2010:
25 GW installed wind
power
10 GW installed solar
power
Require backup for base load
and peak Hydro Power

01/2014

Plants
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ENTSO-E Grid Szenario 2010 - 2025

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Wind Energy Development in Germany

01/2014

German Wind Power


Plants 1990
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German Wind Power


Plants 2011 (27 GW)
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Solar Energy Development in Germany

01/2014

German Solar Power Plants 2005-2012

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Grid Regulation & Grid Stability


Hydro Power Plants can provide Primary and
Secondary Reserve Energy most economically
and get paid for Ancillary Services !

Load Fluctuation

Approx.1-3% of Network
Capacity

Dispatching Control

Load Frequency Control

Ancillary Services
Governor
System Inertia

1sec

01/2014

Primary Control

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1min

1hr

Secondary Control

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Hydro Power Plants providing ancillary services


fast flexible powerful in order to balance the grid
Hydropower

plus

Frequency Control

Wind

Production
Consumption

MW
Load
Hydro
Wind

schematic illustration

01/2014

source: IEA - World Energy Outlook 2010; IEA Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2010
Prepared by: Mr. Adhi Satriya

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Hydro Power Technology: Ideal for Ancillary Services


Hydro delivers Regulating Power Fast Flexibel - Powerful
Ancillary Services

Frequency regulation
primary control reserve
secondary control reserve
minute reserve

Keep stability in case of grid


disturbances, black start
capability
rebuild grid after
blackouts

Example: Required control reserve in Regelzone APG


Installed Capacity GWp: ~13 GW

Reactive power- resp.

Primary control reserve: 70 MW

voltage control

Secondary control reserve: 200 MW

Island operation capability

01/2014

Minute reserve: ca. 480 MW


Prepared by: Mr. Adhi Satriya

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The Situation
OPEX cost using gas fired power station for regulating power are very high
CAPEX for planting up of new Open Cycle capacity which is expensive
Due to enough fossil base load (coal and gas fired power station) hydro
power plants with low capacity factors could be switched to peaking and
regulating functions
The planned Pump Storage will ease the situation

01/2014

Shift of existing Hydro Assets due for rehabilitation to Regulation Power is


a valid option to use minimal CAPEX to reduce OPEX for Regulation Power

Prepared by: Mr. Adhi Satriya

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Shift of existing Hydro Assets due for rehabilitation to


Regulation Power
High OPEX
Higher CAPEX for Capacity
addition
Longer Implementation
time

Low OPEX
Least Cost CAPEX for
Runner replacement
Fast Implementation time

Regulation
by Gas
Open Cycle

Regulation
by Hydro
Power

Function

Function

After assessment and


modification

Now

Peaking
Limited frequency control
Limited Ancillary Services
Slower Response time

Peaking
Higher regulating regime
Full Ancillary Service
capabilities
Smooth frequency control
Fast response time

01/2014

Increase Efficiency in part load operation and enhance Regulation functions


Prepared by: Mr. Adhi Satriya

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