_{'}
^{R}^{e}^{v}^{i}^{s}^{e}^{d} ^{e}^{d}^{i}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}
5311910045
CNRS and University of Paris VI, France
and
CNRS and University of Paris VI, France
Translated by
Yvan Martel
University of CergyPontoise, France
k 7
r
CLARENDON PRESS • OXFORD
1998
u
Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford 012 6DP
Oxford New York Athens Auckland Bangkok Bogota Buenos Aires Calcutta
1 Cape Town Chennai Dares Salaam Delhi Florence HongKong Istanbul Karachi KualaLumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai _{N}_{a}_{i}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{i} _{P}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{s} _{S}_{a}_{o} Paolo Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsaw
and associated companies in Berlin Ibadan
Oxford is a trade mark of Oxford University Press
Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc., New York
Introduction aux problemes devolution semilineaires © Edition Marketing SA, 1990 First published by Ellipses
Translation © Oxford University Press, 1998
I Aide par le ministere francais charge de la culture
All rights reserved. No part of thispublication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press. Within the UK, exceptions are allowed in respect of any fair dealing for the purpose of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms and in other countries should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above.
This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover
I other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
_{'}
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data (Data available)
ISBNO 19 850277 X(Hbk)
Typeset by Yvan Martel
Printed in Great Britain by Bookcraft (Bath) Ltd, Midsomer Norton, Avon
This book is an expanded version of a postgraduate course taught for several years at the Laboratoire d'Analyse Numerique of the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. The purpose of this course was to give a selfcontained presen tation of some recent results concerning the fundamental properties of solutions of semilinear evolution partial differential equations, with special emphasis on the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions. We begin with a brief description of the abstract theory of semilinear evolu tion equations, in order to provide the reader with a sufficient background. In particular, we recall the basic results of vector integration (Chapter 1) and lin ear semigroup theory in Banach spaces (Chapters 2 and 3). Chapter 4 concerns the local existence, uniqueness, and regularity of solutions of abstract semilinear problems. In Nature, many propagation phenomena are described by evolution equa tions or evolution systems which may include nonlinear interaction or self interaction terms. In Chapters 5, 6, and 7, we apply some general methods to the following three problems.
(1) The heat equation
ut = Au, (0.1)
which models the thermal energy transfer in a homogeneous medium, is the simplest example of a diffusion equation. This equation, as well as the self interaction problem
Ut = Au +
f(u), _{(}_{0}_{.}_{2}_{)}
can be considered on the entire space _{R}_{N} _{o}_{r} _{o}_{n} _{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{u}_{s} _{d}_{o}_{m}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{s} _{S}_{1} _{(}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d} or not) of RN . In the case in which _{c}_{i} _{#} _{R}_{N}_{,} _{w}_{e} _{n}_{e}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{f}_{y} _{a} _{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{r}_{y} condition on I' = 852. It can be, for example, a homogeneous Dirichlet condition
u=0 onr, (0.3)
or a homogeneous Neumann condition
0 our,
(0.4)
vi
Preface
Chapter 5 studies in detail the properties of the solutions of (0.2)—(0.3) when Sl is bounded. In this problem, the maximum principle plays an important role. This is the reason for studying equation (0.2) in the space of continuous functions. Vectorvalued generalizations of the form
aui
_{a}_{c}
= czAui _{+} _{f}_{i}_{(}_{u}_{l}_{,}
...
, _{u}_{k}_{)}_{,}
i = 1,
...
, k,
_{(}_{0}_{.}_{5}_{)}
called reaction—diffusion systems, often arise in chemistry and biology. One of the main tools in the study of these systems (and in particular of their non negative solutions) is the maximum principle, which gives _{a} _{p}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{r}_{i} _{e}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s} in L0° (5l) k for the trajectories. We thus develop Co methods rather than L _{2} methods, which are easier but less suitable in this framework.
(2) The wave equation (also called the Klein—Gordon equation)
_{U}_{t}_{t}
= Au — mu,
_{(}_{0}_{.}_{6}_{)}
with m > 0, models the propagation of different kinds of waves (for example light waves) in homogeneous media. Nonlinear models of conservative type arise in quantum mechanics, whereas variants of the form
Utt = Au — f (u, Ut)
(0.7)
appear in the study of vibrating systems with or without damping, and with or without forcing terms. Other perturbations of the wave equation arise in electronics (the telegraph equation, semiconductors, etc.). The basic method for studying (0.6) with suitable boundary conditions (for example (0.3)) consists of introducing the associated isometry group in the en ergy space Hl x L2 . Local existence and uniqueness of solutions is established in this space. However, in general, the solutions are differentiable only in the sense of the larger space L2 x H 1 . These local questions are considered in Chapter _{6}_{.} (3) The Schrodinger equation
iUt = Au,
(0.8)
possesses a combination of the properties described in (1) and (2). Primarily a simplified model for some problems of optics, this equation also arises in quan tum field theory, possibly coupled with the Klein—Gordon equation. Various nonlinear perturbations of (0.7) have appeared recently in the study of laser beams when the characteristics of the medium depend upon the temperature; for example, focusing phenomena in some solids (where the medium can break down if the temperature reaches a critical point) and contrastingly, defocusing in a gas medium which weakens the transmitted signal according to the distance
Preface
_{v}_{i}_{i}
from the source.
A close examination of sharp properties of solutions of the
nonlinear Schrodinger equation is delicate, since this problem has a mixed or
degenerate nature (neither parabolic nor hyperbolic).
_{I}_{n} _{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{7}_{,} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{i}_{s}
devoted to Schrodinger's equation, it becomes clear that even the local theory
requires very elaborate techniques.
The choice of these three problems as model examples is somewhat arbitrary. This selection was motivated by the limited experience of the authors, as well as by the desire to present the easiest models (in particular, semilinear models) for a first approach to the theory of evolution equations. We do not address several other equally worthy problems, such as transport equations, vibrating plates, and fundamental equations of fluid mechanics (such as Boltzmann's equation, the Navier—Stokes equation, etc.). Such complicated systems require many specific methods which could not be covered or even approached in a work of this kind. Chapters 8, 9, and 10 are devoted to some techniques and results concerning the global behaviour of solutions of semilinear evolution problems as the time variable converges to infinity. In Chapter 8, we establish that, for several kinds of evolution equations, the solutions either blow up in finite time in the original
space or they are uniformly bounded in this space for all t >_ 0.
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e}
case for the heat equation and the Klein—Gordon equation with attractive non
linearity, as well as for nonautonomous problems with dissipation.
_{N}_{o} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h}
alternative is presently known for Schrodinger's equation. Chapter 9 is devoted to some basic notions of the theory of dynamical systems and its application to models (1) and (2) in an open, bounded domain of R _{N} _{.} _{W}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{t} _{o}_{u}_{r}_{s}_{e}_{l}_{v}_{e}_{s}
to the basic properties, and we give an extensive bibliography for the interested reader. In Chapter 10, we study the asymptotic stability of equilibria. We also
discuss the connection between stability and positivity in the case of the heat equation.
Finally, in the notes at the end of each chapter there are various bibliograph ical comments which provide the reader with a larger overview of the theories discussed. Moreover, the limited character of the examples studied is compen
sated for by a rather detailed bibliography that refers to similar works.
_{W}_{e}
hope that this bibliography will serve our goal of a sufficient yet comprehensible introduction to the available theory of evolution problems. At the time of pub lication, new results will have made some parts of this book obsolete. However, we think that the methods presented are, and will continue to be for some years,
an indispensable basis for anyone wanting a global view of evolution problems.
Paris
^{1}^{9}^{9}^{8}
_{T}_{.} _{C}_{.}
A. H.
Notation . . . . 
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_{x}_{i}_{i}_{i} 

Preliminary 
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_{4} 


... 
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_{7} 


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_{8} 


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_{1}_{8} 


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_{2}_{5} 


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_{2}_{6} 

2.6:1. The Laplacian in an open subset of R _{N} _{:} _{L}_{2} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{2}_{6} 


_{.} 
_{.} 
_{2}_{7} 



in Ha (1l) x L2 (1l) 
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_{.} 
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_{2}_{9} 

. . . . . . . _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} 
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_{.} 
_{3}_{0} 


_{.} 
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_{3}_{1} 


33 


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_{3}_{3} 


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_{3}_{5} 


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_{3}_{8} 


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_{3}_{9} 


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_{4}_{2} 
x Contents
3.5.1. The heat equation 
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_{4}_{2} 

3.5.2. 
The wave equation (or the Klein—Gordon equation) 
47 

3.5.3. 
The Schrodinger equation 
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_{4}_{7} 

3.5.4. 
The Schrodinger equation in Rr` 
. 
_{4}_{8} 



problems . 
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_{5}_{0} 

4.1. 
Inhomogeneous equations 
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_{5}_{0} 

4.2. 
Gronwall's lemma 
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_{5}_{4} 

4.3. 
Semilinear problems 
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_{5}_{5} 

4.3.1. 
A result of local existence 
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_{5}_{6} 

4.3.2. 
Continuous dependence on initial data 
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_{5}_{9} 

4.3.3. 
Regularity 
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_{6}_{0} 

4.4. 
Isometry 
groups 
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_{6}_{2} 

5.1. 
Preliminaries 
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62 

5.2. 
Local existence _{.} 
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64 

_{.} 
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5.3. 
Global existence 
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_{6}_{5} 

5.4. 
Blowup in finite time _{.} 
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_{7}_{2} 

5.5. 
Application to a model case _{.} 
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_{7}_{6} 


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_{7}_{8} 

6.1. 
Preliminaries 
_{.} 
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78 

6.1.1. 
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_{7}_{8} 

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An abstract result 
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6.1.2. 
Functionals on Ho (S2) 
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_{7}_{9} 

6.2. 
Local existence . 
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82 

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6.3. 
Global existence 
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_{8}_{4} 

6.4. 
Blowup in finite time _{.} 
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_{8}_{7} 

6.5. 
Application to a model case _{.} 
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_{8}_{9} 

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7. 
The Schrodinger equation 
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_{9}_{1} 

7.1. 
Preliminaries 
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_{9}_{1} 

7.2. 
A general result 
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_{9}_{2} 

7.3. 
The linear Schrodinger equation in RN 
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_{9}_{5} 

7.4. 
The nonlinear Schrodinger equation in R _{N} _{:} _{l}_{o}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{e}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} 
_{1}_{0}_{0} 

7.4.1. Some estimates 
101 

7.4.2. Proof of Theorem 7.4.1 
106 

7.5. 
The nonlinear Schrodinger equation in R _{N} _{:} _{g}_{l}_{o}_{b}_{a}_{l} _{e}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} 
_{1}_{1}_{2} 
Contents xi
. . . _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} 
_{1}_{1}_{4} 

_{.} 
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_{.} _{.} 
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_{1}_{2}_{0} 


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_{1}_{2}_{1} 


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_{1}_{2}_{4} 


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_{1}_{2}_{4} 

_{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.}
. . . . . . _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} 
_{.} _{.} 
_{.} _{.} 
_{1}_{2}_{5} 


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_{1}_{2}_{9} 


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_{1}_{3}_{0} 


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_{1}_{3}_{4} 

. . . . . _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} 
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_{1}_{3}_{4} 


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_{1}_{4}_{2} 


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_{1}_{4}_{2} 


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_{1}_{4}_{3} 

. . . . . . . . _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} 
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_{1}_{4}_{5} 


_{.} 
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_{1}_{4}_{6} 


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_{1}_{4}_{9} 

10. Stability of stationary solutions _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} 10.1. Definitions and simple examples _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} _{.} 
_{.} _{.} 
_{.} _{.} 
_{.} _{.} 
_{.} _{.} 
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_{.} 
_{1}_{5}_{4} _{1}_{5}_{4} 

10.2. A simple general result 
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156 

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10.3. Exponentially stable systems governed by PDE 
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_{1}_{5}_{8} 

10.4. Stability and positivity _{.} 
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_{1}_{6}_{4} 

10.4.1. The onedimensional case _{.} 10.4.2. The multidimensional case 
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_{1}_{6}_{5} _{1}_{6}_{7} 

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Bibliography 
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_{1}_{6}_{9} 

Index . 
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_{1}_{8}_{5} 
the space of linear, continuous mappings from _{X} _{t}_{o} _{Y} the space of linear, continuous mappings from _{X} _{t}_{o} _{X} the topological dual of the vector space X
the Banach
space _{(}_{D}_{(}_{A}_{)} _{,} _{(}_{I} _{I}_{I} _{D}_{(}_{A}_{)}_{)} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{I}_{I} _{u}_{I}_{I}_{D}_{(}_{A}_{)} _{=} _{I}_{I}_{u}_{i}_{I} _{+} _{I}_{I}_{A}_{u}_{I}_{I}_{,}
when A is a linear operator with a closed graph
the space of C°° (realvalued or complex valued) functions with compact support in S2
= C°°(^) = D( l)
the space of continuous functions with compact support in S2 the space of functions of C(S2) which are zero on 011 the space of distributions on 11 the space of measurable functions on 11 such that _{I} _{u}_{I} _{P} _{i}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}
(1 < p< oo)
_{=} _{(}_{f}_{n} u')', for u E _{L}_{p}_{(}_{1}_{)}
the space of measurable functions u on SZ such that there exists C such that I u(x) I < C for almost every x E 11
= Inf{C > 0, Iu(x)I < C almost everywhere}, for u E L(1)
the conjugate exponent of p,
_{i}_{.}_{e}_{.} _{p}_{'} _{=} _{p}_{/}_{(}_{p} _{—} _{1}_{)} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{1} _{<} _{p} _{<} _{o}_{o}
=
_{0} kI
a = (ai,
...
_{N}
, aN), _{I}_{a}_{I} _{=} _{E} _{a}_{^}
_ { f E LP (St), Da f E LP (S2) for all _{a} _{E} _{N}_{'} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{I} _{a}_{l} _{<} _{m}_{}}
_
.Ijcj<m II D"uII LP for u E Wm,r(SZ)
the closure of D(fl) with respect to the norm II Ilwm _{,}_{p} =
Wm,2(f _{l} )
= (EIaI<m(IID uIIL2 ^{)} ^{2} ^{)} ^{1}^{/}^{2} for u E Hm(1l)
xiv Notation
_{H}_{)} = Wo '2 (fl)
_{D}_{(}_{I}_{,} _{X}_{)}
the space of C°° functions with compact support from I to X
_{u}_{'}
_{=} _{u}_{t} _{=} du/dt, for u E D'(I, X)
_{C}_{,}_{(}_{I}_{,}_{X}_{)} the space of continuous functions with compact support from I to
X
_{C}_{b}_{(}_{I}_{,} _{X}_{)} the space of continuous and bounded functions from I to X
_{C}_{b}_{,}_{w} _{(}_{I}_{,}_{X}_{)} the space of uniformly continuous and bounded functions from I to X
_{L}_{P}_{(}_{I}_{,} _{X}_{)} the space of measurable functions u on I with values in X and such _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{I}_{I}_{u}_{I}_{I}_{P} is integrable (1 < p < oo)
_{I}_{I}_{U}_{I}_{I}_{L}_{P}
= (Ii IuIP)1/P, ^{f}^{o}^{r} ^{u} ^{E} ^{L}^{P}^{(}^{I}^{,}^{X}^{)}
_{L}_{(}_{I}_{,}_{X}_{)} the space of measurable functions u on I such that there exists C _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{I}_{I}_{u}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{I}_{I} < C for almost every x E I
_{=} _{I}_{n}_{f}_{{}_{C} _{>} _{0}_{,} _{I}_{u}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{I} < C almost everywhere}, for u E LO°(I, X)
_{W}_{1}_{'}_{P}_{(}_{I}_{,}_{X}_{)} _{=} _{{}_{u} E LP(I,X), u' E LP(I,X), in the sense of D'(I,X)}
u 

1 

Preliminary results 

1 
1.1. Some abstract tools
We recall here some classical theorems of functional analysis that are necessary for the study of semilinear evolution equations. The proofs can be found in Brezis [2].
Theorem 1.1.1. (The Banach Fixed Point Theorem) Let (E, d) be a com _{p}_{l}_{e}_{t}_{e} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c} _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{l}_{e}_{t} _{f} _{:} _{E} _{–}_{+} _{E} _{b}_{e} _{a} _{m}_{a}_{p}_{p}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} that there exists _{k} _{E} _{[}_{0}_{,} _{1}_{)} _{s}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{s}_{f}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{d}_{(}_{f} _{(}_{x}_{)}_{,} _{f} _{(}_{y}_{)}_{)} < kd(x, y) for all (x, y) E E x E. Then there exists a unique point _{1}_{0} E E such that f (xo) = xp.
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m} _{1}_{.}_{1}_{.}_{2}_{.} (The Closed Graph Theorem) Let X and Y be Banach _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{s} and let A: X — Y be a linear mapping. Then A E L(X,Y) if and only _{i}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h} _{o}_{f} _{A} is a closed subspace of X x Y.
Remark 1.1.3. We recall that the graph of A is G(A) = {( x, y) E X x Y; y = Ax}.
Theorem 1.1.4. (The Lax—Milgram Theorem) Let H be a Hilbert space _{a}_{n}_{d} _{l}_{e}_{t} _{a} _{:} _{H} _{x} _{H} _{–} _{I}_{R} _{b}_{e} _{a} _{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{.} Assume that there exist two constants C < oo, a > 0 such that:
_{(}_{i}_{)} _{I}_{a}_{(}_{u}_{,}_{v}_{)}_{I} _{C}_{l}_{I}_{u}_{l}_{l} _{I}_{M}_{I} for all (u, v) _{E} H x H (continuity);
_{(}_{i}_{i}_{)} _{a}_{(}_{u}_{,} _{u}_{)} _{>} _{a}_{I}_{I}_{u}_{I}_{I}_{2} for all u _{E} H (coerciveness).
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{n}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{f} _{E} _{H}_{*} _{(}_{t}_{h}_{e} dual space of H), there exists a unique u _{E} H such that a(u, v) = (f, v) for ally E H.
1.2. The exponential of a linear continuous operator
_{L}_{e}_{t} _{X} be a Banach space and let A E C(X).
Definition 1.2.1. We denote by e A the sum of the series E _{n}_{,} An.
n>0
It is clear that the series is norm convergent in C(X) and that IleA ll < e ^{l}^{I}^{A}^{1}^{I}^{.} ^{I} Furthermore, it is well known that if A and B commute, then e ^{A}^{+}^{B} ^{=} ^{e}^{A}^{e}^{B}^{.}
_{2}
Preliminary results
_{I}_{n} _{a}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{f}_{i}_{x}_{e}_{d} _{A}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{t} _{'}_{}_{4} etA belongs to C°° (R, £(X)) and we have tA = e1AA = AeIA
dt ^{e} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{t} _{E} R. Finally, we have the following classical result.
_{P}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{1}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{2}_{.} _{L}_{e}_{t} _{A} _{E} £(X). For all T> 0 and all x _{E} X, there exists _{a} _{u}_{n}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{e} _{s}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{u} _{E} _{C}_{1} _{(}_{[}_{0}_{,} _{T}_{I}_{,} X) of the following problem:
u (t) = Au(t), for alit E [0,T];
u(0) = x.
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{s}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} _{b}_{y} _{u}_{(}_{t}_{)} _{=} _{e}_{t}_{A} x, for all t E [0, T].
_{P}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{.} _{I}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{c}_{l}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{e}_{t}_{A} _{x} is a solution therefore, we need only show unique ness. Let v be another solution and let z(t) = etA V(t). We have
^{z} _{'}_{(} ^{t}^{)} ^{=} ^{e} ^{}^{t}^{A} (Av(t))  A(e ^{}^{t}^{A} _{V}_{(}_{t}_{)}_{)} _{=} _{0}_{.}
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{,} z(t)
__
_{z}_{(}_{0}_{)} _{=} _{x}_{;} and so v(t) = ex.
1.3. Sobolev spaces
❑
We refer to Adams [1] for the proofs of the results given below. Consider an _{o}_{p}_{e}_{n} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{t} _{S}_{2} _{o}_{f} _{R} _{N} . A distribution T _{E} D'(S2) is said to belong to LP(11) (1 <p < oo) if there exists a function f _{E} LP(S2) such that
_{(}_{T}_{,}_{)} = fn f (x)cp(x) dx,
_{f}_{o}_{r} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{E} _{D}_{(}_{5}_{2}_{)}_{.} In that case, it is well known that f is unique. Let m _{E} N and let _{p} _{E} {1, cc]. Define
_{W}_{m}_{'}_{(}_{)} _{=} _{{} _{f} _{E} _{L}_{p}_{(}_{1}_{l}_{)}_{,} _{D}_{&} _{f} _{E} LP(Sl) for all _{a} _{E} Ntm such that Ial < m }.
_{W}_{m} _{,}_{P}_{(}_{c}_{l}_{)} is a Banach space when equipped with the norm defined by
IIfIlwm,p =
IID`fIILp,
_{f}_{o}_{r} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{f} _{E} _{W}_{'}_{r}_{(}_{I}_{l}_{)}_{.} For all m,p as above, we denote by Wo '(S2) the closure
_{o}_{f} _{D}_{(}_{1}_{l}_{)} _{i}_{n} _{W}_{'}_{P}_{(}_{f} _{)}_{.} If p = 2, one sets Wt ,2 (f)
= H(l),
Wo ' 2 (1) = Ho (1l)
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{o}_{n}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{p}_{s} _{H}_{t}_{(}_{S}_{Z}_{)} with the following equivalent norm:
_{1}_{1}_{A}
_
IIDc'UIIL2
JaI<m
Sobolev spaces 3
Then Hm(1l) is a Hilbert space with the scalar product
(u,
v)Hm =
f _{D}_{a} _{u}_{D}_{a}_{v} _{d}_{x}
IIm
If S2 is bounded, there exists a constant C(S2) such that
uIIL2 <_ C(cl)IIVUIIL2,
for all u E Ho (S2) (this is Poincare's inequality). It may be more convenient to equip Ho (1l) with the following scalar product
(u, v) =
in
Vu • Vv dx,
which defines an equivalent norm to
_{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{l}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{H}_{H}_{(}_{S}_{Z}_{)}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}
following two results are essential in the theory of partial differential equations.
Theorem 1.3.1. If S2 is open and has a Lipschitz continuous _{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{r}_{y}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n}_{:}
(i) if 1 < p < N, then W 1'P(IZ)
_{L}_{q}_{(}_{f}_{l}_{)}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{q} _{E} _{[}_{p}_{,}_{p}_{*}_{]}_{,} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{p}_{*} _{_}
(ii) Npl (N — p); if p = N, then W 1'P(S2) y L9 _{(}_{1}_{l}_{)}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{q} _{E} _{[}_{p}_{,} _{o}_{o}_{)}_{;} 

(iii) if p> 
N, 
then Wr'r(cl) > _{L}_{(}_{c}_{)} _{f}_{l} _{C}_{°}_{'} _{1}_{1} _{(}_{5}_{2}_{)}_{,} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{a} _{=} _{(}_{p} _{—} _{N}_{)}_{/}_{p}_{.} 
Theorem 1.3.2. In addition, if 11 is bounded, embeddings (ii) and (iii) _{o}_{f} Theorem 1.3.1 are compact. Embedding (i) _{i}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{t} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{q} _{E} _{[}_{p}_{,}_{p}_{*}_{)}_{.}
Remark 1.3.3. The conclusions of Theorems 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 remain valid without any smoothness assumption on _{5}_{2}_{,} _{i}_{f} _{o}_{n}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{W}_{1}_{'}_{P}_{(}_{1}_{l}_{)} _{b}_{y} _{W}_{W}_{'}_{P}_{(}_{c}_{)}
We also recall the following result (see Friedman [1], Theorem 9.3, p. 24).
Theorem 1.3.4. Let q, r be such that 1 < q, r < oo, and let j, m be integers, 0 < j < m. Leta E [j/m,1] (a <1 if m — j — N/r is an integer >_ 0), and _{l}_{e}_{t} _{p} be given by
p
\1
m /
q
Then there exists C(q, r, j, m, a, n) _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}
IIDauIIL1 <C
IcI=7
a
IIDauIIL
IkI='m
IIuIIL9a,
_{f}_{o}_{r} _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{u} E D(II81`')
4 Preliminary results
Finally, we recall the following composition rule (see Marcus and Mizel [11).
_{P}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{1}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{5}_{.} _{L}_{e}_{t} _{F} : R  IR be a Lipschitz continuous function, and _{l}_{e}_{t} _{1} _{<}_{p} _{<} _{c}_{o}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{n}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{u} _{E} _{W} _{l} _{"}_{r}_{(}_{5}_{2}_{)}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} F(u) belongs to W"PQ). _{M}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{o}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{i}_{f} _{N} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} set of points where F is not differentiable (INI = 0), then
^{V}^{F}^{(}^{u}^{)} ^{_}
F'(u)Vu, if u V N;
_{0}_{,}
if u E N;
almost everywhere in Q.
In particular, we have the following result.
Corollary 1.3.6. Let 1 < p < oo. For all u E W 1'P(Sl), we have u+, u , Jul E W 1'P(S2). Moreover, V(u+) _Vu, if u > 0;
almost everywhere.
_{{}_{0}_{,}
ifu<0;
1.4. Vectorvalued functions
We present here some results on vector integration and vectorvalued distribu tions that will be useful throughout this book. We consider a Banach space X and an open interval I C R.
1.4.1. Measurable functions
_{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{1}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{1}_{.} _{A} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{f} _{:} _{I} _{}_{}_{}_{>} _{X} is measurable if there exists a set _{E} _{C} _{I} of measure 0 and a sequence (fn)n,>o C Cc (I, X) such that f(t) —> f (t) asn—^oo, for alit EI\E.
_{R}_{e}_{m}_{a}_{r}_{k} _{1}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{2}_{.} _{I}_{f} _{f} _{:} _{I} _{—}_{>} _{X} _{i}_{s} _{m}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{I}_{i} _{i}_{f} 11 : I # R is measurable.
_{P}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{1}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{3}_{.} _{L}_{e}_{t} _{(}_{f}_{f} _{)}_{>}_{o} _{b}_{e} _{a} _{s}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} of measurable functions I —> X _{a}_{n}_{d} _{l}_{e}_{t} _{f} _{:} _{I} _{}_{}_{+} _{X} _{b}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} that ff (t) —> f (t) as n —> oo, for almost all t E I. Then f is measurable.
_{P}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{.} _{f}_{,}_{,}_{,} _{—}_{>} _{f} _{o}_{n} _{I} _{\}_{E} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{J}_{E}_{l} _{=} _{0}_{.} _{L}_{e}_{t} _{(}_{f}_{n}_{,}_{k}_{)}_{k}_{>}_{o} be a sequence of continuous functions with compact supports such that fn ,k —> f, almost everywhere as _{k} _{—}_{>} oo. By applying Egorov's theorem to the sequence li fn,k — fn iI, we obtain
the existence of E^,, C I with IEj < 2', such that fn ,k # f
on
Vectorvalued functions 5
I \En . Let k(n) be such that II _{f}_{n}_{,}_{k}_{(}_{n}_{)}
_{f}_{n}_{I}_{I} _{<} _{1}_{/}_{n} _{o}_{n} _{I} _{\}_{E}_{n} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{l}_{e}_{t} _{g}_{n} _{=} _{f}_{k}_{(}_{n}_{)}_{.}
Take F
= E
U
(f u
m>O n>m
En) then IFI = 0. Let _{t} _{E} _{I} _{\} _{F}_{.} _{W}_{e} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{f}_{,} _{(}_{t}_{)} _{—}_{*} _{f} _{(}_{t}_{)}_{;}
on the other hand, for n large enough, t E I \En . It follows that IIgn — fn _{I} <1/n. Therefore, g(t) —> f (t) _{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{o} _{f} _{i}_{s} _{m}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{.} _{❑}
Remark 1.4.4. If f : I  X and cp : I 4 R are measurable, then _{c}_{p} _{f} _{:} _{I} _{}_{}_{>} _{X} is measurable.
Remark 1.4.5. If _{(}_{x}_{n}_{)}_{n}_{>}_{o} is a family of elements of _{X} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{i}_{f} _{(}_{w}_{n} _{)} _{>}_{_} _{0} _{i}_{s}
a family of measurable subsets of _{I} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{w}_{i} _{n} _{w}_{^} _{_} _{0} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{i} i n>o x1 is measurable.
_{j}_{,}
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{n}
Proposition 1.4.6. (Pettis' Theorem) _{C}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r} _{f} _{:} _{I} _{—}_{i} _{X}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{f} _{i}_{s} measurable if and only if the following two conditions _{a}_{r}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{s}_{f}_{i}_{e}_{d}_{:}
(i) f is weakly measurable (i.e. for every x' E X*, the function t H (x', f (t)) is measurable);
(ii)
there exists a set N C I of measure 0 such that f (I \ N) is separable.
Proof. First, since f is measurable, it is clear that _{f} _{i}_{s} _{w}_{e}_{a}_{k}_{l}_{y} _{m}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{.} Now let (fn)n>o C Cc (I,X) be a sequence such that _{f}_{n} _{}_{i} _{f} _{o}_{n} _{I}_{\}_{N} _{a}_{s} _{n} _{}_{}_{>} _{o}_{o}_{,} where INI = 0. It is clear that _{f}_{n} _{(}_{I} _{\} _{N}_{)} _{i}_{s} _{s}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{s}_{o} _{i}_{s} _{f} _{(}_{I} _{\} _{N}_{)}_{.} Conversely, we may assume that _{f} _{(}_{I}_{)} _{i}_{s} _{s}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{,} _{s}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{X} _{i}_{s} _{s}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} (by possibly replacing X by the smallest closed subspace of _{X} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{f} _{(}_{I}_{)}_{)}_{.} We need the following lemma (see Yosida [1], p. 132).
Lemma 1.4.7. Let X be a separable Banach space, _{l}_{e}_{t} _{X}_{*} _{b}_{e} _{i}_{t}_{s} _{d}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} let S* be the unit ball of X. There exists a sequence (x) _{>} _{o}_{f}_{o}_{f} _{S}_{*} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} that, for every x' E S*, there exists _{a} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{(}_{x}_{'}_{n}_{k} _{)}_{k}_{>}_{o} _{o}_{f} _{(}_{x}_{)}_{>} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} xnk (x)—>x'(x) for all x c X.
Proof. Let (xn)n>o be dense in X. For all n> 0, define Fn _{:} _{S}_{*} _{}_{*} _{2}_{2} _{(}_{n}_{)}_{,} _{b}_{y}
Fn(x ' ) = (x _{'} _{(}_{x}_{1}_{)} ...
,x
' 1xn)),
for all x' E X*. Since t 2 (n) is separable, there exists a sequence (xn _{k} _{)}_{k}_{>}_{o} _{o}_{f} _{S}_{*} such that Fn ((xnk )k>o ) is dense in Fn (S*). In particular, for all _{x}_{'} _{E} _{X}_{*}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} exists xn E S* such that
x' (x.7) — x lk(,. (x 7)I
n
6 Preliminary results
_{f}_{o}_{r} _{1} _{<}_{j}
_{<} _{n}_{.} It follows that x'nk(.) (xi) ^ x'(xi) as n > oo, for all j E N. Since
_{(}_{x}_{n} _{)}_{n}_{>}_{o} _{i}_{s} _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{e} _{i}_{n} _{X}_{,} we deduce easily that xnk(n) (x) —* x'(x) as n f oo, for
all x E X. The result follows.
_{E}_{n}_{d} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} proof of Proposition 1.4.6. Let x E X. Then t H
measurable. Indeed, for all a > 0,
1f(t) — xli is
_{{}_{t}_{,} _{I}_{I}_{f}_{(}_{t}_{)}_{—}_{x}_{1}_{1} _{<}_{a}_{}}_{=} f {t,Ix(f(t)x)I <a} ;
Ilx'll<1
and it follows from Lemma 1.4.7 that
_{{}_{t}_{,} 111(t) — x11 < a} = (1 {t, _{I}_{x}_{n}_{'}_{(}_{.}_{f} (t) — x)I < a}.
n>O
Since the set on the righthand side is clearly measurable, t F4 11 1(t) — xli is _{m}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{.} _{N}_{o}_{w} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r} _{n} _{>}_{_} _{0}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{e}_{t} _{f} _{(}_{I}_{)} (which is separable) can be cov
ered by a countable union of balls B(x) of centres xj and radius 1/n. Consider