Nazi German Armed Forces



A History of Diversity in the Third Reich
By William P. Litynski



Adolf Hitler and Dr. H.H. Kung pose with Nazi German and Nationalist Chinese delegations at Adolf Hitler’s guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg"..html/

(art ): Hit*er+s Asian ,o*diers

Chiang Wei-kuo, the adopted son of Nationalist China’s Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, poses for an offi ial portrait. Chiang Wei-kuo’s !iologi al mother "as from #apan.

+ut once he ac-nowledged him. handsome. :nglish. 7he Euftwaffe had ta-en o2er training the Chinese air force. +elie2ed that China needed two more ears to reach his goal of si*t well. He graduated in "#$# 3ust +efore the out+rea. :2en so.> ? The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China + !a 7a lor.Chiang Wei-kuo $left%. communism is no longer a real menace to China. 0Ching.cadet.and. Chiang CKai. Ale*ander 2on 6al-enhausen.ellow <i2er near =i’an."@% 0Addressing a huge crowd in Nan-ing on Dou+le 7en Da &Bcto+er ".polish militar units marched + in goose step followed + row after row of powerful German weapons. and if things went according to plan.> After his speech.she-D declared. "#$A. p.-uo’s e*istence hidden from 8a ling for thirteen ears.-uo. 7he Generalissimo had -ept 1ei.-uo’s step+rother 1ei. "F. the adopted son of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. mar-ing a profound change in the +alance of power +etween China and !apan. a dozen su+marines. who was a second lieutenant in an arm unit deplo ed against the !apanese along the . then spent a ear at the 4. "@A. 7han-s to German machine tools./. Chinese arsenals were now capa+le of producing some weapons of 9ualit and precision. At present.. meanwhile.> ? The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China + !a 7a lor. she 9uic-l came to en3o her sua2e.of war. modern di2isions.5. and other warships were not due to +e deli2ered +efore "#$@. the new German ad2iser. Chinese pilots + "#$# would +e fl ing modern 8esserschmitts and 5tu-as."F" . He had ta-en part in the union of Austria and German &the Anschluss/ as a German sergeant. a German cruiser. 07he remnant Communists are now encompassed in a few scattered regions and can +e e*terminated without much difficult . Chiang stood and saluted as spit. was de2eloping his militar career. ser&ed as a ommander of a pan'er di&ision during the ()*+ . p.trained. Arm ’s armored force center at 6ort Kno*. New German hea2 coastal guns. torpedo +oats.spea-ing stepson.ns hluss.

.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page05% A group of 7ur-ic or Asian soldiers appear in a Nazi German arm uniform.militaryphotos.Left photo.forums.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02% 8ight photo.sho" .""".net.$Photo.militaryphotos. &'hoto( http())englishrussia.""".sho"thread.forums.$Photo.http-. $Photo.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02% .http-.sho"thread.. $Photo.sho"thread.forums.""".php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02% .9ongolians in the Na'i German army.""". group of German Na&y $Kriegsmarine% sailors in #apan appear "ith a group of sailors from the #apanese :mperial Na&

#apanese army soldiers $left and right% atta hed to the Wehrma ht #apanese army offi er $right% atta hed to the Wehrma ht .

group of . group of .. $Photo.sian soldiers are dressed in the Wehrma ht uniform in ()5*.r hi&es% .German .ederal .sian soldiers "earing the Wehrma ht uniform .

not the ()35-34 one%. for his latest !ook.m!rose."eeks. <he .."orld"ar2data! <he photo itself had !een pre&iously featured in FE-EayG !y ?tephen . ho"e&er.german.meri an PCWs li!erated !y the 8ed . Captured !y the Germans in a !attle near 9os o". <hey "ere pressed into ser&i e in the 8ussian . What parti ularly interested me "as a photo from World War :: that ser&ed as an inspiration for #o #ung8ae.. : ould a ept that they "ere returned to the ?o&iet’s ho"e&er as at that time there "as a largish Korean Eiaspora under ?o&iet ontrol and they therefore "ould ha&e seemed like a ?o&iet pro!lem to deal "ith. <he re&ie" "as titled Masters Return With Bitter History and o&ered a ouple of areas of Korean Aistory. om.coldie. North"estern Korea on 9ar h *.soldiers. ()23. <he pi ture itself an !e &ie"ed at the WW2 9ultimedia Eata!ase 00 World War :: 9ultimedia Eata!ase. 2332. the Koreans "ere then pressed into ser&i e in the Wehrma ht.5(3331(4(3. Normandy on #une 1. an author.pparently an . Ae li&ed near the North"estern Bni&.. 1th. ())2. <he !ook itself is "ritten in Korean so : annot read into it.german. ()55.meri a in ()56.arm / <he name of the Korean soldier in the a!o&e photo is Kyoung=ong >ang "ho "as !orn in ?hin @ui=oo. iti'en "ithout telling his un!elie&a!le life story e&en to his t"o sons and one daughter.rmy "ere on the same side and no PCW eH hanges should ha&e !een ne http-.. may!e in the !attle of Kharko&. ()54 and mo&ed and settled in .http-. Ae "as freed from a PCW amp in Britain on 9ay.coldie.php/t024445 Korean ?oldiers in WW2 German . :t seems that these poor souls ne&er made it !a k home to Korea as apparently the Koreans "ere eH hanged "ith the ?o&iets for . <his : find a little suspi ious as at that time the 8ed .G <he photo sho"s a Korean soldier in German uniform on a Normandy !ea h in ()55. : "ill post an arti le a!out that later "hen : get the resear h finished.meri ans $mer ifully% did not press them into ser&i e !ut rather held them as prisoners of " <hey "ere then aptured !y the .sho"thread.rmy and the B? .. :t seems that the Koreans had !een ons ripted into the #apanese . FCh God.meri ans "hilst they "ere engaged "orking on the . "hi h !e ame a !ig topi in the Korean so iety here at the time.rmy <here "as a !ook re&ie" re ently in the Korea <imes a!out a ouple of authors "ho had pu!lished re ently.htm ?our e. 5ource( http())thomo.rmy.soldiers.pril 6.""".tlanti Wall.meri an soldier from the "ar had told . the homepage of the Eata!ase !eing here at http-. in :llinois until he died on the ()53’s one. Ae li&ed as an ordinary B. .meri ans in Btah !ea h.wwF.m!rose that he had met four Koreans "earing German uniforms "hen his unit parti ipated in a tion against German troops on the !ea hes of Normandy. the idea !ehind the !ook "as appealing.rmy !ut after !eing aptured !y the 8ussians at the Battle of Nomonhan in the 8usso-#apanese War $part ::. om.A Korean soldier in the 1ehrmacht &'hoto( http())thomo. and aptured finally !y . Ais story "as re&ealed !y an arti le of DWeekly Korea’ on Ee .arm ."""."ee. Ae "as ons ripted to the K"antung army in ()*+ and aptured !y the ?o&iets in Nomonhan and aptured again !y Germans in Bkraine in the summer of ()5*.sear h.allforums. dou!ly so as : ha&e !een doing some resear h into the Battle of Nomonhan any"ay.

. $Photo.php/t0(1(+*37page06% .http-.militaryphotos.sho"thread.sian prisoners-of-"ar in the Wehrma ht appear for a group photo some time after the Battle of Normandy in ()55.forums."""

.Bnidentified <urki soldiers dressed in Wehrma ht uniforms play a game of poker.

Bnidentified <urki soldiers dressed in Wehrma ht uniforms play a game of hess. .

$Photo.ederal .ederal . $Photo.r hi&es% .German . Na'i German army offi er instru ts a group of <urki &olunteers in C to!er-No&em!er ()5*.Na'i German army offi ers inspe t a group of <urki soldiers.r hi&es% .German .

php/t0(1(+*37page0*% 8ight. group of Chinese troops from the National 8e&olutionary .sho"thread.% of the Kuomintang..militaryphotos.. #apan on No&em!er (3. Wang died in Nagoya.Wikipedia% .rmy $ $Photo. Wang al"ays fle" the 8epu!li of China $8CC% flag and laimed to !e the legitimate go&ernment of China despite the fa t he defe ted to the #apanese @mpire and !etrayed Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.Left. ()55. Chinese General Wang #ing"ei $ enter%. portrait of Chiang Wei-kuo in the uniform of the Na'i German Wehrma ht.. is seen ele!rating "ith Na'i German offi ers in ()5(. $Photo.""".forums. a pro-#apanese olla!orator "ho on e ser&ed as the Premier of the 8epu!li of China $()*2-()*4%.

.militaryphotos.sian soldiers. http-.""". Na'i German offi ers appear "ith t"o #apanese sumo "restlers !efore or during World War ::.Na'i German offi ers inspe t a group of .net.sho"thread.forums.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02 .

German on 8a F#. and leader of the "#J" Ira9i coup dLMtat <ashid Ali al.3pg 7he Grand 8ufti of !erusalem Ha3 Amin al.Ga lani meet in Berlin. German in "#J$.org)wi-i)6ile(5u+hasKChandraKBoseKandKAdolfKHitlerKF#K8a K"#JF. Indian nationalist leader 5u+has Chandra Bose &center/.Indian guerilla fighter 5u+has Chandra Bose meets with Adolf Hitler at the <eich Chanceller in Berlin.wi-imedia. "#JF. . &'hoto( Bundesarchi2)German 6ederal Archi2es/ http())commons.Husseini &left/.

$Photo. . #apan in ()54.:ndia’s anti.German .r hi&es% ?u!has Chandra Bose deli&ers a spee h in <okyo.ederal .olonial re!el ?u!has Chandra Bose $left% shakes hands "ith Na'i ?? Chief Aeinri h Aimmler during a meeting in Na'i Germany in ()5*.

org.http-..22+*+.ederal .min al-Ausseini speak at the anni&ersary of the ()5( oup in :raI in front of !la k-"hite-green !anners in Berlin.olonial re!el ?u!has Chandra Bose $left% sits !eside Na'i ?? Chief Aeinri h Aimmler during a meeting in Na'i Germany in ()5*.li al-Gaylani and Aa= .German .:ndia’s anti.yad&ashem.html% . Germany.en-us. olle tions.r hi&es% 8ashid .photosar hi&e. $Photo. $Photo.

$Photo.olonial re!el ?u!has Chandra Bose $se ond from right% sits !eside Na'i ?? Chief Aeinri h Aimmler during a meeting in Na'i Germany in ()5*. Bose reportedly died on . ()54 in a plane rash o&er the island of <ai"an shortly after #apan surrendered. .r hi&es% :ndia’s politi al a ti&ist ?u!hash Chandra Bose $left% meets "ith and 9ohammad . #innah "as the founder of independent Pakistan and ser&ed as the first Go&ernor-General of Pakistan from ()56 until his death on ?eptem!er ((.ederal .:ndia’s #innah.ugust (+.German . ()5+.

ederal . $Photo.Bundesar hi&.German .:ndian guerilla fighter ?u!has Chandra Bose $se ond from left% meets "ith Na'i ?? hief Aeinri h Aimmler $right% in Na'i Germany in ()5*.r hi&es% :ndia’s re!el ?u!hash Chandra Bose meets "ith an unidentified Na'i German army offi er during World War ::. .

Indian guerilla fighter 5u+has Chandra Bose salutes as Indian soldiers of the 6rei Indien Korps march in a parade. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ . 7he Nazi German flag is displa ed in the +ac-ground.

A group of Indian soldiers of the 6rei Indien Korps ta-e an oath of allegiance during 1orld 1ar II. .

.A group of Indian soldiers of the 6rei Indien Korps ta-e an oath of allegiance during 1orld 1ar II.

()5*. #apan on No&em!er 4. Eelegates stand together at the Greater @ast .sia Conferen e in <okyo.#apanese !ook J?ho"a Aistory Kol.dolf Aitler and @mperor Airohito of #apan.% .?u!has Chandra Bose "as the leader of the :ndian National Congress !efore World War :: and e&en had audien es "ith .8oad to CatastropheJ pu!lished !y 9aini hi Ne"spapers Company. Aideki <o=o is standing at enter. :ndia’s pro-.((. $?our e.His re!el ?u!has Chandra Bose is standing on the far right.

A memorial for India’s Nazi colla+orator 5u+has Chandra Bose in !apan .

&'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ .A mem+er of the 6reies Indien Korps &6ree Indian Corps/.

8em+ers of the 6reies Indien Korps appear at a conference in No2em+er "#J$ as an unidentified Nazi German +ureaucrat &third from right/ deli2ers a speech.min al-Ausseini greets ?u!has Chandra Bose in Berlin in ()5*. . &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ Aa= .

+ild.+undesarchi2.Nazi German 6ield 8arshal :rwin <ommel inspects the 6ree India Eegion &6reies Indien Korps/ in 6rance in 6e+ruar "#JJ. &'hoto( Deutsches Bundesarchi2 &German 6ederal Archi2e// http())"$.@A#AJN%)GsearchC2iewDHdetailOsearchCfocusDH" .

&'hoto( Deutsches Bundesarchi2 &German 6ederal Archi2e// http())en.Indian soldiers of the 6ree India Eegion &6reies Indien Korps/ prepare to fire artiller rounds in 6e+ruar "#JJ. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ 5oldiers of the 6reies Indien Korps guard the Atlantic coast of 6rance in "#JJ.

5oldiers of the 6reies Indien Korps recei2e instructions from a German arm general on 6e+ruar ". &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ . "#JJ..

Left photo..rei"illigen Legion der Waffen ?? L:ndian Li!eration Legion of the Waffen ??M remained at <r.rei"illigen Legion der Waffen-??.N!. "ith the defeat of the <hird 8ei h imminent the :ndians sought san tuary in neutral ?"it'erland and undertook a desperate mar h along the shores of the Bodensee $Lake Constan e% in an attempt to enter ?"it'erland &ia one of the alpine passes.3% .:ndis he . this "as unsu essful and e&entually the Legion "as aptured !y Bnited ?tates and . Ao"e&er.indeH.G 8ight photo.forums.Plat' Aeu!erg until the end of 9ar h ()54. then. F<he :ndis he . om.thementalmilitia. $Photo.php/topi 02(46).http-.:ndian soldiers $primarily ?ikhs% are seen making o!ser&ations in a ! h for es !efore their deli&ery into the ustody of British for es.

&5ource( http())www.phpGtH"A"@$.OpageHA/ .net)forums)showthread.militar photos.

com)GpHF%F@/ Indian soldiers in the Nazi German arm &'hoto( http()) .&'hoto( http())englishrussia.


Ara+ soldier in the 6ree Ara+ Eegion of the Nazi German arm &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ . 7 .Part 2.fri an ?oldiers An African.Aitler’s 9uslim. .ra!.

fri an soldiers in the .German ./p0262+% .ra! Legion of the Na'i German army $8ight photo.frika Korps/% in ()5*.fri an soldier of the F.englishrussia.ree .http-..ree . om.r hi&es% Photos of .ederal .n . $Photo.ra! LegionG appears "ith mem!ers of the Na'i German Wehrma ht $..

""".Georgians in Wehrmaht uniform stand !eside German rail ars during World War ::.frika Korps%.forums.ield 9arshal @r"in 8ommel’s . $Photo. $Photo.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02% .sho"thread.militaryphotos.http-..frika KorpsG $not related to .php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02% .sho"""".. group portrait of an unoffi ial F.forums.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= . the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem.l-Ausseini rides in a &ehi le "ith a group of Na'i German military offi ers. $Photo. hats "ith soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision on Ee em!er ().l-Ausseini. .ederal . ()52.German .min .r hi&es% Na'i olla!orator Aa= .min .

l-Ausseini. $Photo.r hi&es% .Na'i olla!orator Aa= . the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem.ederal .German .min . salutes to soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision in No&em!er ()5*.

ederal . salutes to a group of Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision soldiers in No&em!er ()5*.r hi&es% . $Photo. the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem.l-Ausseini.min .Na'i olla!orator Aa= .German .

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini and soldiers of the pro-Na'i Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision pose for a group portrait in No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini $se ond from left%, the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem, is seen dining "ith the Na'is.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini o!ser&es Na'i maneu&ers from a peris ope.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini "at hes soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision operate a mortar tu!e.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini "at hes Na'i German army offi ers train soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision in No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini is seen training a soldier of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision in No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

$German .r hi&e% Na'i olla!orator Aa= .l-Ausseini salutes to soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar di&ision.l-Ausseini.ederal . the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem.min .min . salutes to mem!ers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision in No&em!er ()5*. .Na'i olla!orator Aa= .

englishrussia.r hi&es% .ederal .n unidentified Georgian or . $Photo.http-./p0262+% . $Photo. om.'er!ai=ani soldier appears in a Na'i German army uniform..German .Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision soldiers read F:slam und #udentumG $:slam and #udaism% in ()5*.

. A group of 8uslim Nazi 2olunteers stand at attention with fi*ed +a onets.A group of 8uslim Nazi 2olunteers march in formation.

group of 9uslim Na'i &olunteers sing and dan e during training.llah in No&em!er ()5*. 9em!ers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision pray to .German .r hi&es% . $Photo..ederal .

9em!ers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision pose for a group portrait during World War ::.r hi&es% A group of 8uslim Nazi 2olunteers recei2e instructions on the use of grenades.ederal . $Photo.German . .

min .dolf Aitler in Berlin in Ee em!er ()5(.min .l-Ausseini meets "ith . Na'i olla!orator Aa= . .Na'i olla!orator Aa= .l-Ausseini greets Na'i ?? hief Aeinri h Aimmler.

.oreign 9inister of Na'i Germany #oa him &on 8i!!entrop $2 nd left%. ()52. Germany for talks from #uly )-( el-Gailani in Berlin. ompanied !y .Aeinri h Aoffmann% . $Photo..dolf Aitler re ei&es Prime 9inister of :raI 8as hid .

whose maternal grandmother was a !ew. whose maternal grandmother was a !ew . 0Puarter.ale 4ni2ersit with a Bachelor of Arts degree and ser2ed as an officer in the 4.<igg.Aitler’s #e"ish ?oldiers 7he author Br an 8ar.5. 8arine Corps and as a 2olunteer in the Israeli arm .Part *.!ew> Admiral Bernhard <ogge. graduated from .

"@#F in 1ilhelmsha2en. Organ of Austrian Heimwehr Reports es!ent on His "other#s Si$e% &OR'EARS# O& SA"E NA"E Woman Who Left C(e!hos)o*a+ia for Austria e!)are$ a Sister of Chan!e))or#s . German .ran$mother% 1ireless to THE NEW YO K T!MES. HITLER TIE SEEN WITH CZECH JEWS. whose full name is :rhard Alfred <ichard Bs-ar 8ilch. :rhard 8ilch’s father was a !ewQ :rhard 8ilch’s mother’s !ewish ancestr remains a m ster . edition of Time magazine.Eeft( Nazi German Euftwaffe officer 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch appears on the front co2er of the August FA. !ul "$.. 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch. "#$$ ire!t VIENNA. The New York Times .5hamir was the 'rime 8inister of Israel from "#@$ to "#@J and from "#@A to "##F and the Eeader of the Ei-ud 'art from "#@$ to "##F.itzha. was +orn on 8arch $. July 12 -. $esterreichische A%end%latt. "#J. claimin# proo that Herr Hitler "as directly descended on his mother&s side rom a Je"ish amily o that name in C'echoslo(a)ia* +ource. 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch 3oined the Nazi 'art in 8arch "#$$Q 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch’s Nazi 'art mem+ership card num+er was "F$. a Nazi colla+orator who founded the 5tern Gang. <ight( An Israeli postage stamp features Rionist terrorist A2raham 5tern. A2raham 5tern’s comrade .@@N.Frequent intimations and reports that Chancellor Hitler o !ermany "as connected "ith a Je"ish amily o the same name culminated in a three-pa#e story toni#ht in the Heim"ehr or#an.itzha.5hamir was a commander of the 5tern Gang during 1orld 1ar IIQ .

@rhard 9il h "as on&i ted at Nurem!erg for rimes against humanity.Aohen'ollernPs KnightPs Cross "ith ?"ords.=e"ishQsoldiersQpi s..ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h $left% "ith General Wolfram &on 8i hthofen.Left photo.General Gotthard Aeinri i.dolf Aitler in ()*6. <he ra!!ini al la" states that a person is a #e" if his or her mother is a #e"O the father’s an estry is irrele&ant. Ae "as a"arded the 8itterkreu' for his performan e during the ampaign in Nor"ay in ()53.JAalf-#e"J and later Luft"affe General Aelmut Wil!ergO Aitler de lared him .htm% 8ight photo.ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h. om. "ho "as married to a Jhalf-#e". . @K::. $9ilitary a"ards.""".http-.J meets "ith .ryan in ()*4.% $?our e. Wil!erg de&eloped the operational ta ti s of !lit'krieg. 8ight photo.FAalf-#e"G . Left photo.!ryanrigg.JAalf-#e"J and . Luft"affe General Aelmut Wil!erg "as a #e".ryan. Aitler de lared 9il h an . . ording to the ra!!ini al la" and the Nurem!erg La". @K:.

Hitler’s constant attention to the details of 8ischling polic support the assumption that he was at least as intimatel in2ol2ed in the policies that affected them as in those that affected the !ews. had German won the war.+oat na2al officer of the Kriegsmarine &German Na2 / in " generals. +ut not the s stematic -illing of millions in gas cham+ers.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar.Admiral Bernhard <ogge &third from right/ stands at attention as Adolf Hitler sha-es hands with an unidentified 4. had good militar records. 0No fewer than twent .!ews -nown a+out the Holocaust. 7he stor of 8ischling soldiers illustrates how corrupt and demeaning the Nazi go2ernment was and how confusing its racial laws were. one would e*pect them to ha2e done e2er thing the could to a2oid deportation. had rendered German a uni9ue ser2ice. <ogge was a 9uarter. p. their 8ischling relati2es remained at least as ignorant of what Hitler’s plan would do to them.F%% . p. And thousands in the lower ran-s of the 1ehrmacht remained there +ecause Hitler personall e*empted them from the laws. Ei-e most other Germans. se2en admirals. Bppenfeld. its leaders pro+a+l would ha2e slaughtered half.!ews en masse too ? something man came to realize in their B7 camps or after the war. "%" 0!ust as shoc-ing as Hitler’s per2erse racial policies with respect to partial !ews in the 1ehrmacht is that most 8ischling soldiers did not -now Hitler was murdering millions of !ews. In the 7hird <eich.!ewQ his maternal grandmother was a !ew. 7he most con2incing proof that these men did not -now what was happening is the stor of half. 7hese 8ischlinge fought for a regime that repaid their ser2ice + murdering their relati2es and persecuting them.<igg. Adolf Hitler 0Ar anized> Admiral Bernhard <ogge and declared him deutsch+lStig &German +lood/ in "#$#. F%A. onl Adolf Hitler could grant e*emptions &Ar anization papers/ to Germans of partial !ewish descent who ser2ed in the Nazi German armed forces. Gunther 5cheffler. Hitler did so mainl +ecause the loo-ed Ar an &that is. 8ilch was second in command and +asicall ran the Euftwaffe with the help of 1il+erg and a few other distinguished air force generals. Had half. 1il+erg was a +rilliant tactician who de2eloped the operational concept called Blitz-rieg &lightning war/ toda . Kopp. and others -new a+out e*ecutions in the east. or had come from distinguished familiesT6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch and General Helmut 1il+erg were leading Euftwaffe personalities. and one field marshal of !ewish descent ser2ed with Hitler’s consent. 6urthermore. including their relati2es. But as this +oo. had +lue e es and +lond hair/. most reported when calledTIf !ews did not -now the endgame of the Nazis.<igg.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar. +ut what happened at the deadl destinations la +e ond their -nowledge or imagination.!ews in the B7 forced la+or camps. the -new a+out Nazi deportations. 7hese men’s accomplishments help e*plain wh Hitler Ar anized them. 8ost who recei2ed Hitler’s Deutsch+lStig-eitser-lUrung &declaration of German +lood/ had distinguished themsel2es in war and pro2en their worth as soldiers.

core Nazi. A" . a full !ew. were actuall German. p. and courthouses.. although ele2ated to the status of a militar 2irtue.. Although the 55 preached racial purit . in Berlin to a !ewish mother and a gentile father.55. and his whole appearance. was a !ewish con2ert to Christianit . e9ui2alent of a fi2e. 8ost parents of 8ischlinge did not raise them as religious !ews. He was a machine who alwa s did his dut with ". one can somewhat understand how officers li-e 'rager. Howe2er. which then drafted half.!ew &!ewish 8ischling " st Degree/. +ut had to ser2e in the 55 militar arm. the Nazis also counted him as a !ew. and 9uarter. could re2eal their true ancestr if the wanted to remain in this organization C1affen. 55D. He carried his +od with control and e*celled at sports.gentleman 'ar e()ellen)e. B war’s end. 8arch "@#F in 1ilhelmsha2en.the form of political nai2etM and ineptitude.5.. and death certificates stored in churches. coupled with a self. who was a famous painter of landscapes and +uildings. the autocratic Head of 5tate. 6ull !ews had three or four !ewish grandparents. while their relati2es had to wear the 5tar of Da2id. 0half. the 1affen. Anton. he had no pro+lem +ecoming a Nazi 'art mem+er.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar. a consummate professional. He was apolitical. from his precisel com+ed hair to his manicured fingernails and spit. His mother was a homema-er and his father a go2ernment official. "@$.<igg. half.<igg. a de2oted famil man and patriot. +ut also a nast person and a hard. F.!ews had one !ewish grandparent.55 did not allow an one in its ran-s with an !ewish ancestr . If a person not of !ewish descent practiced the !ewish religion.and ha2ing German 0+lood. p. according to historian !ames Corum. he disli-ed the 6uhrer. He alwa s wore neatl starched and ironed clothes. Bernhard 6riedrich Carl :dgar <ogge was +orn on J No2em+er "@##.<igg. is an understanding of their religious identit .!ew &!ewish 8ischling F nd Degree/. showed that he paid careful attention to the details of life.imposed isolation from the world of politics ? an isolation which. :rhard Alfred <ichard Bs-ar 8ilch.!ewish legislation to preser2e the purit of the 0Ar an> race.> 1ith this in mind. 8ilch’s mother. +ecame a powerful man of the 7hird <eich in contrast to most of the other men in this +oo-. production and e2en strateg . was a gentile. of the #J.!ews. in terms of the old s stem of 2alues.> 4nli-e the 1ehrmacht. He ran a retail drug +usiness and during 1orld 1ar I ser2ed as a 9uartermaster general for medical supplies. and identification with. and 1il+erg ser2ed their nation with such passion and lo alt T1il+erg was +orn on " !une "@@. 0ran the Euftwaffe and was its most powerful figure for personnel and planning issues.. general/ who. His militar +earing e*uded confidence and he was a strong leader. the Nazis issued a supplement to the Nurem+erg Eaws of "N 5eptem+er "#$N that created the 0racial> categories of German. and had clear +lue e es that stared out from his s9uare face.responsi+ilit for e2er thing that happened to him and around him.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar. <ogge. In fact Hitler allowed se2eral high.> and 09uarter. His demeanor commanded respect. He radiated confidence. His maternal grandmother was !ewish. p. He too.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar. p. Ei-e man documented in this stud . 7he Nazis resorted to religious records to define these 0racial> categories.polished shoes. was +uilt li-e a line+ac-er. Hitler could free indi2iduals from the la+el !ew or 8ischling + Ar anizing them with a stro-e of his pen.. He was an opportunist and rarel worried a+out those he had to step on in order to clim+ the ladder of success. Clara &nee Vetter/. 7he Nazis +ased their racial laws on the 2ol-isch &ethnic in a racial sense/ notion of the inherent superiorit of the 0Ar ans. men ser2ing in the 1affen.. although some people suspected her of +eing !ewish as well. seemed +oth unscrupulous and +rutal.> 7hese laws pro2ided ci2il rights to those +elonging to the Vol. But the Nazi racial laws considered them all !ewish to one degree or another.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar. +aptismal. he fought for German +ut not for the NazisTHistorian 8atthew Cooper elo9uentl descri+es the dilemma in which 1il+erg and man others found themsel2es under Hitler( 07he generals who were faced with National 5ocialism were the prisoners of their own proud heritage. onl FN. 7he "#$N Nurem+erg Eaws pro2ided the +asis for further anti. and most 8ischlinge did not consider themsel2es !ewish until Hitler persecuted them. 8ilch also +ecame a field marshal &the 4. using +irth. pounds. Although he ser2ed in armed forces lo al to Hitler. 7he tradition +estowed on them + their predecessors was one of unconditional personal o+edience to. under Article % of a supplementar decree of the Nurem+erg Eaws.0:rhard 8ilch was a political animal and cared onl a+out himself and his career."%$ 0Helmut 1il+erg was an officer and a gentleman."$ 0T C8Dost often non. it did not let it get in the wa of its recruiting 9uotas e*cept for those with 0!ewish +lood. As a result. marriage.!ews had two !ewish grandparents. !ew. "%F.German citizens could not ser2e in the 1ehrmacht. temples. Bn "J No2em+er "#$N.N 0Also fundamental to comprehending the +izarre situation in which 8ischlinge wore the swasti-a on their uniforms. ran-ing officers of !ewish descent to remain in the militar + Ar anizing them. +orn on $. percent of his +eing. and his actions also showed that he +elie2ed in man things the Nazis espoused.. and 9uarter. +ut her hus+and was Ar an.> each with its own regulations..> His father.> 7he Nazis automaticall denied !ews and 8ischlinge citizenship pri2ileges. He was indeed an incredi+le organizer of the Euftwaffe.> 7his created a 0new moralit which.<igg.HeinzD Eow ."@N 0Bernhard <ogge stood si* feet three inches tall and weighed FF. much less CKarl.. and he was the soldier. p. !ewish Communit Centers. 5o no 8ischlinge. "F.<igg. 7hese laws distinguished Germans from persons of !ewish heritage +oth +iologicall and sociall .

A. the son of German Admiral Gunther Eut3ens. tons.part documentar a+out the famous duel +etween H85 Hood and K8 *ismar)k. Eippman Decem+er F. Eut3ens could not attac. -nowing that a minor hit on one of his +attle. 4nder cautious handling.ens/ B Da2id H.7he Admiral’s 6ictional 6ate G-nther L-t.well. wow. aternal or maternal. 7hat was a thunderclap for me. to settle the account of how and wh the were sun-. he withdrew. and pri2atel despaired when German went to war. for o+2ious reasons W a !ewish German admiral san.ou +et. the undersea e*plorers located *ismar)k W not as hard. 5o when his ships ran into con2o s with +attleship escort.cruisers S)harnhorst and Gneisenau. +ecause <o+ert Ballard had alread found her ears ago W and determined she had +een sun.a lot of guts. After their cruise.. and she was l ing in se2eral pieces at the +ottom of the Denmar. Eut3ens’ two +ig ships found precarious refuge at Brest in occupied 6rance. but if it was maternal. But Eut3ens was not punished. protesting Kristallnacht. I caught the +est part of a two. displa ing great lo alt and admiration for his father. the two dreadnoughts san. to be recise.cruisers would +e enough to put them out of action. !hey didn"t say which one it was.ard.5trait. effecti2el disrupting the British con2o c cles for a time. Gerhardt Eut3ens. In the documentar . But the real shock came when the documentary revealed that Gunther Lutjens was one-fourth Jewish. In the second half.FF Allied merchant ships for a total of ""N. A Jewish grandmother. Gerhardt 9uoted his father as sa ing German had no chance in the war. Nothing surprising there. Instead. In "#$@. leading them on a fairl successful raiding cruise in the Atlantic in 6e+ruar and 8arch "#J". where the spent most of the ne*t ear in doc-wor-ers’ hands and under British air attac-. He was a cheer elderl German.H85 HoodG .@ A few da s ago. As part of the documentar . was inter2iewed at some length. I -new that Eut3ens didn’t thin. A mo2e li-e that from a ser2ing flag officer too.defended con2o s with his ships.much of Hitler and his strutting Nazis.command of the +attle. But it actuall made some sense. . +ut I can’t imagine it was positi2e. An American research group was tr ing to locate the remains of +oth +attleships.. far from a friendl doc. he and other German na2al officers of !ewish ancestr fired off angr telegrams to Hitler. 7he first half of the program co2ered Hood. he would have been Jewish under Jewish law.+ British torpedoes +efore the scuttling charges went off. I don’t -now how Hitler responded. prett much as contemporar accounts and later historians ad2ertised. he too. +ecause of her oil shortages.

+ut she pro2ed a washout. and head into a 6rench port. Bismarck at sea/ 7hen. He was o2erruled + his +osses. the pressure was on to put a strain on the <o al Na2 where2er Berlin in April "#J" to ta-e command of a tas. "#J". 1hen *ismar)k met up with Hood on 8a F$. 7he +rin. Howe2er. And with the Germans attac-ing in the 8editerranean. on his N"st +irthda . there would +e no fuel for large. British +om+s too. He reputedl told his +oss. Eindemann con2inced Eut3ens to go forward. Eugen for independent raiding.> . and it was 0win through or die.*ismar)k and +rin. He was summoned +ac. If ou don’t want to fight. Eut3ens learned his ship had ta-en a hit forward that damaged her oil tan-s. Eugen. the plan +egan to disintegrate from the start. Eugen to sea on 8a "@. Eut3ens wanted to wait until the ships at Brest were read . He would ha2e to turn aside or +ac-. Karl :rnst Eindemann. due to damaged propellers. was tougher material. and the two +attle. Eut3ens wanted to a2oid +attle and sail awa .5trait.cruisers at Brest sortie at the same time. 7he *ismar)k’s captain. and showed a distinct lac. Hitler was getting read to in2ade <ussia.m ship in the +ac-side. Eugen hit a mine. 7he Germans were running out of reasona+l long nights to +rea. and once the 1ehrmacht’s tan-s plunged into the 5o2iet 4nion. He cut loose the +rin. Eut3ens addressed the +attleship’s crew.fitting out at Gotenhafen. Eut3ens agreed and sailed on. 0I’m not going to stand here and let them -ic. he told *ismar)k’s sailors the whole <o al Na2 was coming for them.scale na2al operations. -nown also as Gd nia.of aggression in the cruise. nights at all/.Eut3ens wasn’t there to see the welding and +om+ing. Eut3ens wanted to go home to German .Gneisenau out of the game. After than-ing them for presumed good +irthda wishes. S)harnhorst needed her +oilers o2erhauled.ard case for three wee-s. or Gdans-.force of two ships. heading for 6rance.into the Atlantic &and if the chose to go through the Denmar. ma +e -noc-ing off a con2o en route. cutting loose the full punch of the German surface fleet on the British con2o routes. the *ismar)k and the hea2 cruiser +rin. with great misgi2ings. 7he grandiose German plan was to ha2e the two new ships sail from German in 8a "#J" and +rea. I willX> After *ismar)k disposed of Hood.into the Atlantic. #$in !hrough or %ie" Eut3ens too. ma-ing her a doc.

were pulled out of the freezing Atlantic Bcean. 7wo da s later.7he gloom speech depressed the sailors. his torn flag still fl ing from the *ismar)k’s shredded mainmast. +ut the speech also reflected his own depression and sense of ad2ancing age. Apparentl those remar-s fell on some deaf ears. Admiral Gunther Eut3ens died in +attle. retired in "#%". Karel 5tepane-. Gunther would pro+a+l ha2e appro2ed. which san. and held up a sign sa ing 01e will stand + ou> to an alongside American warship. . 5till. He could 2er well ha2e 3oined millions of 2ictims with greater !ewish pedigree W al+eit fewer medals W in the gas cham+er at Auschwitz. F. wrec-ing morale. for o+2ious reasons. 5tepane. which crippled the +attleship with a dramatic and well.". pla ed the admiral. got wor. and those two British +attleships and their escorts sent *ismar)k to the +ottom. 7hat included Bernhard <ogge. 7oda the German Na2 has a destro er named for Gunther Eut3ens.placed torpedo to the rudders. It’s interesting that the gu who pla s the Nazi admiral was himself a refugee from Nazism... It was a cruel fate for an seaman. the German Na2 did a fair 3o+ of protecting officers with !ewish +lood. His list of credits on the Internet 8o2ie Data+ase.+om+ers from H85 . and passed awa on Christmas Da .5emitic.-nown pu+lic use of his name( the mo2ie Sink the *ismar)k.apparentl was a rising star in the Czech film industr until Hitler showed up.and sore. Grand Admirals :rich <aeder and Karl Germans and :astern :uropeans in mo2ies li-e The Heroes of Telemark and o2in Hood. heartsic. which 3ammed them.mails floating around c +erspace is how the new Eut3ens’ crew manned their ship’s rail on 5eptem+er "". !he &ther Lutjens Eut3ens met the +etter of two fates( d ing in +attle as a hero instead of +eing gassed in a concentration camp as a helpless 2ictim. the top German seadogs. Bnl "". Born in "@##. who commanded the highl successful merchant raider Atlantis.rk o/al. struggling to free their 3ammed rudder. 4na+le to maneu2er in a hea2 sea. in which +oth urged the new German Na2 to purge itself of the !ewish influence. No+od -nows how the pair met their end W one of the first British hits smashed the flag +ridge and set it a+laze.+ the cruiser H85 1e#onshire. Bnl his uniform -ept Eut3ens ali2e. Eut3ens and Eindemann sta ed on the +ridge. During the long night +etween the torpedo hit and the final +attle. let alone the war.-nown and true e.FF ships +efore +eing caught and sun. and one of the +etter. I had to +elie2e that if Eut3ens had escaped death in the *ismar)k fiasco. 4nder Nazi law.fourth !ewish made it worse. were themsel2es fairl anti.. a 2eteran Czech actor.. he certainl would ha2e +een +lamed for the mess. During the war. He apparentl told his son that he did not e*pect to sur2i2e the *ismar)k cruise. he was supposed to die an wa . in Eondon. and his !ewish ancestr would ha2e +een used against him. It’s one of m fa2orites.. not their countr men. she drifted helplessl north and west straight into the guns of the <o al Na2 ’s +attleships H85 King George 0 and H85 odne/. mem+ers of the *ismar)k’s crew. Howe2er. Eut3ens was 3ust tr ing to correct an air of o2erconfidence. reports that he fled to America in "#$@. "#@. Doenitz more so than <aeder. He would ha2e +een less happ a+out the other and +etter. +ecause Eut3ens and <ogge onl faced death at the hands of their enemies. Both drew 2er+al fire at Nurem+erg for their wartime statements to the fleet. and the fact that Eut3ens was one. *ismar)k was caught + British torpedo. 5o did more than F.

or flee to safet . +attling the competing concepts of national lo alt and famil lo alt . screenwriters did a decent 3o+ with the film. the screenwriter &who +ased it on C. it’s a +etter stor than :rwin <ommel. He -new the war was lost from the +eginning. and is stunned when the 6uhrer’s guarantees guarantee nothing. 'hoices (ever )ade Eut3ens deser2es +etter. 8urrow +rings gra2itas + pla ing himself in his wartime role as CB5 radio news commentator from Eondon. Eut3ens repeatedl orders Eindemann to +e aggressi2e when caution is clearl needed. an enem of the state.pla ed this role deli+eratel . the were ser2ing one of the most e2il ideologies in histor . shoehorned + up+ringing and tradition into a situation he dreaded +ut could not a2oid. It would ha2e made for a +etter stor W the conflicted admiral. so he 3oined up with Hitler and rode to power on Nazi coattails. and :dward <. He was a conflicted and depressed man. <ommel admired Hitler until things went wrong. losing his countr . Eut3ens in the mo2ie is a lo al and fanatical Nazi. But the war had +een o2er for "N ears. Hec-. to remind forgetful audiences "N ears after V. Hitler made him a scapegoat for the plot and the continuing string of militar defeats. He dies a stunned. As a high. He -new what the Nazis were doing. 7he result is that 5tepane. and famil to the Gestapo and Nazi terror.gets it all wrong. All the wa through. alternatel .te1ane2 as G-nther L-t. It’s actuall 2er sad to see this depiction of Eut3ens. :ither wa . He’s right. whose connections to the plot to -ill Hitler are spott at +est. there’s a good mi* of he still went out and did his +est to +ring Hitler 2ictor . 7he German side of the stor was a little more open + then.0are* . I suspect that 5tepane.ran-ing officer in the German Na2 . and he -new the were wrong. Kenneth 8ore and Eawrence Naismith pro2ide the re9uisite <o al Na2 0let’s win this +attle. 7he filmic Eut3ens tal-s a+out how he had his career ruined + the 7reat of Versailles. from +oth filmma-ers and histor . . I can imagine him pacing the +ridges of his flagships. and died on his +ridge.5. friends. 5tepane. as defiant as his crippled +attleship. chaps> determination. and his actual role in the Bom+ 'lot of !ul F. Eindemann is portra ed as a more reasona+le and realistic officer. Dana 1 nter pro2ides 2isual relief. 7he "#A. steeped in tradition. 6orester’s no2el/ wrote the cinematic Eut3ens all wrong.footage and e*ploding warship models.ens/ 5tepane. and thus had a 2ested interest in reminding film audiences of that point. Now he see-s glor for Nazi German + destro ing the British fleet. and the could ha2e made the effort to dig a little +it into Eut3ens and his famil . concerned with his ship’s crew and its sur2i2al. He faced the conflicting demands and resigned himself to doing his dut and d ing honora+l . either +efore the war. or on the +ridge of his +attleship. 7he research on the operations and ships in2ol2ed is accurate. he could not turn against his go2ernment.would ha2e seen that ideolog in action for himself. +ut sadl . As portra ed. Eut3ens +elie2es Hitler’s promises that the Euftwaffe will come to sa2e is still argued o2er + scholars. In the film. +ut he did it with the wrong gu .: Da that while the German Na2 fought a hard and tough +ut clean and chi2alrous war.has the cragg face for his role and ma-es Eut3ens commanding and determined. + definition. and his famil was. slightl repentant Nazi.

if an . an act of high treason. her 2er oung crew e*hausted from si* da s of steaming at action stations and demoralized + the crippling damage she had suffered. while pro+a+l pleasing to Hitler and preser2ing honor. the German High 5eas 6leet’s chief accomplishment to date had +een to scuttle itself in 5capa 6low in "#"#. and the fate of :urope’s !ews W and his relati2es. it would also +e seen as a dishonora+le mo2e. outnum+ered. He could stri-e his flag. peering through his Reiss +inoculars. Her sacrifice would gain the <eich nothing. 'erhaps Eut3ens’ real dut at that moment was no longer to his 6uhrer or the Nazi s stem.gods. and outmaneu2ered. If Eut3ens did stri-e his flag. . reconnaissance information and lo alt . short of fuel and anti. scuttle his own 2essel. as the result of an erroneous four.!ew Eut3ens. and to preser2e their li2es.was outgunned. 1e will ne2er -now what epiphan Eut3ens had. Bn the other hand. loc-ed on a slow and predicta+le course.old report in a British newspaper. on that flag +ridge. transfer his men in orderl fashion to the British ships. I’2e often wondered what Eut3ens thought when he stood on his flag +ridge that last morning. seeing the immense gra +ul-s of H85 King George 0 and H85 odne/ steaming towards him. re2eal its incapacit and wea-ness in +attle. then surrender when the +attle was clearl lost.struggling with plotting his ships’ ne*t mo2e while pondering the insanit of his situation W leading the most powerful +attleships in his nation’s Na2 in an effort to achie2e the destruction of his own people. Eut3ens was commanding a nearl immo+ile +attleship. such a gesture. No wonder he didn’t want to fight. an ironic fate for the part.da . An Admiral could not 3ust 0stri-e his flag. and indeed. and defile and humiliate the entire German Na2 ’s officer corps. 8art rdom would not win a war. He must ha2e struggled with long thoughts of fuel supplies and honor. G-nther L-t. would not preser2e oung li2es.> And looming o2er these two choices had to ha2e +een Eut3ens’ thoughts a+out German . 8a +e. No wonder he was so depressed on *ismar)k’s cruise. +ut to the oung men in his charge. and onl send promising oung German sailors to 2ile and useless deaths.aircraft ammunition. and that de+acle still cast a shadow o2er the German Na2 . Eut3ens had two options at that moment( fight and li-el condemn most of his crew to horri+le deaths or stri-e his flag &perhaps after a short action/ to sa2e their li2es. +ecause the first shells to hit Bismarc. At that moment. Nazism. Hitler.ens3 on Hit*er4s ri5ht3 escorts the F6hrer on an ins1ection of %ismarc2/ 0ar* Ernst Lindemann is second from *eft/ Howe2er. +ut he ma ha2e ta-en the middle course( put up a fight long enough to sa2e honor. Nor was there an point to such a +attle( Bismarc.-illed him. 7he first course would gratif Hitler’s desire to see the whole world destro ed in true 1agnerian fashion and turn Bismarc-’s crew and himself into mart red Nazi demi. and +e remem+ered as a leader who stood for humanit amid world’s most terri+le war.

In the new mo2ie. +ut + a crac. .http-.a&alan hepress. 7V political pundits will complain that toda ’s American and British outh are nowhere near as tough as the heroes who 0san.editor of their local newspapers. will die 3ust as he puts 1inslet in the life raft with Gi+son and 5nipes. who will offer comic relief. well.. Kate 1inslet will pro+a+l +e the !ewish girl who escapes from a train to Auschwitz.American team of commandos led + 8el Gi+son."N fighter 3et +etween the +attleship’s funnels to sin. *ismar)k will not +e sun. the ’ll do to the *ismar)k what Titani) did to . of course. Now that !ames Cameron and his Holl wood colleagues ha2e replaced writing and acting in mo2ies with special effects. Di Caprio.+ the <o al Na2 &whoe2er heard of the British doing an thing right in a modern war mo2ieG/.the.""". 1esle 5nipes. and its historic accurac . ?our e.admiralQlut=ens. 6ilm critics will hail the mo2ie for its special effects wizardr . Eut3ens. and then slips a+oard the *ismar)k. In the film’s clima*. pursued + <ic-man in a 7I: fighter. in league with the Germans. while Gi+son and 5nipes fl their 6.ran-ing British officer of the aristocratic and o2er+earing t pe. which will +e dreadnought. and !ennifer Eopez &who will also sing the theme song/. will hide 1inslet on the +attleship from the Gestapo. . Naturall . But her life will ultimatel +e sa2ed + Eeonardo Di Caprio. Alan <ic-man or Da2id 1arner will pla a high. 7he ships hunting for *ismar)k will +e modern American 2essels.the *ismar)k-3 and actual 2eterans who fought the +attle will complain +itterl a+out the filmic treatment in letters. pla ed + Arnold 5chwarzenegger. I thin.php . om. e*cept for some to-en British coc-ne s and 5cots. I suppose that some da there will +e a mo2ie a+out Gunther Eut3ens and the *ismar)k again.that will +e a worse disaster than the real sea +attle. who will pla the sailor actuall assigned to watch o2er her. the Titani). the tragic lo2e stor .*s +ollywood Listening. Di Caprio himself &and an arm of stuntmen/ will fight a massi2e +arefist +rawl with 5chwarzenegger to sa2e 1inslet. who is actuall a traitor.

primaril his command of the German ship Bismarc. . "@@#. during the Bperation <heinS+ung sortie. Admiral Eut3ens refused to gi2e the Nazi salute and opposed the Nazi regime.lamo + Ke2in <.i 0isit to the . ESt3ens is most well. Heil 1a#/: . Na.and her consort.oung .GSnther ESt3ens &8a FN.-nown for his actions during 1orld 1ar II. 'rinz :ugen. Admiral Eut3ens’ grandmother was a !ewQ Admiral Eut3ens once wrote a letter to Adolf Hitler protesting Kristallnacht.8a F%. "#J"/ was a German Admiral whose militar ser2ice spanned almost three decades.

Eos Angeles was later added to the stop o2ers. +ut mo2ing. 6ollowing the in2asion of Norwa . 7his group was headed + Eieutenants H. along with two warrant officers. In 8a "#J". Colom+ia. Eut3ens was a long time 2eteran of the German Na2 .down to Acapulco. count commissioners and Kell 6ield commander. -nots. and was still to far from occupied 6rance to see. Brazil. cruiser. 7he Bride of 6ran-enstein was pla ing at the local mo2ie house. 7he trip was not without some incident. and main armament of # si*. Accounts of Alamo visitors. the crew and cadets too.aid from either na2al or air support. Eut3ens set sail on Bcto+er FF. 7he <iechsmarine had sent two cruisers. 7he too 2isited the Alamo. !his is one of those stories. But Eut3ens was also the man who once insisted on 2isiting the Alamo so he could pa silent tri+ute to the courage of its defenders. Bachmann./23. A YKY class. the free world followed a drama on the high seas. -ometimes Alamo visitors go on to become art of history themselves. He was 2isi+l impressed with his Alamo e*perience. then to Charleston and +ac. Grosse and :.flight to Kell 6ield in 5an Antonio on April $. Eut3ens.*t seems everyone who comes to -an Antonio wants to be at least seen at the Alamo. 6ollowing lunch. 5uch cruisers were part of the regular training of German Na2al the +ottom of the Atlantic./01 to John )adden. 7he German Na2 had remained independent of the growing Nazi changes. 6ic-el. Eut3ens and 5chemmel called on the commander of 6ort 5am Houston. In a well pu+lished photo which ran the following da in the 5an Antonio Eight. 5ome $"@ future German na2al officers. "#$J.home.could not maneu2er.AN. and Bess Carol was starting her series of articles on the centennial of the 7e*as <e2olution. his crew and the cadets remained on their +est +eha2ior. It remained there for o2er a wee-.the HMS Hood. J. "#$N. two pett officers. Despite a tight schedule. A luncheon was held at the 'laza Hotel where the captain and his aide. 7rinidad. Admiral <aeder insisted on -eeping !ewish officers in the ran-s as well as retaining the old Na2al salute. 7he threat of this monsterLs firepower was dri2en home when. the first ear of it. Guatemala. 7e*ans were watching the trial of Bonnie and Cl de side-ic. Karlsruhe was on its homeward end of the cruise when the cruiser made its stop at Houston. 7his was +efore the Kristallnacht. Karlsruhe was to 2isit 5outh America. a high seas training cruise for the German Na2al Class or crew of "#$J. up the 'acific Coast as far as Vancou2er and then +ac. 7wo da s later. 7he tour too. a second group of officers from Karlsruhe arri2ed in 5an Antonio. 7he Kriegsmarine *ismark. in its first com+at. especiall considering HitlerLs defiance of the Versailles 7reat and the growing suppression of human rights in German . Eut3ens was then captain of Karlsruhe. through the 'anama Canal to Houston. It was some si* ears earlier.Karlsruhe to the Azores. 5an 6rancisco and Canada then +ac. including her captain and 6leet Commander Admiral Gunter Eut3ens. 7he group returned to Houston and the Karlsruhe the ne*t morning. Eut3ens insisted on 2isiting Y our cit Ls famous shrine. 6rance and Dun-ir-. 4rugua . +efore the in2asion of 'oland. +. have a eared in books and news a er articles. the cruiser was returning from Kristiansand when the .down. A com+ined effort of British capital warships and na2al planes trac-ed Bismar. 7he British fleet closed in. After the Alamo ceremon . 1ith Bismar. Colonel !aco+ :. In late April "#$N. renowned and feared as the most powerful +attleship afloat. Eieutenant Commander Alfred 5chemmel was honored + the ma or. Chile. separated into two groups. the pride of the German Na2 was reduced to a +urning hul. 1arrant Bfficer 5chlicht and Et. four seaman and four of the cadets. loc-ed in a struggle alone against the con9uest of Adolph Hitler. Sink the *ismarkX He was.that san. 7he mission was a Ygood will tourY and more importantl .went hundreds of her crew. 7he swasti-a would not +e added to the na2al ensigns until the fall of "#$N.Y 7he German captainLs 2isit was +rief.a route through the Indian Bcean.inch guns. Karlsruhe and :mden on a world cruise. while Alamo visits have been recorded by hotogra hy since . 'eru. she displaced at A. Bismar. 1hile :mden too. 1ith her rudder damaged from a British torpedo. Ea+or unions protested the arri2al of the German cruiser at 5an 6rancisco and Vancou2er. Barnard in .Claude Hamilton. 3oined the crews of the two cruisers. 7he cruiser returned home on !une F. and on 8a F%.. Eut3ens is often presented as the t pical German especiall in the film.1. on 8a "st. starting his career in "#. through the Canal to the Gulf of 8e*ico and then home to Kiel. Eut3ens himself went to Austin. Karlsruhe was to pla a part in the upcoming war or at least. 2isited with Go2ernor !ames V. a crew of @F. it san. Grosse can +e seen with the rest of the crew inside the Alamo. gi2ing the now infamous e*tended arm YNaziY salute. the part was gi2en a 8e*ican luncheon and then ta-en on a site seeing tour of the cit and scenic loop territor &Hellotes area/. Allred and spo-e to a 3oint session of the 7e*as Eegislature. and in a special ceremon . ta-ing a powerful 2essel into open water to smash the con2o s +ringing supplies to the British . tons with a top speed of $.%. G. His ne*t stop was a 9uic. had +ro-en out into the Atlantic. 7he Karlsruhe had +een commissioned In No2em+er "#F#. placed a wreath honoring the Alamo heroes.ad2antage of the stop to 2isit 2arious spots in 7e*as. 7he trip to 5an Antonio was near complete when Eut3ens e*pressed his concern that he was not going to +e allowed to 2isit the Alamo. the life lines to the people of Great Britain. But Eut3ens. as he remo2ed his cap and +owed his head in silent tri+ute to the heroes of "@$ 5an Antonio was still in the Great Depression when the officers and men of Karlsruhe came to pa their respects to the men of the Alamo. Bachmann. after all.down to 'anama.

edu. !n.sso)iation: http-. Bismar kPs ommanding offi er $se ond from left%.dmiral Gunther Lut=ens and his entire Bismar k re" perished on 9ay 26. ser2ed originall as ad3utant to Bismar-Ls captain and later as fourth gunner officer of the ill. who had insisted on stopping at the Alamo to pa his respects to those who had fought against o2erwhelming odds.Y 7he reasons wh were far different. Eut3ens. Badl damaged. 6or us seamen. 4rom the O)to2er 5667 8.lamo Courier8 the 9ournal of the . hi&es.adp.ield 9arshal Wilhelm Keitel $=ust o&er AitlerPs right shoulder% and KapitSn 'ur ?ee $Captain% @rnst Lindemann. ()5(. and mo2ies and fascination are made still the stuff legends.<ech+erg.feature.fated +attleship. the cruiser had to +e finished off with torpedoes fired from a German'i.""". songs. He li2ed through Bismar-Ls final fight.dolf Aitler% es orts . . found himself in the same position that fateful da in "#J". Y1e will fight until our gun +arrels glow red hot and the last shell has left the +arrels.lamo *attlefield . "#J. +ut ne2ertheless. 7hose mem+ers of Crew $J went on to wartime careers in all +ranches of the Kriegsmarine.tamu. <o AitlerPs left is .html . ()5(.dmiral GRnther LRt=ens $seen to the right of . hit her with a torpedo on April #.dolf Aitler on his inspe tion of the Bismar k on 9ay 4. In one of his last addresses to the crew he said.. after engaging in a firefight "ith a British !attleship the day !efore. the 9uestion is now 2ictor or death. Baron Bur-ard Von 8ullenheim. At least one of those on the "#$N 2isit to 7e*as also ended up with Eut3ens on the maiden and final 2o age of the Bismar-.fa ulty. who was a mem+er of Karlsruhe crew during the trip. the highest ran-ing officer to"itt. the stor of the Bismar. . stories.British su+marine.

and 5A Chief of 5taff Vi-tor Eutze &right/ at the formation of Euftwaffe !G "$J LHorst 1esselL s9uadron in April "#$A. General Hermann GZring &F nd left/. Chancellor Adolf Hitler &Fnd right/.phpGimageKidH%AAJ .6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch O 6riends Eieutenant General :rhard 8ilch &left/. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ http())

&'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ . German in 5eptem+er "#$@. and 1ilhelm Keitel. 1alther 2on Brauchitsch. Grand Admiral :rich <aeder. 1ilhelm Keitel. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ http())""N%F Eeft to right( 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch.Adolf Hitler inspects the 1estwall fortifications on western German in 8a "#$#Q also present were :rhard 8ilch. and 8a*imilian 2on 1eichs attend a Nazi 'art rall in Nurem+erg. Heinrich Himmler.

&'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ http()) 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch. and 6riedrich 6romm at the funeral of Admiral Adolf 2on 7rotha in Berlin.phpGimageKidH""$@@ .Adolf Hitler &right/ stands at attention in front of su+ordinate officers Grand Admiral :rich <aeder. 6ield 8arshal 1ilhelm Keitel. German on Bcto+er "N. "#J.

"#J".6oreground. Karl German on No2em+er F@.phpGimageKidH""NAF . !ulius 5chau+. and Euftwaffe 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &holding a +aton in his right hand/ attend the funeral ser2ice of 1erner 8Zlders at the <eich Air 8inistr in Berlin. Adolf Hitler. left to right( 8artin Bormann. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ http())wwFd+.

Hermann Goering. Heinrich Himmler. and 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &right/ salute to Hitler. 6ield 8arshal 1ilhelm Keitel. . "#J$. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ Adolf Hitler &left/ sha-es hands with Heinrich Himmler while 6ield 8arshal 1ilhelm Keitel.In the front row. 6edor 2on Boc-. and Adolf Hitler attend a ser2ice during 8emorial Da in Berlin on 8arch F". Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz. Euftwaffe 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch. from left to right( Hanns B+erlindo+er. Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz.

I ha2en’t -nown ou for 2er long. . +ut ou’re a man who -nows his 3o+. 7he part issued him mem+ership card num+er "F$. and we ha2e few in the 'art who -now as much a+out the air as ou. 8ilch was an officer who 0fell completel under Hitler’s spell.> Howe2er.@@N +ut left it +lan. Bnl in 8arch "#$$ did he +ecome a mem+er retroacti2e to April "#F#. General 1erner 2on Blom+erg. "#JF. and that 0e2er thing was in order. It’s not a 9uestion of the 'art .so 8ilch could claim it in the future.with Hitler con2inced him to ta-e the 3o+ +ut his ancestr still remained a thorn in his side.> 8ilch admitted later that this tal.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar. Goring. "%N .<igg. he wanted 8ilch to help +uild an air force and told him. and other high. as ou seem to thin.6ield 8arshal 1ilhelm Keitel &left/. According to !ames Corum. 8ilch noted in his diar as earl as " No2em+er "#$$ that Goring had discussed his ancestr with of this pro+lem. 7hat’s wh the choice has fallen on ou. deput head of the part <udolf Hess. and the minister of defense. ran-ing Nazis too. 7he fact that he wanted to 3oin the Nazis at this time. 8ilch often met with Goring to discuss a new air force. Hitler. Euftwaffe 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &right/ meet in Berlin on 8arch "J. when onl a minorit of Germans thought Hitler could come to power. 0Now loo-. shows he trul +elie2ed in the 6ascists’ ideals.? it’s a 9uestion of German and German needs ou.power in "#$$. In "#F# he told Goring that he was read to 3oin the Nazi 'art . 1hen Hitler too. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ 0As the Nazis gained power.ou must ta-e the 3o+. 55 Chief Heinrich Himmler &center/. He granted the <eichswehr access to Eufthansa’s archi2es to sta a+reast of modern technolog in airplane design and performance. Hitler felt at that time the should wait to ma-e him a mem+er. p.

Besides appro2ing of these horri+le e*periments. 8ilch and the Euftwaffe..<igg. All inmates died in these e*periments and 8ilch was -ept full informed. and other prominent Na'is stand together for a group portrait. his sentence was reduced and in "#NJ he was discharged. He was upset onl + the fact that German was losing the war. the notorious doctor at Dachau who conducted +rutal e*periments.php/t04613% 0TC5Dome people of !ewish descent participated directl as perpetrators in the Holocaust.> Howe2er. 7ests also in2ol2ed immersing inmates in freezing water to see how long pilots shot down o2er the sea could li2e.ran-ing Nazi officials at the Nurem+erg 7rials.. 8ilch lied when he swore that he did not -now a+out the Holocaust. 8ilch wrote the head of Himmler’s personal staff. 7hese e*periments were done with 8ilch’s support and on his initiati2e. * demand that if the eo le refuse to work they immediately be laced against the wall and shot. where it conducted these test itself. he had as-ed permission from Himmler to 2isit Dachau. Bn $" August "#JF.. Himmler granted him permission and 8ilch 2isited the camp in "#$NTHe claimed he had no -nowledge of what the Nazis did in other camps during Hitler’s rule.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar..August 2on Ga+lenz that he wanted him 0to get in touch with CGeneral HermanD <einec-e concerning the 6rench 'B1’s. 1hen the Nazis conducted these tests. the Allies sentenced 8ilch to life in prison at the 5econd Nurem+erg 7rial for deporting and mishandling foreign wor-ers and conducting criminal e*periments on human +eings. 5ome inmates were actuall turned o2er to the Euftwaffe testing facilities in 8unich. . As a result. which needed a+out a 9uarter. 8ilch also wrote Himmler to e*press his interest in <ascher’s high. He then ad2ised the German air industr until his death in "#%F.'lans. Nonetheless. 8ilch -new of a+out ". 07his alone ma-es 8ilch a genuine war criminal.. "@F. p. After hearing so man rumors a+out those camps from "#$$ to "#$N. were directl responsi+le for them.5taff. But li-e most high. primaril +ecause of their ran. In "#J%. As historian Georg 8e er asserted. on F. > 5o 8ilch was guilt of war crimes.altitude ph siolog tests in Dachau. not the 55 or Dachau.> As the tri+unal wrote of 8ilch. Hungarian !ews e*pected in Auschwitz whose la+or his pro3ect could use."@$ .ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h $ enter front%. useful data were collected. 8arch "#JF a+out the 0interesting> e*periments at Dachau. $Photo.and responsi+ilities. he was not upset a+out the inhumanit perpetrated + the Nazis. 55 General Karl 1olff. according to historian !ames Corum. 8ilch also ser2ed as cochairman with 5peer on the 'ursuit.sho"thread.Aeinri h Aimmler $third from he had onl -nown a+out Dachau and 5achsenhausen. 1ith respect to sla2e la+or 8ilch &pro+a+l in "#JF/ told General Carl. 8ilch can +e considered a 0German !ewish war But he had read reports from 5igmund <ascher.!oinasla&a.http-. 1hen as-ed at Nurem+erg a+out Nazi e*termination policies he denied all -nowledge of the Holocaust and said that until after the war. 8einhard Aeydri h $third from right%.million sla2e wor-ers. 7hese tests were appro2ed + the Euftwaffe and resulted in painful deaths for the human guinea pigs.

Germany on C to!er (2. $Photo.. left%.Aulton . right% during a &isit to a military airfield at Gato" in Berlin.html% . meets "ith German Luft"affe .national-'eitung.NT(+Q(. younger !rother of @mperor Airohito of #apan.r hi& Germany on ?eptem!er ).meri an a&iator Charles Lind!ergh $left% hats "ith General @rhard 9il h $right% at a party in 9uni h.ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h $(+)2-()62. $Photo !y .http-. hi&233+.PG. ()*6.""". enter.Getty :mages% . ()*6.Prin e Chi hi!u $()32-()4*.

ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h appear at . #oseph Goe!!els. .riedri h Bergold. #ohn 9 Cloy.Letters.ederal . Philipp Bouhler. . 9il h "as on&i ted at Nurem!erg for rimes against humanity for his in&ol&ement in murdering an estimated 1 million #e"s and millions of other prisonersO 9il h’s father "as a #e" . o. $Photo.ield 9arshal 8ei henauPs funeral pro ession on #anuary 2*.meri an Aigh Commissioner to Germany.fpp.r hi&es% Luft"affe field marshal @rhard 9il h listens to his &erdi t as he is senten ed to life imprisonment !y the .Left to right. ommuted 9il h’s prison senten e. ..http-.AistoryQ36. and . $Photo.t his side is his la"yer Er.ri k.meri ans at Nurem!erg.Wilhelm .riedri h .9il hQ243136.html% .dmiral @ri h 8aeder. "here he died in ()62.""". @rhard 9il h "as released from prison in #une ()45O he li&ed out the remainder of his life at Eusseldorf. ()52. the . .

together in "#J..Hermann GZring &left/ and 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch wal. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ .

http-.""".ran e in . L@rnstM ?age!iel. 8ei hsluftfahrtminister L. Er. der Timmerpolier . ?taatssekretSr @rhard 9il h. and unidentified. om. $Photo !y Aulton .lieger Aermann GUring.ederal .dolf Aitler $(++)-()54% stands "ith Aeinri h Aimmler $()33-()54% $to his immediate left% and his staff.r hi&e% . $Photo.Eer Baumeister Prof. .ugust ()53 during World War ::.gettyimages. meeting for the 8ei h 9inistry of . :ng.*2544(3.mong those present are 9artin Bormann $()33-()54% and General @rhard 9il h $(+)2-() in Berlin on C to!er (2..rom left to right.German .r hi&es% Na'i Germany’s di tator .r hi&e.detail.. .Aulton-. ontemplating the han es of an in&asion "hile looking a ross the @nglish Channel from Calais.Getty :mages% $?our e.ran' Ae ht. . ()*4.or e 9inisterM General der .ir .

CC8B:?% . dark uniform% "alk together after a "reath laying eremony for the dead of the .General Lder . $V .ederal .ustrian . "hite uniform% and Na'i German .liegerM @rhard 9il h $front.irst World War at the enotaph on Bnter den Linden in Berlin. ()*+.ugust ( ist :taly’s . left% and . Germany on . se ond from left% in ()*1.German .r hi&es. se ond from right% appears "ith C!erst ? hul' $ 9arshal :talo Bal!o $ .oreign 9inister Galea''o Ciano $front.or e LLuft"affeM General @rhard 9il h $front.r hi&es% :talian . $Photo.

&'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ .AndrM 6ran[ois. the 6rench Am+assador to Nazi German . chats with General :rhard 8ilch at an airport in Berlin on Bcto+er J. "#$%.'oncet was imprisoned + the Nazis during 1orld 1ar II. AndrM 6ran[ois.'oncet &left/.

&'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ .6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &center/ appears with 8inister of Armaments Al+ert 5peer &left/ in 8a "#JJ.

6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &center/ meets with 8inister of Armaments Al+ert 5peer &left/ and aircraft designer 1ill 8esserschmidt in 8a "#JJ. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ Eetained Na'i German "ar riminal .ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h $far right% is seen meeting "ith other detained Na'i German "ar riminals in Nurem!erg. .

"#$N letter to his Nazi superiors regarding General &later 6ield 8arshal/ :rhard 8ilch’s ancestr . 7he Nurem+erg Eaws were promulgated in 5eptem+er "#$N.@$N.u-)Auschwitz)docs)8ilch.fpp.html/ . was a !ew. :rhard 8ilch’s +iological father. Hermann Goering declared 8ilch an 0Ar an> + claiming that 8ilch’s uncle &8ilch’s mother’s +rother/ was his real father.Hermann Goering’s August %. &5ource( http())www. Anton

nton 9ayer. t"o months after . <he <hird 8ei h ons ripted all German men $eH ept full #e"s% into military ser&i e. "hose father "as a #e". in luding Germans of partial #e"ish des ent. . Germans soldiers. in luding soldiers of partial #e"ish des ent.:=C:<'75 B6 H!T"E $S %EW!SH SO"1!E S ?ide and front photographs of Jhalf-#e"J . &ast ma=ority of the 9is hlinge "as !orn to German parents.!"ehr $German ?e ret ?er&i e% offi er Lieutenant Colonel @rnst Blo h. and identified themsel&es as Germans.dolf Aitler’s army in&aded Poland. . 8iga. <he <hird 8ei h !anned most Germans of partial #e"ish des ent.ryani'edG @rnst Blo h in ()*). take the oath of allegian e to Aitler. res ued the ultra-CrthodoH #e"ish ra!!i. Lu!a&it her 8e!!e #oseph :saa ? hneersohn e&a uated to Ne" >ork City &ia Berlin. . and ?to kholm in ()53 after the B. similar to those that often a ompanied a 9is hlingPs appli ation for eHemption.?. . also kno"n as 9is hlinge. the Lu!a&it her 8e!!e #oseph :saa ? hneersohn in Warsa".u!. 9ilitary ser&i e !ook of Jhalf-#e"J Aermann . ?tate Eepartment issued a &isa to ? hneersohn. from the Wehrma ht !y the end of ()53.dolf Aitler F. raised as Christians. Poland in No&em!er ()*).

&5ource( Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar.<igg/ Anita Kugler is the author of S)her&it. Eat2ia during 1orld 1ar II. .: The %e&ish SS Offi)er. 6ritz 5cherwitz was a !ew and a Nazi 'art mem+er who ser2ed as a commander of a concentration camp near <iga.

<igg/ .&5ource( Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar.

<igg/ .&5ource( Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar.

&5ource( Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar.<igg/ .

<igg’s +oo.:*cerpts of Br an 8ar.Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers .
















JAalf-#e"J Commander Paul . Aollaender.G JAalf-#e"J #ohannes Tukertort $last rank general% re ei&ed AitlerPs Eeuts h!lRtigkeitserklSrung. samurai s"ord from the @mperor of #apan.*. <his photo of Jhalf-#e"J Werner Gold!erg. $9ilitary a"ards.ntold Stor/ of Na. :ts aption. "as used !y a Na'i propaganda ne"spaper for its title page. and @K::.html Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers: The .8itterkreu'. and Close Com!at Badge. $9ilitary a"ards. @K::. and War ?er&i e Cross ?e ond Class.-ansaspress.-u.dmiral Bernhard 8ogge "earing the 8itterkreu'O he re ei&ed AitlerPs Eeuts h!lRtigkeitserklSrung.% 5ources( http())www.dmiral LRt=ensPs first staff offi er on the !attleship Bismar kO . de orated "ith the 8itterkreu' and German-Cross in GoldO he re ei&ed AitlerPs Eeuts h!lRtigkeitserklSrung. 8itterkreu'. $9ilitary a"ards.s her re ei&ed AitlerPs Eeuts h!lRtigkeitserklSrung.% JAalf-#e"J Colonel Walter A. German-Cross in Gold.htm http())www. @K:.s her.oak lea&es to 8itterkreu'.F<he :deal German ?oldier. a)ial "a&s and Men of %e&ish 1es)ent in the German Militar/ + Br an 8ar.<igg .JAalf-#e"J Aorst Geitner "as a"arded !oth the :ron Cross ?e ond Class and the ?il&er Wound Badge. "ho "as !lond and !lueeyed. @K::.% JWuarter-#e"J .+r anrigg.

()52.e!ruary (2. .&raham ?tern "as summarily eHe uted !y a British olonial poli e offi er in <el .&raham ?tern offered to make an allian e "ith Na'i Germany during World War ::.<he ?tern Gang. and Proud/ . Na'i. a Tionist #e"ish terrorist organi'ation.#e"ish. . .&i& on .&raham ?tern "as the founder of the ?tern Gang.

German o&er letter from #anuary ((.. ()5( atta hed to a des ription of an offer made !y the ?tern Gang $Lehi% for an allian e "ith Na'i Germany. .

$. . a CroCosal of the "ational Militar6 Hr&anisation in Ealestine re&ardin& the solution of the . . 5. ' '..5. 9hich the chief of &eneral securit6 in 26ria 5olombani sent to General Dert7.on <. and the minister "////"..on den fran7A! sischen MilitBrbehArden in 26rien bei den (ruCCenteilen in -mlauf &eset7t 9orden ist... 8oser communicates.. .. 1#$% conf. D. =Goirt7>? (3. the 11 . 1#$% &eh...A". 1%41 ' "2i&nature unreadable" ' Attachments. 9hich has been sent b6 the <rench militar6 in 26ria to its units... Geheim Istanbul. Mit einer *mCfehlun& bin ich Ihr er&ebener "-nterschrift unleserlich" And a translation( German *mbass6 Ankara 5onfidential Istanbul...!"r.41 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 'Deutsche Botschaft in der ()rkei' '*in&...+ 1"4".anuar6 41 "a. und dem Minister "////" be&)ndet ist. 'German *mbass6 in (urke6 ' 'Arr.!"r.. ist der Ansicht.. a letter. einen @orschla& der "ationalen MilitBror&anisation in EalBstina 7ur FAsun& der G)dischen <ra&e in *uroCa. =Goirt7>? (3. einen Brief. eine @erf)&un& betr. den der 5hef der 2ureté Général in 26rien 5olombani an den General Dert7 &erichtet hat. dass auf Grund dieses Briefes anscheinend eine 9eitere -nterredun& 79ischen 5olombani und Dert7 statt&efunden hat.. dass seine :ur)ckberufun& durch die :u! sammenarbeit .1.. 5... Demobilmachun&...7ranscript &uncertain parts in dou+le 9uotes/( Deutsche Botschaft Ankara Der Marineattaché ("Dienst"stelle Istanbul " " "r. "////" 10141 ' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2ehr &eehrter 3err Botschafter4 in der Anla&e )bersende ich Ihnen+ 1.. an order related to demobilisation. that his call!back has been caused b6 the co!oCeration of <.al Attaché (Hffice Istanbul !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "r..5. that because of this letter aCCarentl6 a further meetin& bet9een 5olombani and Dert7 took Clace..oted .e9ish Iuestion in *uroCe.. holds the oCinion. $. 8oser teilt mit. "////" 10141 ' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! (o the 8i&ht 3onourable Ambassador4 as attachment I send 6ou+ 1. 1%41 ' ' Anl.. . ' '. D..+ 1"4". den 11.A". die . Jith re&ards I am 6our lo6al and de.

@H erpts from the !ook Blowback: The First Full Account of America’s Recruitment of Nazis an! "ts #isastrous $ffect on %ur #omestic an! Forei&n 'olicy !y Christopher ?impson .

@H erpts from the !ook Blowback: The First Full Account of America’s Recruitment of Nazis an! "ts #isastrous $ffect on %ur #omestic an! Forei&n 'olicy !y Christopher ?impson .

php/2(466-British-.militaryphotos."""..forums.http-.ree Corps.ree Corps% 9em!ers of the Na'i ??-sponsored British .ree Corps uniform .sho"thread.Part 5. photo of a British . a group of British F&olunteersG $prisoners of "ar% impressed into the ser&i e of Na'i stand at attention. $Photo.ree-Corps% .Aitler’s British ?oldiers $British .

ree Corps 8ight..??-?turmmann . British .Left.lfred 9in hin. British .ree Corps re ruiting poster .

The $ar ,tatements of ,,7,t-rmmann A*fred

inchin3 former

em8er of the %ritish Free Cor1s

#urin& my research into the British Free (or)s " ha! the &oo! fortune to contact Alfre!*s &ran!!au&hter +atie Minchin, -he has kin!ly ma!e a.ailable Alfre! Minchin*s statements from /01th 2une 3145 formerly hel! at the 'ublic Recor!s %ffice 6 'R% Ref: 175318, $ach )ara&ra)h is numbere! an! " ha.e re)ro!uce! the statements in full from )ara&ra)h 4 onwar!s, 'ara&ra)hs 3 to 9 ha.e been !elete! !ue to the nature of contents names of ne:t of kin an! contact a!!resses etc, The Minchin statements are re)ro!uce! with the knowle!&e an! kin! )ermission of +atie Minchin, War Cffi e, +th #une, ()54. 5. : "as taken prisoner of "ar on the 2+th 9ar h, ()52 off 9urmansk "hen : "as ser&ing as an ,!le ?eaman on !oard ?.?. J@9P:8@ 8,NG@8J, after "e had !een !om!ed !y German air raft. ,fter our ship "as sinking, "e took to the !oats and "ere su!seIuently aptured !y a German destroyer. 4. We "ere taken to K:8K@N@?? in Nor"ay "here "e stayed a!out month "hen "e "ere transported to 8CK,A:@9@ in ;inland. ,fter three or four days "e tra&elled !y train to Aelsinki. ;rom there "e "ere taken !y troopship to ?tettin and then !y train to Bremen. 1. : arri&ed in Bremen a!out the 4th 9ay, ()52, and "as detained in 9ilag Ci&ilian :nternment Camp. We "ere !ehind !ar!ed "ire a"ay from the main amp for a!out a month "hen the "hole of my shipXs ompany "ere taken to Wilhelmsha&en for interrogation !y a German Na&al Cffi er. We stayed there a!out a fortnight and then returned to the 9ilag. 6. ,s : "as run do"n in health : "as taken to the Camp Aospital and "as under medi al are for a!out fi&e "eeks. <hen e&erything "as normal until a!out the )th #uly, ()5*, "hen : "as asked !y a Eonkeyman in the Camp named L@W:?, "hose hristian name is, : !elie&e, ;rederi , if : "ould are to go to a Aoliday Camp, "hi h he des ri!ed as E.*. ,!out siH others "ere also asked !y L@W:? if they "anted to go. <heir names "ere 9,>L:N, B8>,N< !ut the other names : annot remem!er at the moment. +. Cn the 22nd #uly, ()5*, siH mem!ers of 9ilag, in luding L@W:? and myself "ere taken !y train under es ort to Berlin, ?talag :::E, 4(6 ? at Genshagen, "here "e stayed together for t"o months, "hen B8>,N< and t"o of the others left. ). 9,>L:N, L@W:? and myself "orked on the staff at Genshagen until No&em!er, ()5*, "hen L@W:? and : left for the British ;ree Corps. (3. ?onderfRhrer L,NG@ at Genshagen and an @nglishman named <homas CCCP@8 indu ed !oth L@W:? and : to =oin the ;ree Corps. CCCP@8 "as in i&ilian lothing and did most of the talking. Ae told me that there "ere Iuite a fe" men in the British ;ree Corps and "e "ould ha&e a mar&ellous time. CCCP@8 sho"ed us a num!er of large posters "ith printed matter and illustrations !oosting up the Legion of ?t. George, the name under "hi h the ;ree Corps "as kno"n at the time. Cooper did not tell me "hat the aims of the Legion "ere and they "ere ne&er laid do"n at any time. : thought it "as =ust a propaganda unit in order to !ring Germany and @ngland together. : de ided to =oin to find out "hat Germany "as really like. ((. Cn the 2nd or *rd No&em!er, ()5*, : left Genshagen "ith L@W:? and "e "ere taken to the offi es of ?talag :::E, "here "e "ere gi&en i&ilian lothing, !y a German soldier under orders from 9a=or A@:9P@L, "hom : understand super&ised :::E and all the people, mostly @nglish, "orking on the Berlin 8adio. : met 9a=or A@:9P@L "ho ga&e me a form to sign stating : "ould not attempt to es ape in i&ilian lothing and : "illingly signed this form. (2. ;rom ?talag :::E, L@W:? and : "ere es orted to ? honhol'er ?trasse, Panko", North Berlin, "here "e "ere introdu ed to other mem!ers of the British ;ree Corps. : remem!er meeting CCB8L,NE@8, B8:<<@N, 9 CL,8E>, W:L?CN, CCCP@8 and 9,8<:N at the time. <his address "as a pri&ate d"elling house "here "e had plenty of li!erty. We "ere to go out unes orted into Berlin, although : did not ha&e a pass. : !elie&e W:L?CN, 9 Clardy and CCB8L,NE@8 had passes as they ould speak German. : used to go out to Cafes, 8estaurants and Cinemas in Berlin. <he ost of this entertainment "as paid !y the German interpreters "ho "ould gi&e us money, su h as 23 8.9.Xs, "hen "e reIuired it. (*. ?ometime in ;e!ruary, ()55, "e left for Aildesheim, Aaus Germania in order to re ei&e our uniforms. ?e&en of us "ent altogether, namely CCCP@8, CCB8L,NE@8, 9 CL,8E>, B8:<<@N, W:L?CN, 9,8<:N and myself. , senior German Cffi er, "hose name : do not kno", ga&e us ea h an ?.?. uniform, "ithout any markings. <his "as a pale green olour, "ith a peaked ap ha&ing a s ull and ross !ones on it. ,t Aildesheim "e li&ed mu h the same life as in Berlin until AitlerXs !irthday, ,pril 23th, ()55, "e "ere supplied "ith British ;ree Corps markings, onsisting of a lapel "ith three leopards, a Bnion #a k on the right arm "ith an arm!and on the left slee&e, "ith British ;ree Corps in @nglish lettering. (5. <he neHt thing that happened "as that "e "ere mo&ed to a training Camp in Eresden on C to!er 4th, ()55, under the super&ision of an ,meri an-speaking German, under the name of Captain 8C@PK@ of the Kiking ?.?. Ei&ision. : found that this

pla e "as an ?.?. training s hool. We "ere gi&en le tures on ma hine guns, mines, !lo"ing up !ridges, pistols and general army eIuipment. But "e "ere not gi&en any propaganda talks and the fa t that "e "ere "alking around the streets all o&er Germany, dressed up as ;ree Corps men "as propaganda in itself. (4. Euring the time : "ore British ;ree Corps uniform : used to gi&e the Na'i salute, as : had no option. We "ere instru ted to do so !y Captain 8C@PK@ and also the British N.C.C.Xs. 9y rank "as the @nglish eIui&alent of Lan e-Corporal, that is ?turmmann, "hi h : held all the time. (1. ,fter the 8.,.;. and ,meri an !om!ing of Eresden on ;e!ruary (*th, ()54, all British ;ree Corps mem!ers, in luding myself, "ere put under arrest !y the Germans, for suspe ted espionage. ,fter a fe" days they "ere es orted to Berlin to defend the apital, !ut as : "as in the Eresden Barra ks Aospital "ith s a!ies at the time, : did not go to Berlin until : "as fit, "hi h "as on 9ar h 2nd, ()54. (6. : "as es orted to the train at Eresden station and tra&elled !y rail in British ;ree Corps uniform to ,nhalter Bahnhof ?tation, Berlin, "here : "as met !y German offi ials and taken to the British ;ree Corps AeadIuarters at Carmen ?yl&a ?trasse, Berlin, North ((*. <here : "as inter&ie"ed !y a German offi er "ho immediately sent me to ?.?. Aospital Li hterfelde West "here : re ei&ed further treatment for s a!ies. (+. : es aped from this Aospital on ,pril 2(st, ()54, in !orro"ed i&ilian lothing. : managed to get through on foot to the ,meri an lines at <angermRnde on the 4th 9ay, ()54. : told the ,meri an ?ergeants that : had es aped from Berlin and : "as fitted out "ith ,meri an lothing and fed &ery "ell. : told the ,meri ans that : "as an es aped prisoner-of-"ar, !ut : did not mention anything a!out the British ;ree Corps. : ha&e not mentioned it at all until today. (). : "as flo"n !a k from Aildesheim to Brussels and then e to CHford, @ngland "here : arri&ed on ()th 9ay, ()54. ?in e then : ha&e had hospital treatment for an a!s ess on my right leg. 23. Euring the time : "as a mem!er of the British ;ree Corps, that is from No&em!er, ()5*, until ,pril, ()54, : "ent on re ruiting tours, four in all, three !y myself and on e "ith Kenneth B@88>, a mer hant seaman. : "ent t"i e to 9ilag and on e to an ,ir ;or e Camp in Aydekrug in @ast Prussia. With B@88> : "ent to 9ilag. ,ltogether : o!tained four re ruits for the British ;ree Corps. <hey "ere KC>?@>, 8CWL,NE?, PL@,?,N<? and L@:C@?<@8, all mer hant seamen from 9ilag. Cn one o asion : re ruited KC>?@> and 8CWL,NE? together and on another PL@,?,N<? and L@:C@?<@8. : annot remem!er the eHa t dates, !ut it "as a!out ,pril, ()55. 2(. : "as asked to do re ruiting !y the JAigh-BpsJ in the ;ree Corps, CCB8L,NE@8 and 9 CL,8E>. : "as Iuite "illing to do this as : thought it "ould gi&e me an opportunity of looking round Germany to find out their military defen es, although : had no opportunity of passing any information to @ngland, nor did : kno" ho" : ould do so. 22. Whilst : "as a mem!er of the ;ree Corps, : hose the name 9:L<CN, and "as al"ays kno"n as su h. <his "as a German idea that all mem!ers should hange their names. 2*. Euring the "hole of the time : "as in the ;ree Corps, : re ei&ed my 8ed Cross par els regularly e&ery fortnight and also my pri&ate mail from @ngland. 25. : ha&e read this statement and it is true. $ ?igned % ,lfred K. 9in hin ?tatement taken, read o&er and signature "itnessed !y me. $ ?igned % P.,. @d"ards.

)th #une, ()54 24. : ha&e !een thinking o&er "hat : said yesterday afternoon and "ould like you to "rite that the reason "hy : =oined the British ;ree Corps "as !e ause of my state of ill-health. ;or many years : ha&e suffered from hest trou!le and !ad !lood ir ulation. ,t the moment : am still suffering from skin trou!le, although the s a!ies on my !ody has leared up. 21. ,lso : "ould like to point out that : ha&e !een to sea sin e No&em!er, ()*4 "ith the 9er hant Na&y and rose from de k-!oy to ,!le-?eaman. : started off in the Port Line to ,ustralia, then the Blue ?tar Line and after, the Bnion Castle Line. 26. : am a sailor and as su h ha&e no hate for any!ody, in luding the Germans. : found out there "as no truth in the @nglish propaganda a!out the li&ing onditions of the German people.

2+. : ha&e ne&er !een a mem!er of any politi al party and ha&e ne&er !een asso iated "ith the British Bnion of ;as ists. : ha&e no politi al &ie"s at all. 2). When : "as in the British ;ree Corps : had my photograph taken "ith Kenneth B@88>, !oth of us in ;ree Corps uniform, at 9ilag !y a German Na&al Cffi er, "ho told me it "ould !e pu!lished in ;ront Teitung, a German soldiersX paper. But : ha&e not seen it myself. *3. : no" feel thoroughly ashamed of myself. : realise no" that : "as a re!el and am sorry for e&erything that has happened. When : "ore the German uniform of the British ;ree Corps, : o asionally arried a re&ol&er and four rounds of ammunition "ith me, !ut : ha&e ne&er used it or threatened anyone "ith it. *(. <here is one thing : forgot to tell you and that is that : suggested that the BnitXs name should !e hanged from the Legion of ?t. George to the British ;ree Corps. : suggested this a!out Christmas ()5*, at Panko", Berlin, at a onferen e "hen CCB8L,NE@8, 9 CL,8E>, B8:<<@N, 9,8<:N, W:L?CN, CCCP@8 and a German interpreter "ere also present. : got the idea from the Eanish ;ree Corps, "hi h : had read a!out in the German ne"spapers. ,fter a dis ussion, CCCP@8 "ho "as in harge of us all at the time, agreed to the hange of name. We also talked a!out pay and the type of uniform "e should "ear. Pay ame under the same rate as a german soldier "hi h "as one 8.9. a day. ,fter "e got into uniform "e "ere paid at that rate a ording to rank. : "as paid ( 8.9. 23 a day e&ery ten days from the German Paymaster at Aildesheim. : also remem!er that upon =oining the ;ree Corps : "as gi&en 233 8.9.Xs in a Post Cffi e sa&ings a ount !y Captain 8C@PK@. : dre" on this a ount and spent the money on amusement, su h as pi tures and drinks. ,ll the time : "as in the ;ree Corps : ontinued to re ei&e ( 8.9. 23 a day. <he German :nterpreter usually olle ted the money from the offi e for the "hole !un h of us. *2. ,t no time did : do any !road asting and ha&e ne&er !een near any German 8adio ?tation. Nor ha&e : "ritten any arti les or pamphlets. <hat "as all left to CCB8L,NE@8 and 9 CL,8E>. **. , tually : am one of the JBig ?iHJ of the British ;ree Corps. <hat means the siH ringleaders, the other fi&e !eing CCB8L,NE@8, 9 CL,8E>, B8:<<@N, W:L?CN and 9,8<:N. CCCP@8 "as the !oss of the JBig ?iHJ. <his name stu k and "e "ere al"ays kno"n as su h. *5. When "e "ere in British ;ree Corps uniform, "e had to gi&e the Na'i salue to all German soldiers a!o&e and in luding the rank of Corporal and all German offi ers. :n our !arra ks at Panko" and Aildesheim as "ell as Eresden "e had photograph displayed on the "all of the Euke of Windsor "hom "e all admired as he also "as a re!el. We all re ognised him as the King of @ngland. When "e had parties, "e al"ays toasted the Euke of Windsor. *4. When : re ruited the four men : ha&e pre&iously mentioned for the British ;ree Corps, there "as no ompulsion. : sa" them seperately and alone in an offi e at 9ilag and told them "hat a "onderful time they "ould ha&e if they =oined, "ith plenty of forms of pleasure and freedom. <hey had already seen the ;ree Corps pamphlets and they &olunteered of their o"n free "ill. ,ll : got out of it "as a trip out a ross Germany. *1. When : first arri&ed in Germany in ()52, : ould not speak the language, !ut ha&e sin e pi ked up a fair kno"ledge of it. *6. <hat is all : think. : ha&e !een trying to gi&e you a good reason "hy : =oined the British ;ree Corps, !ut honestly the only reason : an think of "as to ha&e a grand time at the eHpen e of the Germans. : realise no" "hat : did "as "rong, although : ne&er did any fighting or e&en fired a gun. *+. 9y ;ree Corps uniform "ith all my papers "as left !ehind in the German Aospital at Li hterfelde, West Berlin. *). : !rought (4+ 8.9.Xs !a k to @ngland "ith me. <his "as the !alan e of the 233 8.9.Xs gi&en me !y the Germans "hen : =oined the ;ree Corps, together "ith other money : had sa&ed out of my ;ree Corps pay. : handed this money to the ?uperintendent of the 9er antile 9arine of War <ransport of Eo k ?treet, ,ldgate, London, @. on the 2+th 9ay, ()54, and : produ e his re eipt for the money. : asked the ?uperintendent to hange this money for me and he said he "ould at 53 8.9.Xs to the pound sterling, !ut ha&e not yet re ei&ed the @nglish money. 53. <his further statement has !een read to me and is true. $ ?igned % ,lfred K. 9in hin ;urther statement taken, read o&er and signature "itnessed !y me. $ ?igned % P.,. @d"ards.
?our e- http-..""".!ills-!unker.pri&

!ohn Amer . "#JN. was con2icted and e*ecuted for treason on Decem+er "#.Nazi British arm unit called 0British 6ree Corps>. British Nazi colla+orator and radio propagandist 1illiam !o ce.Haw>. Ital in April "#JN. to !ul FA. the son of British 8em+er of 'arliament Eeopold Amer . !ohn Amer li2ed in Berlin from "#JF to "#JN and was instrumental in the esta+lishment of a pro. !ohn Amer ’s father Eeopold Amer ser2ed as 5ecretar of 5tate for India and Burma under the leadership of British 'rime 8inister 1inston Churchill from 8a "$.British Nazi colla+orator !ohn Amer &left/ is photographed after his arrest + Italian partisans at 8ilan. 1illiam !o ce had +een shot in the thigh at the time of his arrest in "#JN. . "#J. 1illiam !o ce was con2icted and e*ecuted for treason in !anuar "#JA. lies in an am+ulance under armed guard +efore +eing ta-en from British Fnd Arm Head9uarters to hospital. "#JN. also -nown as 0Eord Haw.

Lady Eiana 9osley 9itford "ould !e imprisoned !y the British go&ernment during World War ists. .dolf Aitler $left% appears "ith British Na'i sympathi'er Bnity 9itford. Lady Eiana 9osley 9itford’s hus!and Cs"ald 9osley "as a British 9em!er of Parliament $Aouse of Commons% "ho founded the British Bnion of .British so iety hostess Bnity 9itford $left% and her sister Lady Eiana 9osley 9itford $right% appear "ith ?? ?tormtroopers at the Nurem!erg Na'i Party rally in ?eptem!er ()*6. .

ran is o .Part 4.Aitler’s Latin ?oldiers $?panish 7 :talian . &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ ?pain’s fas ist di tator .as ists% Nazi 55 chief Heinrich Himmler &second from left/ appears alongside 5pain’s fascist dictator 6rancisco 6ranco in Bcto+er "#J. .ran o $ enter% meets "ith :taly’s fas ist di tator Benito 9ussolini $right%..

ran is o .. .<ime Life% .dolf Aitler "at hes ?pain’s di tator . Na'i German di tator .ran o salutes to a group of Na'i German soldiers in ()53.ran o $se ond from left% in Aendaye.dolf Aitler $right% shakes hands "ith ?panish di tator Generalissimo .ran is o .ran e on C to!er 2*. $Photo. ()53.

dolf Aitler $left% shakes hands "ith .Na'i Germany’s di tator .ran o $right% during Aitler’s only offi ial meeting "ith .<ime Life% .ran is o . ()53 as an unidentified German offi er looks ist ?pain’s di tator Generalissimo . .ran o in Aendaye. $Photo.ran e on C to!er 2*.

Benito 8ussolini appears with Adolf Hitler at a militar parade. .

<hey "ere a part of aptured 8ussian soldiers "ho =oined the Germans and their allies in the struggle against Bolshe&ism.r hi&es% Bkrainian General Pa&lo ?handruk. $Photo.ederal . <he 8C. "ho !e ame the ommander of the Bkrainian ??-di&ision Gali ia .Aitler’s ?la&i ?oldiers <hese men are 8ussian offi ers in the 8C.rmiya%.. and its popular name "as Klaso&’s army. the 8ussian Li!eration .ndrei Klaso&. <he offi er se ond from the left is 8ussian General . onsisted of t"o di&isons under the ommand of General Klaso&.German .Part 1.rmy $:n 8ussian.8usskaya Cs&o!oditelnaya .

r hi&es% .ndrei Klaso& $left% and t"o unidentified Na'i German offi ers meet "ith Na'i German propagandist #oseph Goe!!els in Berlin on .rmy.8ussian General .German . a former offi er in the ?o&iet 8ed .r hi&es% 8ussian General .ederal . speaks to a group of 8ussians ser&ing in the Na'i German army in ()55. $Photo.e!ruary 2+.German .ederal .ndrei Klaso&. ()54. $Photo.

leader of the Independent 5tate of Croatia. Nazi German for a state 2isit on !une #. &'hoto( 8uze3 <e2oluci3e Narodnosti !ugosla2i3e).ugosla2ian National <e2olutionar 8useum/ Ante 'a2eli\ &left/ meets with German 6oreign 8inister !oachim 2on <i++entrop in !une "#J". &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ .Adolf Hitler meets with Ante 'a2elic. Ba2aria. "#J". upon his arri2al at the Berghof in Berchtesgaden.

show.u-)news)newstopics)world.+itler #had Jewish and African roots". 0HitlerLs concern o2er his descent was not un3ustified. He was apparentl not 0pure> or ]Ar an’.Y 8r.Y said <onn Decorte.had.."" . His father. as well as among Ash-enazi and 5ephardic !ews. Algeria and 7unisia.". Kna)k. a Belgian 3ournalist.F)%#A"F"")Hitler. which pu+lished the findings. Y7he affair is fascinating if one compares it with the conception of the world of the YBne can from this postulate that Hitler was related to people whom he despised. in which race and +lood was central.roots. Kna)k.old !ewish man called 6ran-en+erger. ear. a genetic specialist at the Catholic 4ni2ersit of Eeu2en.!ewish.'aul 8ulders.chromosomes. Y7his is a surprising result. earlier this ear. DNA tests ha2e shown. Adolf Hitler ma ha2e had !ewish and African roots. Alois.> It is not the first time that historians ha2e suggested Hitler had !ewish ancestr . DNA tests ha2e shown B Heidi Bla-e A(FNA8 B57 FJ Aug F. trac-ed down the 6uhrer’s relati2es.tests. 8ulders wrote in the Belgian magazine. %(A tests show Adolf Hitler is li-el to ha2e had !ewish and African roots. !ean. and 8arc Vermeeren. including an Austrian farmer who was his cousin. Haplogroup :"+"+".DNA.African. appears to +e one of the ma3or founding lineages of the !ewish population. per cent of 5ephardic . is thought to ha2e +een the illegitimate offspring of a maid called 8aria 5chic-elgru+er and a "#. sa s the DNA was tested under stringent la+orator conditions.html ^ Cop right of 7elegraph 8edia Group Eimited F. a historian.telegraph. A chromosome called Haplogroup :"+"+" which showed up in their samples is rare in 1estern :urope and is most commonl found in the Ber+ers of 8orocco. http())www. which accounts for appro*imatel "@ to F. 5ali2a samples ta-en from $# relati2es of the Nazi leader show he ma ha2e had +iological lin-s to the 0su+human> races that he tried to e*terminate during the Holocaust. per cent of Ash-enazi and @.war.A per cent to $.and.

3ournalist !ean.Y 5ource( http())www.Y said <onn Decorte. there are no more races.roots.language magazine Knac-.said it would now petition <ussian go2ernment archi2es to release a human 3aw+one wrapped in a +lood. By Aaaret' ?er&i e .haaretz.'aul 8ulders traced HitlerLs li2ing relati2es in the 6uhrerLs nati2e Austria.african. 07his pure t pe of LsupermanL and the CNaziD +reeding programs to perfect Lpurit L were sheer fa+rication. Knac.Y Geneticists identif groups of chromosomes called haplogroups. which is especiall pre2alent among in the Ber+er tri+es of 8orocco. who dreamed of engineering a Nazi superman. as well as the 4nited 5tates.ugust 25. who apparentl ac9uired the genes from Africa( Between N. Y6or modern science. :"+"+. according to new finding pu+lished in Belgium this According to 8ulders. YHitler would not ha2e +een happ .3ewish.##$@ .$. percent of North Africans share HitlerLs dominant group.re2eal. percent and them in terms of the Nazi world2iew. a geneticist inter2iewed + Knac-. and 5omalis. tests reveal +itler4s Jewish and African roots 7he 6uhrer Lwould not ha2e +een happ L to learn he was more Ber+er tri+esman than Ar an superman. 8ore surprising still. +ut strongest in some FN percent of Gree-s and 5icilians. 23(3 Adolf Hitler ma ha2e owed more to the Lsu+humanL races he tried to e*terminate than to his LAr anL compatriots. soa-ed cloth. Y7he results of this stud are surprising. In research for the 6lemish.Y Decorte said. is relati2el rare in 1estern :urope . is that HitlerLs second most dominant haplogroup is the most common in Ash-enazi !ews. Decorte said.and.hitler.tests. Lgenetic fingerprintsL that define populations. HitlerLs dominant haplogroup. retrie2ed from a Berlin +un-er where Hitler is thought to ha2e committed suicide and +elie2ed to ha2e +elonged to the 6uhrer. which ascri+ed such an e*treme priorit to notions of +lood and race. Y7he findings are fascinating if ou loo.". Algeria and 7unisia.

Nazi German officers trained Generalissimo Chiang Kai. H.ale 4ni2ersit in "#.ling."#JN/. Nationalist China’s 8inister of 6inance &"#$$. "#JJ/ and Go2ernor of the Central Ban.H. the sister of 8adame Chiang Kai.A and a 8aster of Arts degree at .ling/.%. Kung earned a Bachelor of Arts degree at B+erlin College in "#. Kung &left/.&5oong 8ei.sQ Generalissimo Chiang Kai.H.she.Adolf +itler 5 Asian Leaders6 A -trategic 7artnershi .of China &"#$$.H.she-’s adopted son Chiang 1ei. &7ime Eife photo/ . Kung was married to 5oong Ai. Nazi German ’s dictator Adolf Hitler stand on a patio with H. during Kung’s 2isit to Berchtesgaden. H.-uo ser2ed in the 1ehrmacht and participated in the Anschluss.she-’s arm during the "#$. German in "#$%.

sear h. ()*5..dolf Aitler shakes hands "ith King Pra=adhipok of ?iam Lalso kno"n as King 8ama K:: of <hailandM at <emplehof . $:nternational Ne"s Photo redit% $Photo. om.adolfhitler!estpi tures. Germany on #uly (!el..irport in Berlin.http-..!logspot.sY23aY23Eiplomat% .

:taly’s .la!el. Buti. :mperial #apanese . Weis'S ker. om.dolf Aitler.adolfhitler!estpi tures.http-. 9eiZner and Woermann appear at the <ripartite Pa t onferen e in Berlin on ?eptem!er 26. ()53% Photo. ?tahmer.meri an 9emory at the Li!rary of Congress% #apanese en&oy ?a!uro Kurusu $left%.oreign 9inister #oa him &on 8i!!entrop.Na'i German . ? hmidt. 9a kensen. and Na'i Germany’s di tator .lfieri...Left to right.m!assador to Na'i Germany ?a!uro Kurusu.sear h. $:mage ourtesy of . .dolf Aitler negotiate the <ripartite Pa t in ()53.!logspot.sY23aY23Eiplomat .oreign 9inister Galea''o Ciano. .

Left to right- 9artin Bormann, #apan’s ;oreign 9inister >osuke 9atsuoka, ? hmidt, ,dolf Aitler, Aermann Goering, and 9eissner attend a meeting on 9ar h 2+, ()5(. Goering is seen "earing a mono le. $Photo- http-..adolfhitler!estpi tures.!logspot. om.sear!el.,sY23aY23Eiplomat%

,dolf Aitler talks to :mperial #apan’s ;oreign 9inister >osuke 9atsuoka at the 8ei h Chan ellery in Berlin on 9ar h 26, ()5(. <he man on the left is interpreter Er. Paul ? hmidt.

Adolf Hitler &left/ meets with General Hiroshi Bshima &right/, the !apanese Am+assador to German &"#$@,"#$#, "#J","#JN/, at the New <eich Chanceller in Berlin, German on Decem+er "$, "#J". 5tanding +ehind is Btto 8eissner, 5tate 8inister and Chief of the 'residential Chanceller of the <eich. &'hoto( http())forum.a*ishistor .com)2iewtopic.phpGfHJOtH".#A#"OstartH"N/

<he 8epresentati&es of the ,His po"ers ele!rate in <okyo, #apan in ()5*. $9aini hi Photos%

Left to right- ?a!uro Kusuru, #apanese ,m!assador to Germany, ,dolf Aitler and :talian ;oreign 9inister Count Ciano $from left to right% arri&e for the re ent signing of the 8ome-Berlin-<okyo pa t in Berlin, Germany on C to!er ((, ()53. $Bettmann.CC8B:?%

Left to right- ,dolf Aitler, #apanese ;oreign 9inister >osuke 9atsuoka, and #apanese ,m!assador Airoshi Cshima "a&e from AitlerPs !al ony in Berlin, Germany in ()5(. $Aulton-Eeuts h Colle tion.CC8B:?%

.oreign 9inister >osuke 9atsuoka.CC8B:?% . . NeHt to Aoshino in uniform is War 9inister Gen. om. German .m!assador :ndelli.sear h.rom right to left are ?tahmer. $Bettmann.His Pa t in <okyo in ()5(. .!logspot.<ime Life% http-.m!assadorO :talian . Aideki <o=o. !ehind mi rophone is <oshio ?hiratori. and 9inister "ithout Portfolio Naoki Aoshino.sY23aY23Eiplomat . $Photo. @ugen Ctt.dolf Aitler meets "ith #apanese military offi ials.t eHtreme right is Aeinri h ?!el.gainst a !a kground of their respe ti&e flags..adolfhitler!estpi tures. . Na'i German and :mperial #apanese offi ials toast the ne" .. mysterious German agent "ho for ed through the signing of the pa t.

<hree German generals and a #apanese general $right% eHamine a glo!e during a meeting in Germany on 9ar h 2). #apan signed the <ripartite Pa t "ith Na'i Germany and .english.indeH4.pril (). Germany on .go. ()5(.ffairs >osuke 9atsuoka &isits hi!ei. $Photo.html .V CC8B:?% #apanese 9inister of . ()5(.=a ar. $Pro&ided !y Keiyosha% http-.oreign ist :taly on ?eptem!er 26.=p.""".negotiation. ()53.

<ime Life% Captured #apanese image sho"s &isiting German su!marine offi ers and re" of the Kriegsmarine !ringing "reath to pay respe ts to "ar dead at the >asukuni ?hrine in <okyo. #apan in C to!er ()5(. #apan in C to!er ()5(. $Photo. $Photo.Captured #apanese image sho"s &isiting group of German su!marine re" of the Kriegsmarine LGerman Na&yM oming to pay respe ts to "ar dead at the >asukuni ?hrine in <okyo.<ime Life% .

.rmy offi ers and Na'i German Wehrma ht offi ers pose for a group portrait in front of the Na'i German and :mperial #apanese flags. group of :mperial #apanese . &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ ."#$#Q three swasti-a pennants appear in the +ac-ground.4nidentified Nazi German 0tourists> meet with a group of 7i+etans in 7i+et in circa "#$@.

Budingen%O : "as deployed to :raI $near Baghdad% from . Bu kingham Pala e. Colum!ia Bni&ersity.rmored Ei&ision in Germany $(-( C.of 5iam a+dicated his throne the following ear. 9uni h. Berlin."pl*(5[yahoo. and my father is an . $9y mother is from #apan. Boston.C.rmy from 233( to 2335 as a soldier in the . 9ilan. Ne" >ork City. ?an Eiego. Philadelphia. German in !ul "#$J. 8ei hstag. Aar&ard Bni&ersity. and the 8hine 8i&er &alley. British Parliament. ?an .King 'ra3adhipo. Grand Canyon. my grandfather "as drafted t"i e !y the :mperial #apanese Na&y during World War ::. . . Een&er.or e !ase in #apan near <okyo% from ()+6 to ())* .ir .?. ?eattle.K. : ha&e tra&eled to many ities and pla es.pril 233* to #uly 2335. Washington E.% @-mail. . Kienna.lorida for se&eral years and li&ed at >okota . Keni e. om . Ne" Aa&en $Conne ti ut%. Baltimore. >ale Bni&ersity. Cologne.B<AC8: ser&ed in the B. London. LuHem!ourg City. Paris. in luding <okyo.?.lps. Chi ago. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/ . Eallas. 8ome. . : li&ed in Crest&ie". King 'ra3adhipo.BCB< <A@ .ir Base $B.meri an of Bkrainian des ent. Prin eton Bni&ersity.irst . ?"iss .of 5iam Calso -nown as King <ama VII of 7hailandD and Pueen <amphaiphanni of 5iam appear with Konstantin 2on Neurath in Berlin..rankfurt.ran is o.

it appeals to nationalists of all persuasions./. 7he resonance with Kim Il 5ung’s idea is clear. "#N. howe2er. one blood. which in his usage meant com lete subjectivity where everything Corean was concerned. &ne race. Bn his return to Korea in "#JA he organized some %. Korean Am+assador to the <epu+lic of China C7aiwanD. and inse arable unity between leaders and led would create 8a great family9 that would endure. had o2er a million mem+ers and made . In the "#$. Chapter A &7he Corporate 5tate in North Korea + Bruce Cumings/. and wor-ed with the Kuomintang Blue 5hirts and 5pecial 5er2ices in China.wing figure in postwar 5outh Korea. +e referred economic autarky to any eAternal international involvements that might subordinate Corean interests. one nation. the founder and leader of the earl postwar Korean National .i was.seo-( Korean National 5ocialist :*traordinaireG Eee Beom. German learningB he was among the first Corean olitical figures eA licitly to eAalt not just the nation. ouths into a classic rightist 2ehicle of the streetsQ + "#J@ the KN. thought leaders should be atriots above &"@##. +e o osed Corean reliance on foreigners ? sadae chuui or 8flunkeyism. . defense.s. Korea is no different.outh &KN. !uche resonates with kokutai and other such phrases precisel +ecause of its diffuse and all.9 he said./. &n closer ins ection.i had studied :uropean corporatist and 6ascist outh groups.FFJ .Eee Beom. Germany. and ideology. +e urged a an-national Corean solidarity based on racial urity6 8the (ation is the race and the race is the nation. seems to be used much like kokutai :国 体 .i second onl to 5 ngman <hee in power. always be among them and never se arate from them.of 0racial essence> and 0+lood. Defense 8inister of the <epu+lic of Korea C5outh KoreaD &"#J@. !uche shares the same character as kokutai &kuk)h$e in Korean/Q )hu means something li-e main or master.lines> &h/olt$ong/ runs throughout his wor-( this for him was the -e characteristic defining Korea. and therefore leaders must 8understand and love9 the masses.9 Juche :主 體 . kukka chisang9 ?nation first. state first@.seo. in everything. lambasted those oliticians who were 8un-Corean..within which Eeft and <ight can meet.9 and urged Coreans to ado t a stand oint of juche. something man ha2e noted a+out interwar :urope. As for the mind and s irit. one state.April F".i 'om 5o.CEee Beom 5eo-D.purpose meaningQ an emotion mas9uerading as an idea. "#J@. seems at first glance to be readily understandable. and the essential element in its corporate and organic unit . advocated inde endence. 7hus it is that Kim Il 5ung’s ideolog calls up comparisons with perhaps the most e*treme right. *t is defined as self-reliance and inde endence in olitics.. the term"s meaning is less accessible<*n fact it :Juche.. a romantic and conser2ati2e corporatist. +e lived in the era of 8the masses. +is et slogan. but the state."#N. p. and in his bias against ca italism and material ursuits sought not to overcome it in socialism but to return to an earlier era of community. so that the li+eral translation of !uche would +e 0main> or 0master> principle. . 8minjok chisang. . or )ao >edong !hought in 'hina6 a term defining an emotion that uts the nation first. economics. in interwar Ja an. FF$. and Korean Nationalist 08!he *dea.i 'om. As we ha2e said. railed against the conce t of class struggle...C.9 as the (orth Coreans translate it@. or the leader"s wishes first. he thought only the strongest national consciousness ?minjok uisik@ could save Corea from redatory great owers./."#%F/ 'rime 8inister of the <epu+lic of Korea C5outh KoreaD &August ".9 7al. or volkische in :(a=i. eA ressed his :(a=i. Corporatism seems to +e a fle*i+le framewor.> ? State and So)iet/ in Contem'orar/ Korea + Hagen Koo. +e eAalted the state. however.

1hate2er the B55 ma ha2e thought of . just as they were in +itler4sB the difference was that in Corea the distinction between race and nation was minimal. which coincide almost e*actl in Korea +ut hardl an where else. *t was common in -eoul in the ."#A . and no people seems to praise and respect a leader more than Koreans &e2en if much of the flatter ma +e false/Q it conflates ethnicit and nation. and by .300 he visited Germany to study military affairsB later he worked with German and *talian advisors to the (ationalists. just what one would eA ect from an ancient.30G.i. as an American delicatel noted. +ecause +rown. *t was robably Di"s nationalism that the Americans disliked the most. + "#N. he was in the &ffice of the 'hief of -taff of the C)! H. had Ydistincti2e +lue uniforms. and to unite as one family.supported Korean National . such 2iews are +lood . *n his mind nation and race were synonymous.> He thought and acted Yli-e a traditional Chinese war lord.Y possessing a forceful personalit . *n . in part +ecause he could not spea. At one point he lauds the !ews for preser2ing their identit for centuries. o+no*ious. was a com any commander at the C)! )ilitary Academy in +angchou.minded. still far more recepti2e than to li+eral ideas. and thought he had +een in2ol2ed with a group of oung men who Ypersecuted all Korean residents of 5hanghai and other :astern cities without discrimination. utterl recalcitrant. and +lood lines.3EF-.31Fs to see Mein Kampf in Corean translation dis layed in one bookstall after another. and most Koreans thought disunit had +rought on the disaster of colonialismQ in economics it posits autarch . it would appear. Di became known for his use of the 'hinese slogan. then too. state first. its Yuntimel Y 9ualit Q coming two ears after the Holocaust it is a +it much to hear someone prattling on et again a+out race. and also a realm where Eeft meets <ight. with 8being Corean9 the essence of citi=enshi and nationhood. 0great political am+itions. If this is a t pe of fascism. however.Y *n classic cor oratist fashion. "minjok chisang. which robably got it from Germany. But the book is really a teAt on what it means to be a Corean. nation. 6ascist doctrine in politics lauds unit . In August "#JN ten B55 agents in 5hanghai flew . he called u on Coreans to forget class conflicts. 7he CIA thought his future was limited. By .is interesting for its anachronisms. a fascist-style aramilitary force that chose the color +lue. . But these are popular ideas in Korea.she-. 8ilton Y8ar Y 8iles.Y and remained deepl under the influence of Chiang Kai. eAce t where the 'hinese (ationalists were concerned.30/.i into 5eoul +riefl . homogeneous eo le long subject to outside threat. and wrote in "#J% that the Germans and the Italians were YpioneersY in outh mo2ements. by which he meant something like being ever subjective where things Corean are concerned. minjok ?ethnic eo le@ often connoting both. always utting Corea first.Y 7ai Ei had +een a confidant of the Bffice of 5trategic 5er2ices &B55/ chief in China. distinctions between su erior and inferior. > ? The Origins of the Korean War: 0olume !!: The oaring of the Catara)t 56<=-56>? + Bruce Cumings &"##. 6or the American who has rarel had to thin. He originall termed his own outh group Ythe Blue 5hirts. Adm. Born in . and green were alread spo-en for.a+out how to preser2e a nation surrounded + predators. His "#J% +oo. Army. the unsavory !ai Li. (chuch'e). +e was widely known in Corea as a follower and admirer of Generalissimo 'hiang Cai-shek. the CIA termed him Ya man of little imagination and mediocre intelligence. 4'hiang and his secret olice chief. he went to 'hina during $orld $ar *." meaning nation first.30Fs. +e got the slogan in 'hina.him 5hanghai for reasons that ha2e ne2er +een clear. Di 7om-sok was a fierce Corean nationalist..07he officiall .Y American sources in 5hanghai reported that . for it meant he could not be trusted.i had +een Ywor-ing for 7ai EiY during the war. +lac-. kukka chisang. "#N.i wor-ed with this group. and secondary school students would often name +itler the man they res ected most amongst twentieth-century leaders.Y and the KN. !his is the cornerstone of Corean nationalism. organi=ed a youth wing called the IBlue -hirtsI in the . doing 2iolence to reason at e2er turn. p.outh melded Chinese influences with !apanese methods of dealing with political recalcitrants. perhaps no national elite would +e more recepti2e to such appeals than right./. +e fought the Ja anese as a guerrilla along the -inoCorean border in the early . a traditional fact and ideal in KoreaQ it li-es a strong leader.:nglish. +e even uses the term Juche. and an intensel nationalist 2iewpoint./33 in Cyonggi 7rovince. at another he remar-s that Ythe e*clusion of the !ews was 9uite efficacious for CGermanD unit .wing KoreansQ if not that. and also cited the KuomintangLs good e*perience with ouths.

one.. 7hough this was an e*aggerated claim. Korea on ?eptem!er (2. including Chiang Kai. the police could not o+struct its acti2ities +ecause of the American support it force of the Northern <oute Independence Arm to a decisi2e 2ictor o2er a regular !apanese +rigade of some ". .outh Corps was generousl supported + the American authorities with mone and material. rightist ouths who resented struggle among the rightist organizations themsel2es.i 'om. p.outh Corps was attac-ed + +oth leftist and rightist groups. At one point.. men.of the Korean 1ar. 7he National .i 'om. signs o&er the go&ernment to the 8epu!li of Korea $8CK% in ?eoul. . Before "#JN.i was appointed its chief of staff.?.. and others who were tired of the chaotic situation in Korean societ . . 9u io. .. 4pon esta+lishment of the Korean go2ernment.!apanese militar acti2ities in 8anchuria.... it is necessar to e*amine closel the personal +ac-ground of . at the age of twent . 6urthermore. it indicates the e*tent of acti2ities of the National .<he pronun iation of Lee Beom-seok’s first name is F!um su kG. . #ohn #. and entrusted him with the tas. He -ept the prime ministership until April "#N. 5ome F.i returned to Korea on !une FF. he was said to ha2e led a ".i 'om. oung men initiall responded to its call for mem+ership in Bcto+er "#JA.outh Corps &Min9ok Ch$ongn/ondan/ on the +asis of a 0nation.<he first B. attracted mostl 0marginal men> such as former Communists who needed protection in a legitimate organization. C'resident 5 ngmanD <hee recalled . his National .so-.of organizing the new part . ()5+. In this position he had a close relationship with the militar and political leaders of the Nationalist Chinese go2ernment. minister of defense.oreign . 6or reasons not clearl understood e2en toda . its chief organizer. $Note.. two months +efore the out+rea.i 'om. romanticists who were attracted to the Corps’ ideological appeals. first> slogan.> ? The 4ailure of 1emo)ra)/ in South Corps.. 4pon formation of the Ei+eration Arm of the Korean 'ro2isional Go2ernment in "#J.N.she-.i was appointed prime minister and. former prime minister and defense minister. <o 9u ioPs right is 9inister of . . "%.and disunited group of supporters within the National Assem+l . often com ared to +itler"s Jugend Brigade."@ . Prime 9inister Lee %eom7seo2.% $Photo. +ut it e*panded rapidl in organization and mem+ership throughout the nation. In "#F. In order to understand the nature of the newl organized part . "#JA. who was ser2ing as his am+assador to the Nationalist Chinese Go2ernment in famous for his anti. !he (ational Douth 'or s.m!assador to the 8epu!li of Korea.3_ Han.claimed that half of all Korean ouths had +een affected + Corps training. and within a few months he set a+out organizing the National .so.first> and 0state.Rethinkin& the +orean War: A New #i)lomatic an! -trate&ic History !y William ?tue k% 0Aware of the fact that he had onl a wea.ffairs Chan5 Tae27san5O to his left...0olume @> + 5_ng.. simultaneousl .

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