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OPIUM WARS

Organized Crime?

By William P. Litynski

From the Grassy Knoll in London: Lone Gunman or Patsy?
The Attempted Assassination of Her Royal Majesty Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain outside the Buc ingham !alace in "ondon on #une $%& $'(%

“I’m just a patsy!”: )d*ard +,ford -$'../$0%%1& an $'/year/old 2lone gunman3& attempts to assassinate .$/year/old Queen Victoria of Great Britain -$'$0/$0%$1 and her hus4and !rince Al4ert outside the Buc ingham !alace in "ondon on #une $%& $'(%& during the ongoing +pium 5ar *ith 6mperial 7hina8 Queen Victoria of Great Britain and her hus4and !rince Al4ert escaped the assassination attempt unharmed8 There *ere at least eight assassination attempts on Queen Victoria during her 9:/ year reign8 Was the attempted assassination of ueen !i"toria on #une $%& $'(% a politi"al "onspira"y?

British Ro44er Barons during the ;irst +pium 5ar -$':0/$'(.1

)enry #ohn *emple& +rd !is"ount Palmerston ,later Lord Palmerston<ecretary of <tate for ;oreign Affairs -$' April $':=>. <ept8 $'($& 9 #uly $'(9>.9 ?ec8 $'=$1

William Lam.& /nd !is"ount 0el.ourne !rime Minister of Great Britain -$9 #uly $':(/$( @oA8 $':(& $' April $':=/:% Aug8 $'($1

Fran"is *hornhill 1arin2& $st 1aron 3orth.roo4 7hancellor of the ),cheBuer -.9 August $':0> :% August $'($1 grandson of of <ir ;rancis Baring& $st Baronet& the founder of Barings Ban

5ir #ohn 6ae 6eid& /nd 1aronet ,$78$9$':7GoAernor of the Ban of )ngland -$':0/$'($1

The <igning and <ealing of the Treaty of @an ing on August .0& $'(.8 6mperial 7hina -7hing ?ynasty1 *as reBuired to cede Hong Kong to Great Britain and allo* Great Britain to continue the opium trade8 The ;irst +pium 5ar - 鴉片戰爭& also no*n as the ;irst Anglo/7hinese 5ar1 occurred from March $'& $':0 to August .0& $'(.8 The <econd +pium 5ar *as fought from $'=9 until $'9%8 -<ourceC Bro*n UniAersity1

British Ro44er Barons during the <econd +pium 5ar -$'=9/$'9%1

)enry #ohn *emple& +rd !is"ount Palmerston ,later Lord Palmerston!rime Minister of Great Britain -9 ;e48 $'==>$0 ;e48 $'='D $. #une $'=0>$' +ct8 $'9=1 "eader of the +pposition -$0 ;e48 $'='>$$ #une $'=01

1enjamin ;israeli& $st <arl of 1ea"onsfield 7hancellor of the ),cheBuer -.E ;e48 $'=.>$E ?ec8 $'=.D .9 ;e48 $'='>$$ #une $'=0D 9 #uly $'99>.0 ;e48 $'9'1D British #e*ish politician

Geor2e !illiers& (th <arl of =larendon <ecretary of <tate for ;oreign Affairs -.$ ;e4ruary $'=:> .9 ;e4ruary $'='D $'9=/$'99& $'9'/$'E%1

5ir #ohn 1o>rin2 GoAernor of Hong Kong -$: April $'=(> 0 <eptem4er $'=01

"ionel -@athan1 de Rothschild -$'%'/$'E01& a Mem4er of !arliament for the 7ity of "ondon& is introduced in the House of 7ommons on #uly .9& $'=' 4y "ord #ohn Russell and Mr8 A4el <mith8 "ionel de Rothschild *as the son of #e*ish 4an er @athan Mayer Rothschild8 -!ainting 4y Henry Barraud& $'E.D The Rothschild ArchiAe1

+pium 5arsC 6n Their +*n 5ords
25AR is a rac et8 6t al*ays has 4een8 6t is possi4ly the oldest& easily the most profita4le& surely the most Aicious8 6t is the only one international in scope8 6t is the only one in *hich the profits are rec oned in dollars and the losses in liAes8 A rac et is 4est descri4ed& 6 4elieAe& as something that is not *hat it seems to the majority of the people8 +nly a small 2inside3 group no*s *hat it is a4out8 6t is conducted for the 4enefit of the Aery fe*& at the e,pense of the Aery many8 +ut of *ar a fe* people ma e huge fortunes83 > <medley ?8 Butler& Retired Major General of the U8<8 Marine 7orps& War is a Racket

Gen8 <medley ?8 Butler 25hy& of course the people donFt *ant *ar8 5hy *ould some poor slo4 on a farm *ant to ris his life in a *ar *hen the 4est that he can get out of it is to come 4ac to his farm in one pieceG @aturally& the common people donFt *ant *arD neither in Russia nor in )ngland& nor in America& nor for that matter in Germany8 That is understood8 But& after all& it is the leaders of the country *ho determine the policy and it is al*ays a simple matter to drag the people along *hether itHs a democracy& a fascist dictatorship& a parliament& or a communist dictatorship8 I4ut Aoice or no Aoice& the people can al*ays 4e 4rought to the 4idding of the leaders8 That is easy8 All you haAe to do is tell them they are 4eing attac ed& and denounce the pacifists for lac of patriotism and e,posing the country to danger8 6t *or s the same *ay in any country83 > Hermann Goering& in a conAersation *ith U8<8 Army 7aptain GustaAe Gil4ert in a prison cell during the @urem4erg trials& on April $'& $0(98 from Nuremberg Diary& 4y GustaAe M8 Gil4ert 2But the safety of the people of America against dangers from foreign force depends not only on their for4earing to giAe just causes of *ar to other nations& 4ut also on their placing and continuing themselAes in such a situation as not to invite hostility or insultD for it need not 4e o4serAed that there are pretended as *ell as just causes of *ar8 6t is too true& ho*eAer disgraceful it may 4e to human nature& that nations in general *ill ma e *ar *heneAer they haAe a prospect of getting anything 4y itD nay& a4solute monarchs *ill often ma e *ar *hen their nations are to get nothing 4y it& 4ut for the purposes and o4jects merely personal& such as thirst for military glory& reAenge for personal affronts& am4ition& or priAate compacts to aggrandiJe or support their particular families or partisans8 These and a Aariety of other motiAes& *hich affect only the mind of the soAereign& often lead him to engage in *ars not sanctified 4y justice or the Aoice and interests of his people83 > #ohn #ay& Federalist @o8 ( 2+f all the enemies to pu4lic li4erty *ar is& perhaps& the most to 4e dreaded& 4ecause it comprises and deAelops the germ of eAery other8 5ar is the parent of armiesD from these proceed de4ts and ta,esD and armies& and de4ts& and ta,es are the no*n instruments for 4ringing the many under the domination of the fe*8 6n *ar& too& the discretionary po*er of the ),ecutiAe is e,tendedD its influence in dealing out offices& honors& and emoluments is multipliedD and all the means of seducing the minds& are added to those of su4duing the force& of the people8 The same malignant aspect in repu4licanism may 4e traced in the ineBuality of fortunes& and the opportunities of fraud& gro*ing out of a state of *ar& and in the degeneracy of manners and of morals engendered 4y 4oth8 @o nation could preserAe its freedom in the midst of continual *arfare83 > U8<8 7ongressman #ames Madison& from Political Observations& April .%& $E0=

Hermann Goering

#ohn #ay

#ames Madison

Opium Wars: Organized Crime?
The “China Trade” & The Rise of Hong Kong and Shanghai

The British Royal @aAy destroys 7hinese *ar jun s -ships1 on #anuary $E& $'($ during the ;irst +pium 5ar8

2;oreigners *ere until then confined to trading at the southern port of 7anton8 Great Britain had 4een trading *ith 7hina through the )ast 6ndia 7ompany since the late $E%%s8 But early in the nineteenth century she had a seAere cash/flo* pro4lem8 Her imports of 7hinese teas and sil s *ere far greater than the Aalue of her e,ports to 7hinaD there *as little demand for e,pensiAe British manufactured goods such as *oolens& cotton& and metal products8 5ith the mercantile conBuest of 6ndia 4ehind them& British traders *ere confident that they could deAelop another Aast mar et in 7hina if a fe* ports other than 7anton could 4e opened to foreign e,ploitation8 The leAer Britain used to pry them open *as opium8 The primary source of opium then *as 6ndia and the Middle )ast& monopoliJed 4y the British )ast 6ndia 7ompany8 !roper )nglishmen li e ?r8 5illiam #ardine& one of the greatest opium merchants& purchased ra* opium from 6ndian gro*ers for niggardly sums& and resold it to the 7hinese through Hong Kong for ten times the amount8 ;or a *hile& the British *ere successful in financing their imports of tea 4y smuggling opium to 7hina& 4ut as tea consumption rose& opium traffic had to 4e increased accordingly8 <ince the Manchu regime had 4anned opium trading& British ships carried their loads to the !ortuguese colony of Macao& at the mouth of the !earl RiAer& unloaded the drug there& then sailed innocently into 7anton har4or *ith legal cargoes8 "ater& *hen enough Manchu officials had 4ecome partners in the illicit trade& the opium *as shipped directly into 7anton& *here it *as stored 4raJenly in *arehouses along the riAerside8 *he ?meri"ans .e"ame in@ol@ed in the $'/%s& and di2nified firms su"h as Per4ins A =ompany and 6ussell A =ompany of 1oston en2a2ed in immense opium traffi" .y "lipper shipB British and American traffic increased from =&%%% chests in $'.$ to :0&%%% chests in $':E8 BritainFs share of this gro*th again 4alanced her imports of sil s and teas& and stemmed the outflo* of her silAer8 But not *ithout haJard to 7hina8 The increased consumption of opium& despite imperial 4ans& *as causing social calamity8 More and more people& from landlords and aristocrats do*n to soldiers and prostitutes& 4ecame addicted8 The seduction of Manchu officials into the trade caused goAernment corruption to spread8 )Aentually& the silAer flo* *as reAersed& and 7hinese silAer 4egan to rush to*ard Great Britain in alarming Buantities8 @ational pride and soAereignty *ere as much at sta e as silAer and opium8 5hen 7hinese officials crucified an opium smuggler in front of the 7anton *arehouses in ?ecem4er $':'& the foreign deAils rushed out and 4ro e up the *ooden cross8 Ten thousand 7hinese rioted8 The 5esterners appealed to a po*erful merchant they called HouBua > the 7hinese ingpin of the opium traffic > and he 4ought off the local mandarins& setting a pattern for a century to come8 *he =hinese 2o@ernment then insisted that all 1ritish "aptains must si2n a .ond that they >ould not "arry opium into the "ountryB 5e"retly& ?meri"ans .e2an to "arry 1ritish opium or to let 1ritish ships fly the 5tars and 5tripes into =antonB The last stra* came *hen a cre* of drun en British sailors illed a 7hinese Aillager in an argument8 Their consul refused to allo* them to 4e tried 4y a 7hinese court8 To retaliate& the Manchu goAernment ordered all proAisions to the British cut off8 Great Britain declared *ar on +cto4er $& $':08 British opium merchants had campaigned long and hard for this *ar& and they *ere its chief 4eneficiaries8 A fleet led 4y the thirty/t*o/gun paddle*heeler Nemesis made short *or of the 7hinese naAy8 Humiliated& 7hina paid a huge indemnity& opened fiAe additional ports to British trade and residence& and e,empted British su4jects from 7hinese justice8 Cf all the ne> treaty ports& 5han2hai >as the 2emB3 > The oong Dynasty 4y <terling <eagraAe& p8 :/(

The Opium War (1839-1842): The British government under Queen Victoria waged war against the Manchurian-governed Chinese m!ire in an attem!t to allow cor!orate merchants such as "ardine# Matheson $ Co. to sell o!ium in China. The Manchurian-governed Chinese m!ire %Ch&ing 'ynasty( ceded )ong *ong to +reat Britain in ,-./.

Vie* of the 7anton ;actories& $'%=/$'%9 4y 5illiam ?aniel -!aintingC Massachusetts 6nstitute of Technology1

The 01actories2 at Canton %廣州(# China %Painting3 4.5. 'e!artment o1 5tate(

Map of the 7hing -Qing1 ?ynasty 7hina in $'.%

;lag of The 7hing -Qing1 ?ynasty from $'0% to $0$$

<i, ;lags oAer 7anton& 7hinaC The first international shopping mall -factories1 in the $0 th century ;ar )ast

Vie* of Hoppo Returning to 7anton& late $'th century -!aintingC Hong Kong Museum of ArtD Massachusetts 6nstitute of Technology1

The 7ourt of 6nBuiry in 7anton presides oAer a trial for the sailors of the ship @eptune& after $'%E8 T*o British soldiers appear in the foreground8 -!aintingC Massachusetts 6nstitute of Technology1

The view o1 the 6actories at Canton 1rom the river# which is crowded with 7unks and sam!ans# showing %le1t to right( 8merican# British and 'utch 1lags in 1ront o1 the res!ective 1actories. Com!anion !icture to 9o. ,:. ;il. ,, < ,= > +eorge Chinnery ?.).8. %,==.-,-:/(. htt!3@@1ree!ages.genealogy.rootsweA.ancestry.com@Bchater1amilytree@chinnery.htm

View# 1rom land# o1 the o!en s!ace in 1ront o1 the 6rench# 8merican and other 1actories# many Chinese 1igures are shown C !edlars# AarAers# etc.# no uro!eansD and an o11icial !rocession is to Ae seen in the distance. 6rench# 8merican# British and 'utch 1lags. Bright colours# green shutters# matshed in the 1oreground. Com!anion !icture to 9o. ,.. ;il. ,, < ,= > +eorge Chinnery ?.).8 %,==.-,-:/(. htt!3@@1ree!ages.genealogy.rootsweA.ancestry.com@Bchater1amilytree@chinnery.htm

Macao& Vie* of the !raya Grande& from a porch& circa $'(%8 !ea4ody )sse, Museum .%%E8 -!hotoC #effrey R8 ?y es1 -!aintingC Massachusetts 6nstitute of Technology1

"oading Tea at 7anton& circa $'=.& The 7anton *aterfront is depicted from Honam 6sland *here *or ers load a sampan *ith chests of tea8 The $'(E church 4urned in $'=98 Gouache on pith paper& Gift of the )state of #ohn Heard& $0:$8 !ea4ody )sse, Museum .%%E Mar <e,ton !hoto -!aintingC Massachusetts 6nstitute of Technology1

5u !ing/chen& or Ho*/Qua -also no*n as HouBua1& *as the senior Hong Merchant in 7anton& 7hina8 Ho*/Qua *as 4orn in $E90 and died in $'(:8 -!hotoC httpCKKfreepages8genealogy8roots*e48ancestry8comKLchaterfamilytreeKchinnery8htm1

27ommissioner3 "in Tse/hsu -林則徐1& the 7hinese statesman *ho opposed the importation of opium into 7hina and enforced the 7hinese MManchurianN la*s that 4anned the importation and sale of opium8

A painting of "in Tse/hsu superAising the destruction of opium

'r. Peter Parker a!!ears with two Chinese !atients in mainland China. Peter Parker served as 4.5. Commissioner to China 1rom ,-:E until ,-:=# during the ongoing 5econd ;!ium War. Peter Parker earned a Bachelor o1 8rts degree at Fale 4niversity in ,-G,.

Prominent ?meri"an ;ru2 ;ealers of the $8th =entury

Russell O 7o8 partners #oseph 7oolidge 6V -left1& <amuel Russell -center1& and A4iel A44ott "o* -right1

"eft to rightC 5arren ?elano #r8& Ro4ert Bennett ;or4es& Augustine Heard& and Thomas H8 !er ins

?ussell $ Co. !artner "ose!h Coolidge HV married leonora % llen( ?andol!h# the granddaughter o1 1ormer 4.5. President Thomas "e11erson on May /=# ,-/:. %Thomas "e11erson died at his home in Virginia on "uly .# ,-/E.( Thomas "e11erson Coolidge# the 1ormer 4.5. Minister to 6rance# was the son o1 "ose!h Coolidge and llen ?andol!h Coolidge. 8rchiAald Cary Coolidge# a memAer and director o1 the Council on 6oreign ?elations during the ,I/Js# was the grandson o1 "ose!h Coolidge and llen ?andol!h Coolidge. ?ussell $ Co. !artner Warren 'elano "r. was the 1ather o1 6rederic 8. 'elano# the Vice Chairman o1 the 6ederal ?eserve during World War H# and 5ara 'elano. 6ormer 4.5. President 6ranklin 'elano ?oosevelt was the grandson o1 Warren 'elano "r. and the son o1 5ara 'elano. ?ussell $ Co. !artner 8Aiel 8AAott Low was the 1ather o1 5eth LowD 5eth Low was the President o1 ColumAia 4niversity 1rom ,-IJ to ,IJ, and the Mayor o1 9ew Fork City 1rom ,IJ/ to ,IJG. 5eth Low was the President o1 ColumAia 4niversity during the 5!anish-8merican War %,-I-,-II( and the Chinese Bo<er ?eAellion %,-II-,IJJ(. ?ussell $ Co. !artner and co-1ounder 5amuel ?ussell was the great-grandson o1 William ?ussell# a trustee o1 Fale 4niversity 1rom ,=.: to ,=E,. 5kull $ Bones 1ounder William )untington ?ussell was also the great-grandson o1 William ?ussell# a trustee o1 Fale 4niversity 1rom ,=.: to ,=E,.

Ro4ert Bennet ;or4es O ;riends
Partners o1 ?ussell $ Com!any 5amuel ?ussell C Co-6ounder o1 ?ussell $ Com!any in ,-/. Phili! 8mmidon C Co-6ounder o1 ?ussell $ Com!any in ,-/. "ose!h Coolidge HV %,=I--,-=I( %B.8. )arvard ,-,=( "ohn Perkins Cushing %,=-=-,-E/( dward 'elano Warren 'elano# "r. "ohn Murray 6orAes %,-,G-,-I-( C President o1 Chicago# Burlington $ Quincy ?ailroad %,-=--,--,( Paul 5ieman 6orAes ?oAert Bennet 6orAes C Arother o1 "ohn Murray 6orAes "ose!h Taylor +ilman "ohn Cleve +reen %,-JJ-,-=:( "ohn 9. 8lso! +riswold 8ugustine )eard %,=-:-,-E-( William C. )unter dward *ing William )enry *ing %8.B. Brown ,-G-( William +. Low 8Aiel 8AAott Low %,-,,-,-IG( +eorge Perkins Thomas ). Perkins 'aniel 9icholson 5!ooner ?ussell 5turgis %B.8. )arvard ,-/G(

2#oseph 7oolidge 6V& "e*is 7oolidgeFs first cousin once remoAed& *as a *ell/ no*n 7hina trader8 5hile still in his formatiAe years& he traAeled *idely and made the acBuaintance of the *riters 5ashington 6rAing and "ord ByronIAfter #oseph 7oolidge 6V returned from )urope& he traAeled in Virginia& *here he met -and courted1 )leanora 5ayles Randolph& the granddaughter of Thomas #efferson8 The t*o *ere married May .E& $'.=8 #osephFs first 4usiness e,perience *as in a joint Aenture *ith his first cousin& Thomas Bulfinch& from $'.= to $':. as 2American goods commission merchants83 At that point& #oseph left to 4egin his lengthy 7hina *or as a cler for Russell and 7ompany in 7anton& *hile his cousin Thomas Bulfinch turned to his lifeFs *or *riting such 4oo s as !ulfinch"s #ythology& The $ge of Fable& and The $ge of %hivalry8 6n $':(& #oseph 7oolidge returned from 7hina and 4ecame a partner in Russell and 7ompany8 He then returned to 7hina and spent most of the ne,t fe* years there as *ell as some time in 6ndia8 6n $'(%& he left Russell and 7ompany and *as one of the founders of the trading company of Augustine Heard and 7ompany& *hich had 7hina as its focus8 5ith the out4rea of the +pium 5ar 4et*een 7hina and Britain shortly after the founding of Augustine Heard and 7o8& British su4jects fled 7anton& and *ith #oseph 7oolidge 6V as its principal 7anton representatiAe& Augustine Heard and 7o8 4ecame the 7anton agent of the giant )nglish trader #ardine& Matheson& and 7ompany8 6n $'(( #oseph left 7hina and retired on his earnings from his 7hina trade8 His family continued in international trade83 > &e'is %oolidge and the (oyage of the $methyst) *+,-.*+** 4y )Aa4eth Miller Kienast and #ohn !hillip ;elt& p8 '%/'. 2ArriAing at Hong Kong in $':'& he *as *elcomed 4y the principal partner of Russell and 7ompany& #ohn 78 Green& and the junior mem4ers of the firm& Messrs8 A4iel A44ot "o*& )d*ard King& and 5illiam 78 Hunter8 His cousin and early 4ac er& #ohn !er ins 7ushing& organiJer of Russell and 7ompany at 7anton& had strongly recommended him to that firm8 HaAing made his fortune& senior partner Green *ished to return to the Untied <tates& and hefelt that ;or4es *as the man to ta e his place8 The arrangement *ent through despite the opposition of one mem4er& #oseph 7oolidge8 Becoming general manager of Russell and 7ompany& ;or4es faced a crisis in the attempt of the 7hinese goAernment to driAe out foreign/o*ned firms located in 7hina8 The Russsell commission 4usiness had increased so rapidly in 7anton that there *as al*ays a scarcity of partners capa4le of carrying their share of the 4urdens8 <amuel Russell& *hom 7ushing had inspired to 4egin the partnership in $'.(& retired in *ealth from the firm t*elAe years after*ards& and thereafter it *as carried on 4y numerous partners > Augustine Heard& 5illiam G8 "o*& #ohn 78 Green& #ohn Murray ;or4es& #oseph 7oolidge& A4iel A44ott "o*& 5m8 78 Hunter& Ro4ert Bennet ;or4es& 5arren ?elano& #r8& Russell <turgis& ?aniel @icholson <pooner& #oseph Taylor Gilman& !aul <ieman ;or4es& George !er ins& )d*ard ?elano& 5illiam Henry King& #ohn @8 Alsop Gris*old& and as many again8 Augustine Heard deserAes more than mere mention8 6n Ba er "i4rary& HarAard UniAersity& there are (=% 4ound and un4ound Aolumes of manuscripts relating to three generations of the Heard family8 Augustine& in his t*entieth year& *ent to 7hina as a supercargo8 The shre*d #ohn !er ins 7ushing mar ed him as a li ely fello* and& after the youth had proAed himself& too him into the firm of Russell and 7ompany8 6n $'::& Augustine *as the sole partner of the firm in 7hina8 Brea ing under the strain& he returned to Boston8 After*ards& *ith #oseph 7oolidge& former Russell partner& Augustine formed the firm of Augstine Heard and 7ompany& *hich 4ecame& *ith the firms of Russell& +lyphant& and 5etmore& the Big ;our8 Augustine 4rought four nephe*s into the firm8 As traders in tea and opium& te Heard firm pursued the same actiAies as Russell 7ompanyI;or the Russell partners and some of their competitotors& there *as a fascinating element of speculation in the opium traffic8 5hen the price of the narcotic 4ecame depressed the rich mem4ers of foreign firms 4ought it up cheap and stored it in their *arehouses& *ith the result that a ches 4ought for P$=% could 4e sold for P=%% or PE%%D and *hen there *as a great scarcity& the demand forced the price up to P$%%% or more83 > /ankee hips in %hina eas0 $dventures of Pioneer $mericans in the Troubled Far 1ast 4y ?aniel M8 Henderson& p8 $=:/$== 2The original partners in Russell O 7o8& one of the 4est/ no*n American firms then doing 4usiness at 7anton& 7hina& *ere <amuel Russell and !hilip Ammidon8 5illiam H8 "o*& Augustine Heard& #ohn M8 ;or4es& #ohn 78 Green& 5arren ?elano& 58 78 Hunter& #oseph 7oolidge& Russell <turgis& Richard <tarr ?ana& 58 H8 ;or4es& R8 B8 ;or4es& !aul <8 ;or4es& #8 Murray ;or4es& and )d*ard King *ere& at one time or other& partners in this firm8 The firm *as founded in $'$' 4y <amuel Russell& of Middleto*n& 7onn8& and *as first no*n as <amuel Russell O 7o8 6n $'.( the firm 4ecame Russell O 7o8& and had a career rarely eBualled in the 7hinese trade8 #ohn !er ins 7ushing& *ho had 4een a representatiAe of #8 O T8 H8 !er ins in 7hina& *as one of those *ho had much to do *ith the starting of the firm& as he transferred to Russell O 7o8 a portion of the commission 4usiness *hich had gro*n too large for !er ins O 7o8 to handle8 The cause of the +pium 5ar& *hich interrupted trade for a time& *as a peculiarly flagrant piece of smuggling& *hich so aroused the 7hinese goAernment that its commissioner appeared at the foreign settlement& demanded the opium& and dumped it into the ditches8 The trou4le *as finally adjusted 4y )ngland compelling 7hina to pay an indemnity& and trade *as resumed8 The opium had 4een 4rought for some time from 6ndia in the s*ift/sailing Aessels& or 2clippers&3 *e haAe already descri4ed& and *as smuggled into 7anton 4y Aarious means8 As all foreigners liAed in a narro* su4ur4 on the riAer and *ere neAer allo*ed *ithin the city& 4usiness *as transacted *ith 7hinese middlemen& one of *hom& HouBua& *as eAer the *arm friend of Russell O 7o83 > ome hips of the %lipper hip 1ra0 Their !uilders) O'ners) and %aptains 4y The <tate <treet Trust 7ompany -$0$:1& p8 0/$% 2#ohn !er ins 7ushing& called 2Ku/<hing3 4y the 7hinese& sailed for 7hina *hen only si,teen years old& to ta e the position of cler in the counting/house of his uncle& 7olonel Thomas Handasyd !er ins8 The head of the firm in 7hina at this time *as )phraim Bumstead& *ho *as soon o4liged to leaAe 7anton on account of illness& and died at sea8 Qoung 7ushing& therefore& arriAed in 7hina at this early age to find that he *as the only representatiAe of the !er ins firm in the )ast8 7olonel !er ins& on hearing of Mr8 BumsteadFs death& at once prepared to go to 7hina& 4ut just 4efore sailing he receiAed letters from the young apprentice& *ho presented the condition of affairs in such a faAora4le light that the intended journey *as a4andoned8 7ushing managed the affairs of the firm so s illfully that the consignments continually increased8 He *as soon ta en into partnership *ith the !er inses and continued *ith them until the consolidation of their firm *ith Russell O 7o8 in $'.E83

> Other #erchants and ea %aptains of Old !oston& <tate <treet Trust 7ompany& p8 $E/$'
0Russell & Co. was the largest 8merican o!ium smuggler# and the third largest in the world# Aehind the British 'ent 1irm and the largest smuggler o1 all# the 5cottish merchants Jardi e-!a"heso . 6or many years ?ussell $ Co. and "ardine-Matheson worked together and were known as the 0ComAination.2 They virtually controlled the trade# mani!ulating market 1orces towards ma<imiKing !ro1its. ?ussell $ Co. was started in ,-/. Ay 5amuel ?ussell o1 Middletown# Connecticut. Hn ,-/-# it 0aAsorAed2 the T.). Perkins o!ium concern o1 Boston and Aecame 8merica&s dominant 1orce in China. ?ussell $ Co. was very much a 1amily a11air# with uncles# cousins# Arothers# 1athers and sons dominating the 1irm and its allied Aanks and 1ronts. The ?ussell 1amily was stee!ed in Fale College history. The ?ev. 9odiah ?ussell was a Fale 1ounder. 8nd in ,-G/# +eneral William )untington ?ussell# 5amuel ?ussell&s cousin# 1ounded one o1 the 4.5.& most 1amous secret societies3 the ;rder o1 5kull and Bones# along with 8l!honso Ta1t. Ta1t&s son# 1uture President William )oward Ta1t %5$B ,-=-( would !lay many roles in the creation o1 international narcotics controls and the 4.5. 'rug War.2 C Fleshing Out Skull & Bones Ay *ris Millegan# !. ,:G 0'uring that 1irst ;!ium War# the chie1 o1 o!erations 1or Russell & Co. in Canton was Warren 'elano# "r.# grand1ather o1 6ranklin ?oosevelt. )e was also the 4.5. vice-consul and once wrote home# 0The )igh o11icers o1 the LChineseM +overnment have not only connived at the trade# Aut the +overnor and other o11icers o1 the !rovince have Aought the drug and have taken it 1rom the stationed shi!s in their own +overnment Aoats.2 Wu Ping-chen# or )owNua HH# the leading 0hong2 merchant# was considered Ay some to Ae one o1 the world&s richest men# worth over O/E million in ,-GG. The !ro1its were huge and many 1ortunes were made. Warren 'elano went home with one# lost it and went Aack to China to get more. ?ussell $ Co. !artners included "ohn Cleve +reen# a Aanker and railroad investor who made large donations to and was a trustee 1or PrincetonD 8. 8Aiel Low# a shi!Auilder# merchant and railroad owner who Aacked ColumAia 4niversityD and merchants 8ugustine )eard and "ose!h Coolidge. Coolidge&s son organiKed the 4nited 6ruit Com!any# and his grandson 8rchiAald C. Coolidge# was a co1ounder o1 the Council on 6oreign ?elations. Partner "ohn M. 6orAes 0dominated the management2 o1 the Chicago# Burlington and Quincy railroad# with Charles Perkins as !resident. ;ther !artners and ca!tains included "ose!h Taylor +ilman# William )enry *ing# "ohn 8lso! +riswold# Ca!tain Lovett and Ca!tain ". Prescott. Ca!tain Prescott called on 6.T. Bush# sN.# his 1riend and agent in )ong *ong 1reNuently. ?ussell $ Co. 1amilies# relations and 1riends are well re!resented in the ;rder o1 5kull $ Bones. 81ter the 1irst ;!ium War# the !ort o1 5hanghai was o!ened u!# with ?ussell $ Co. as one o1 its 1irst 1oreign merchants. Hn ,-.,# ?ussell Arought the 1irst steam shi! to Chinese waters and continued to develo! e trans!ortation routes as long as o!ium made them !ro1itaAle. ?ussell !artners were also involved in early railroad ventures in China# together with 4.5. railroad magnate .). )arriman# whose sons later Aecame very active in 5kull $ Bones. The second ;!ium War led to the legaliKation o1 o!ium in China in ,-:-P2 C Fleshing Out Skull & Bones Ay *ris Millegan# !. ,::-,:E 0PL'Muring the 1irst years o1 )ong *ong# Messrs. "ardine and Matheson stored not only their Aullion Aut the drugs that their swi1t armed cli!!ers would distriAute u! and down the China coastP1or )ong *ong 1rankly de!ended then u!on the !ro1its o1 the narcotics tradeP Hn ,-.. the +overnor himsel1 declared that almost anyone with any ca!ital in the colony was either in the government service# or else in the drug trade. 6or every British warshi! in the roads# there were likely to Ae two or three o!ium cli!!ers# as s!lendidly eNui!!ed# as con1idently dressed as any 1rigate. The 1lag aAove the +eneral&s residence was no more assertive than the 1lag aAove the "ardine# Matheson headNuarters at ast Point# hal1 a mile along the shore. )ong *ong&s government might Ae clothing itsel1 in conseNuenceD in cash it was 1ar outshone Ay the merchant community# which Arought to the colony all the insolent !anache it had develo!ed at +uangKhou LCantonMPWithin a 1ew years o1 the colony&s settlement doKens o1 merchant com!anies had come to )ong *ong# together with uro!ean sho!kee!ers# !hysicians# !uAlicans and miscellaneous commercial men. Most o1 the com!anies were British or Hndian# Aut they included 8merican# +erman# Htalian# 'utch and 6rench concerns# and they were dominated Ay three old 1amiliars 1rom +uangKhou3 "ardine# Matheson# the most 1amous or notorious o1 them all# with 1ive !artners and twenty uro!ean assistantsD 'ent and Com!any# their chie1 rivals# with 1ive !artners and eight assistantsD and the 8merican ?ussell and Com!any# with si< !artners and eight assistants. Li1e in )ong *ong really revolved not around the +overnor# Aut around these 1ormidaAle hongs and their Aosses# the tai!ans. 9ot only were they the shi!owners# the warehouse men# the accountants# the agents and the chandlers o1 the colony# Aut they also !layed the !arts o1 insurers and Aankers. Ht was they who had induced the British government to acNuire this island# and they considered themselves its true !ossessorsPWilliam "ardine himsel1# who never came to )ong *ong# had s!ent only twelve years on the China coastD his !artner# "ames Matheson# !resently went home a1ter nineteen yearsD Aut other "ardines# other Mathesons and lateral descendants o1 Aoth clans were to remain in )ong *ong 1or generations.2 C Hong Kong Ay "an Morris# !. =--=I 0The o!ium-1ed China trade made 1ortunes 1or nglishmen# 5cotsmen# Parsis in Hndia. 8lso 1or 8mericans# 1rom 1amilies suAseNuently !rominent in Boston# Philadel!hia# Baltimore. Hn the time o1 the slave trade# it was to many 7ust another Ausiness# no worse than dealing in alcoholic s!irits. Hn the Baker LiArary at the )arvard +raduate 5chool o1 Business 8dministration# H read corres!ondence o1 Russell & Co.# the Aiggest 8merican o!ium-trading 1irm in the ,-GJs. 8mong its !artners then3 "ose!h Coolidge# ?oAert Bennett 6orAes# Warren 'elano# "r. P5ome were eventually invested in transcontinental railroads and industrial e<!ansion a1ter the Civil War.2 C 9ational +eogra!hic magaKine# 6eAruary ,I-:# The Poppy: For Good and Evil# !. ,EG-,E. 0PLHMn the +olden Triangle C the Burma-Thailand-Laos area o1 5outheast 8siaP4.5. government estimates say aAout /J !ercent o1 the heroin consumed in the 4.5. comes 1rom !o!!ies growing here# near hundreds o1 villages scattered at G#JJJ 1eet or higher# Ay the mountain !eo!le# as they&re called in Thailand C the Fao# )mong# and 8khaD the Lahu and Lisu. They !roduce rice to eat and o!ium 1or medicine and 1or cash# to !ut into silver Aars or ornaments# mayAe a good ri1le or a radio# or more !igs or a Au11alo. <tensive !o!!y growing Aegan here in the ,Ith centuryPTaking the o!ium to laAoratories C to Ae turned into mor!hine Aase or heroin C makes 1or a lot o1 coming and going Ay caravans o1 !ack mulesPThis is a hallmark o1 +olden Triangle tra11ic3 the involvement o1 siKaAle 1orces o1 armed outlaws. They&re 1rom minorities in revolt against the Burma government# such as 548# the 5han 4nited 8rmy. 8nd the *MT# or *uomintang soldiers C remnants o1 anti-Communist armies that le1t China a1ter Mao&s victory# now settled in northern Thailand.2 C 9ational +eogra!hic magaKine# 6eAruary ,I-:# The Poppy: For Good and Evil# !. ,=J

),cerpts from 2eorge !ush0 The 3nauthori4ed !iography 4y 5e4ster G8 Tarpley O Anton 7hait in& 7hapter E -< ull and BonesC The Racist @ightmare at Qale1 < ull and Bones//the Russell Trust Association//*as first esta4lished among the class graduating from Qale in $'::8 6ts founder *as 5illiam Huntington Russell of Middleto*n& 7onnecticut8 The Russell family *as the master of incalcula4le *ealth deriAed from the largest U8<8 criminal organiJation of the nineteenth centuryC Russell and 7ompany& the great opium syndicate8 There *as at that time a deep suspicion of& and national reAulsion against& freemasonry and secret organiJations in the United <tates& fostered in particular 4y the anti/masonic *ritings of former U8<8 !resident #ohn Quincy Adams8 Adams stressed that those *ho ta e oaths to politically po*erful international secret societies cannot 4e depended on for loyalty to a democratic repu4lic8 But the Russells *ere protected as part of the multiply/intermarried grouping of families then ruling 7onnecticut -see accompanying chart18 The 4lood/proud mem4ers of the Russell& !ierpont& )d*ards& Burr& Gris*old& ?ay& Alsop and Hu44ard families *ere prominent in the pro/British party *ithin the state8 Many of their sons *ould 4e among the mem4ers chosen for the < ull and Bones <ociety oAer the years8 The 4ac ground to < ull and Bones is a story of +pium and )mpire& and a 4itter struggle for political control oAer the ne* U8<8 repu4lic8 <amuel Russell& second cousin to Bones founder 5illiam H8& esta4lished Russell and 7ompany in $'.:8 6ts 4usiness *as to acBuire opium from Tur ey and smuggle it into 7hina& *here it *as strictly prohi4ited& under the armed protection of the British )mpire8 The prior& predominant American gang in this field had 4een the syndicate created 4y Thomas Handasyd !er ins of @e*4uryport& Massachusetts& an aggregation of the self/styled 24lue 4loods3H or Brahmins of BostonHs north shore8 ;orced out of the lucratiAe African slaAe trade 4y U8<8 la* and 7ari44ean slaAe reAolts& leaders of the 7a4ot& "o*ell& Higginson& ;or4es& 7ushing and <turgis families had married !er ins si4lings and children8 The !er ins opium syndicate made the fortune and esta4lished the po*er of these families8 By the $':%s& the Russells had 4ought out the !er ins syndicate and made 7onnecticut the primary center of the U8<8 opium rac et8 Massachusetts families -7oolidge& <turgis& ;or4es and ?elano1 joined 7onnecticut -Alsop1 and @e* Qor -"o*1 smuggler/ millionaires under the Russell auspices8 -7ertain of the prominent Boston opium families& such as 7a4ot and 5eld& did not affiliate directly *ith Russell& 7onnecticut and Qale& 4ut *ere identified instead *ith HarAard81 #ohn Quincy Adams and other patriots had fought these men for a Buarter century 4y the time the Russell Trust Association *as set up *ith its open pirate em4lem//< ull and Bones8 5ith British ties of family& shipping and merchant 4an ing& the old @e* )ngland Tories had continued their hostility to American independence after the ReAolutionary 5ar of $EE=/':8 These pretended conserAatiAe patriots proclaimed Thomas #effersonHs $'%$ presidential inauguration RRradical usurpation8HH The Massachusetts Tories -RR)sse, #untoHH1 joined *ith Vice !resident Aaron Burr& #r8 -a mem4er of the 7onnecticut )d*ards and !ierpont families1 and BurrHs cousin and la* partner Theodore ?*ight& in political moAes designed to 4rea up the United <tates and return it to British allegiance8 The U8<8 nationalist leader& former Treasury <ecretary Ale,ander Hamilton& e,posed the plan in $'%(8 Burr shot him to death in a duel& then led a famous a4ortiAe conspiracy to form a ne* empire in the <outh*est& *ith territory to 4e torn from the U8<8A8 and <panish Me,ico8 ;or the RR4lue 4loods&HH the romantic figure of Aaron Burr *as eAer after*ards the sym4ol of British feudal reAenge against the American repu4lic8 The 7onnecticut Tory families hosted the infamous Hartford 7onAention in $'$=& to*ard the end of the second *ar 4et*een the U8<8 and Britain -the 5ar of $'$.18 Their secessionist propaganda *as rendered impotent 4y AmericaHs defensiAe military Aictory8 This faction then retired from the open political arena& pursuing instead entirely priAate and coAert alliances *ith the British )mpire8 The incestuously intermarried Massachusetts and 7onnecticut families associated themselAes *ith the British )ast 6ndia 7ompany in the criminal opium traffic into 7hina8 These families made increased profits as partners and surrogates for the British during the 4loody $':0/(. +pium 5ar& the race *ar of British forces against 7hinese defenders8 <amuel and 5illiam Huntington Russell *ere Buiet& *ary 4uilders of their factionHs po*er8 An intimate colleague of opium gangster <amuel Russell *rote this a4out himC

5hile he liAed& no friend of his *ould Aenture to mention his name in print8 5hile in 7hina& he liAed for a4out t*enty/fiAe years almost as a hermit& hardly no*n outside of his factory Mthe 7anton *arehouse compoundN e,cept 4y the chosen fe* *ho enjoyed his intimacy& and 4y his good friend& HoBua M7hinese security director for the British )ast 6ndia 7ompanyN& 4ut studying commerce in its 4roadest sense& as *ell as its minutest details8 Returning home *ith *ell/earned *ealth he liAed hospita4ly in the midst of his family& and a small circle of intimates8 <corning *ords and pretensions from the 4ottom of his heart& he *as the truest and staunchest of friendsD hating notoriety& he could al*ays 4e a4solutely counted on for eAery good *or *hich did not inAolAe pu4licity8 The RussellsF < ull and Bones <ociety *as the most important of their domestic projects 2*hich did not inAolAe pu4licity83 A police/4lotter type reAie* of RussellHs organiJation *ill sho* *hy the secret order& though po*erful& *as not the uniBue organ of 2conspiracy3 for the U8<8 )astern )sta4lishment8 The follo*ing gentlemen *ere among RussellsH partnersC S Augustine Heard -$E'=/$'9'1C ship captain and pioneer U8<8 opium smuggler8 S #ohn 7leAe Green -$'%%/E=1C married to <arah Gris*oldD gaAe a fortune in opium profits to !rinceton UniAersity& financing three !rinceton 4uildings and four professorshipsD trustee of the !rinceton Theological <eminary for .= years8 S A4iel A44ott "o* -$'$$/0:1C his opium fortune financed the construction of the 7olum4ia UniAersity @e* Qor 7ity campusD father of 7olum4iaHs president <eth "o*8 S #ohn Murray ;or4es -$'$:/0'1C his opium millions financed the career of author Ralph 5aldo )merson& *ho married ;or4esHs daughter& and 4an rolled the esta4lishment of the Bell Telephone 7ompany& *hose first president *as ;or4esHs son8 S #oseph 7oolidgeC his Augustine Heard agency got P$% million yearly as surrogates for the <cottish dope/runners #ardine Matheson during the fighting in 7hinaD his son organiJed the United ;ruit 7ompanyD his grandson& Archi4ald 7ary 7oolidge& *as the founding e,ecutiAe officer of the Anglo/AmericansH 7ouncil on ;oreign Relations8 S 5arren ?elano& #r8C chief of Russell and 7o8 in 7antonD grandfather of U8<8 !resident ;ran lin ?elano RooseAelt8 S Russell <turgisC his grandson 4y the same name *as chairman of the Baring Ban in )ngland& financiers of the ;ar )ast opium trade8 <uch persons as #ohn 78 Green and A8A8 "o*& *hose names adorn Aarious 4uildings at !rinceton and 7olum4ia UniAersities& made little attempt to hide the criminal origin of their influential money8 <imilarly *ith the 7a4ots& the Higginsons and the 5elds for HarAard8 The secret groups at other colleges are analogous and closely related to QaleHs < ull and Bones8 !rinceton has its 2eating clu4s&3H especially 6Ay 7lu4 and 7ottage 7lu4& *hose oligarchical tradition runs from #onathan )d*ards and Aaron Burr through the ?ulles 4rothers8 At HarAard there is the ultra/4lue/4looded !orcelian - no*n also as the !orc or !ig clu41D Theodore RooseAelt 4ragged to the German Kaiser of his mem4ership thereD ;ran lin RooseAelt *as a mem4er of the slightly 2lo*er3 ;ly 7lu48

TTTT 26n this endeaAor& "atimer *as a4etted 4y young <amuel Russell of !roAidence& Rhode 6sland& *ho came to 7anton the same summer and set up the factory of Russell and 7ompany on Thirteen ;actories <treet8 He *ent inot 4usiness *ith an old 7hina hand& !hilip Ammidon& supercargo for the Aenera4le Baltimore house of Bro*n& Benson and 6Aes8 -Bro*n and 6Aes had the distinction& in $E09& to run the first crate of 6ndia opium straight from 7alcutta to Baltimore81 5hile Ammidon courted the !arsee drug shippers of 6ndia& Russell opened up fruitful areas of cooperation and corruption *ith #ardine/MathesonIThese *holly unscrupulous priAateers& to get around all inhi4itions posed 4y the Honoura4le 7ompanyFs goAernment/4ac ed monopoly& 4egan *ashing their opium sycee through the "ondon 4an accounts of the American firms& *hich *ere imperAious to 7ompany scrutiny8 Before long& 5ilcoc s and Russell *ere suita4ly esta4lished to join in on the lucratiAe mother/ship opium trade at "intin 6slandIThe )ast 6ndia 7ompanyFs opium monopoly *as on its last legsD #oseph #ardine *as in !arliament no*& lo44ying forcefully for the complete opening of trade to independent shippers& and eAen "ondonFs Aery prestigious ?ent and 7ompany had gone heaAily into opium carriageIAll the Americans agreed it *as time to ta e the money and clear out8 7ushing 4rought in some Boston relatiAes in $'.0& to ta e up the traces on his retirement8 The most promising of the lot *as young Ro4ert Bennett ;or4es& *ho replaced <turgis as supercargo for the "intin mother/ship operation8 His 4rother& Thomas Tunno ;or4es& too up the oAerall 4usiness from 7ushing& and *as soon after dro*ned in a typhoon8 He left a *ill handing oAer the !er ins com4ine to Russell and 7ompanyI7ushing and <amuel Russell *ere 4osom chums 4y no*& 4oth incredi4ly *ealthy and set to retire83 > Flo'ers in the !lood0 The tory of Opium 4y ?ean "atimer and #eff Gold4erg& p8 $E=/$E9

?ussell $ Co. headNuarters %third Auilding 1rom le1t# 1ront row( on the Bund in 5hanghai %上海(# Communist China. %Photo3 6lickr(

0'utch sailors introduced toAacco smoking to 6ormosa %now Taiwan( in the ,EJJsD Chinese colonists there mi<ed toAacco with o!ium and introduced that mi<ture to the mainland# where toAacco was dro!!ed and o!ium smoked along. This Aecame crucial in the China trade. 6oreigners wanted Chinese silks and teaD the em!eror !ermitted them to come# to the !ort o1 Canton C Aut Chinese demand 1or 1oreign goods was small# so traders had to !ay with silver# increasingly e<!ensive# a !roAlem. The solution was o!ium# Arought Ay 8merican shi!s 1rom Turkey Ay Britishers 1rom Hndia. The em!eror in Peking had 1orAidden o!ium# Aut mandarins at Canton could Ae !ersuadedP;!ium smoking s!read# and the mandarins Aecame tougher# so the 1oreigners moored storage shi!s in the mouth o1 the Pearl ?iver# 7ust outside Chinese 7urisdiction. 8s more o!ium !oured in# Chinese smugglers had to !ay 1or it with more and more silver. 6or the !roduct o1 the !o!!y kee!s increasing the demand 1or it. 8nd so the #ri"ish $as" % dia Compa & grew ever more !o!!ies in Hndia# 1or o!ium to Ae auctioned in Calcutta. Then# swi1t o!ium cli!!ers carried it G#=JJ miles to those storage shi!s o11 Canton. 8Aout a si<th o1 Hndia&s revenues and# via Britain&s im!ort ta< on tea# much o1 the money 1or the ?oyal 9avy came 1rom the o!ium trade. 8 British historian says it was !roAaAly the largest commerce o1 its time in any commodity. 8s the 1lood o1 o!ium im!orts ke!t rising# China was drained o1 silver# and the em!eror decreed drastic countermeasures. )e sent an incorru!tiAle commissioner# Lin Tse-hsu# who took the 1oreign merchants in Canton hostage until they turned over all their stored o!ium. )e destroyed it. Thereu!on the British sent warshi!s and troo!s. The Chinese de1enders were crushed. ?esults o1 the 1ate1ul ;!ium War3 6irst o11# the Treaty o1 9anking# ,-./# giving )ong *ong to Britain# !lus vast indemnity !ayments and the o!ening o1 more !orts to 1oreigners. ventually# 1oreign-ruled enclaves# or 0concessions2 C British# 6rench# +erman. 8nd lasting Aitterness in China C a virulent ingredient in the social and !olitical 1erment that would lead to one o1 the most momentous u!heavals o1 the /J th century. C 9ational +eogra!hic magaKine# 6eAruary ,I-:# The Po!!y3 6or +ood and vil# !. ,E/-,EG

'romi e " (ale )radua"es a d Their O**upa"io duri + "he ,irs" Opium War (1839-1842)

William Wolcott llsworth B.8. Fale ,-,J +overnor o1 Connecticut %,-G--,-./(

)enry Baldwin B.8. Fale ,=I= "ustice o1 the 4.5. 5u!reme Court %,-GJ-,-..(

"ohn C. Calhoun B.8. Fale ,-J. 4.5. 5enator %'-5outh Carolina# ,-G/-,-.G# ,-.:-,-:J(

6rancis +ranger B.8. Fale ,-,, Postmaster +eneral o1 the 4.5. %,-.,(D 4.5. Congressman %Whig-9ew Fork# ,-G:-,-G=# ,-GI,-.,# ,-.,-,-.G(

?oger 5herman Baldwin B.8. Fale ,-,, MemAer o1 Connecticut 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!. %,-.J-,-.,(

8sher ?oAAins B.8. Fale ,=-/ 4.5. 5enator %Whig-?hode Hsland# ,-/:-,-GI(

"aAeK W. )untington B.8. Fale ,-JE 4.5. 5enator %W-Conn.# ,-.J-,-.=(

Hsaac Cha!man Bates B.8. Fale ,-J/ 4.5. 5enator %Whig-Mass.# ,-.,-,-.:(

5amuel 5. Phel!s B.8. Fale ,-,, 4.5. 5enator %Whig-Vermont# ,-GI,-:,# ,-:G-,-:.(

Truman 5mith B.8. Fale ,-,: 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Connecticut# ,-GI,-.G# ,-.:-,-.I(

8ugustus B. Longstreet B.8. Fale ,-,G President o1 mory College L8tlanta# +eorgiaM %,-.J-,-.-(

8Araham B. )asArouck B.8. Fale ,-,J President o1 ?utgers College %,-.J-,-:J(

?ev. "eremiah 'ay B 8. Fale ,=I: President o1 Fale 4niversity %,-,=-,-.E(

)eman )um!hrey B.8. Fale ,-J: President o1 8mherst College %,-/G-,-.:(

William Ma<well B.8. Fale ,-J/ President o1 )am!den5ydney College LVirginiaM %,-G--,-.:(

"ulius ?ockwell B.8. Fale ,-/E Massachusetts 5tate Bank Commissioner %,-G--,-.J(

"ohn 'avis B.8. Fale ,-,/ 4.5. 5enator %WhigMassachusetts# ,-G:,-.,# ,-.:-,-:G(

Lyman Beecher B.8. Fale ,=I= President o1 Lane Theological 5eminary LCincinnatiM %,-G/-,-:J(

"ohn Cotton 5mith B.8. Fale ,=-G President o1 the 8merican BiAle 5ociety %,-G,-,-.:(

'avid 'aggett B.8. Fale ,=-G Pro1essor o1 Law at Fale 4niversity %,-/E-,-.-(

'romi e " (ale )radua"es a d -ar.ard )radua"es a d Their O**upa"io duri + "he /e*o d Opium War (1801-1812)

)enry Cham!ion 'eming B.8. Fale ,-GE Mayor o1 )art1ord# Connecticut %,-:.-,-:-# ,-EJ-,-E/(D !em3er o4 /5ull & #o es

"ose!h Parrish Thom!son B.8. Fale ,-GPastor o1 the Broadway TaAernacle in 9ew Fork City %,-.:-,-=,(D !em3er o4 /5ull & #o es

)enry ?ootes "ackson B.8. Fale ,-GI 4.5. Minister to 8ustrian m!ire %,-:.-,-:-(D !em3er o4 /5ull & #o es

;rris 5. 6erry B.8. Fale ,-.. 4.5. Congressman %?e!uAlican-Connecticut# ,-:I-,-E,(D !em3er o4 /5ull & #o es

?ichard Taylor B.8. Fale ,-.: Louisiana 5tate 5enator %,-:E-,-E,(D !em3er o4 /5ull & #o es

8ugustus B. Longstreet B.8. Fale ,-,G President o1 4niversity o1 5outh Carolina %,-:=-,-E,(

?ev. Theodore 'wight Woolsey B.8. Fale ,-/J President o1 Fale 4niversity %,-.E-,-=,(

William Warner )o!!in B.8. Fale ,-/+overnor o1 ?hode Hsland %,-:.-,-:=(

6rederick 8.P. Barnard B.8. Fale ,-/President o1 4niversity o1 Mississi!!i %,-:E-,-:-(

Trusten Polk B.8. Fale ,-G, 4.5. 5enator %'-Missouri# ,-:=-,-E/(

Lemuel 5haw B.8. )arvard ,-JJ Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Massachusetts %,-GJ-,-EJ(

"ames Walker B.8. )arvard ,-,. President o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-:G-,-EJ(

CaleA Cushing B.8. )arvard ,-,= 4.5. 8ttorney +eneral %,-:G-,-:=(

Charles 5umner B.8. )arvard ,-GJ 4.5. 5enator %?-Massachusetts# ,-:,-,-=.(

William 8ugustus 5tearns B.8. )arvard ,-/= President o1 8mherst College %,-:.-,-=E(

'romi e " -ar.ard )radua"es a d Their O**upa"io duri + "he ,irs" Opium War (1839-1842)

+eorge Bancro1t B.8. )arvard ,-,=D Ph.'. +ottingen ,-/J Collector o1 the Port o1 Boston %,-G--,-.,(

CaleA Cushing B.8. )arvard ,-,= 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G:-,-.G(

"ose!h Coolidge B.8. )arvard ,-,= Partner o1 ?ussell $ Co. o!ium syndicate %,-G.-,-.J(

5amuel 8. liot B.8. )arvard ,-,= Mayor o1 Boston %,-G=-,-GI(

8lva Woods B.8. )arvard ,-,= inaugural President o1 4niversity o1 8laAama %,-G,-,-G=(

"ohn Quincy 8dams B.8. )arvard ,=-= 4.5. Congressman %WhigMass.# ,-G,-,-.-(D ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-GJ-,-.-(

"osiah Quincy B.8. )arvard ,=IJ President o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-/I-,-.:(

dward verett B.8. )arvard ,-,, Ph.'. +ottingen ,-,= 4.5. Minister to +reat Britain %,-.,-,-.:(D +ov. o1 Massachusetts %,-GE-,-.J(

?oAert Charles Winthro! B.8. )arvard ,-/4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-.J-,-./# ,-./-,-:J(

Leverett 5altonstall B.8. )arvard ,-J/ 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G--,-.G(

?oAert ?antoul "r. B.8. )arvard ,-/E MemAer o1 Massachusetts 5tate Board o1 ducation %,-G=-,-./(

Lemuel 5haw B.8. )arvard ,-JJ Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Massachusetts %,-GJ-,-EJ(

"ose!h 5tory B.8. )arvard ,=I"ustice o1 4.5. 5u!reme Court %,-,,-,-.:(

?oAert W. Barnwell B.8. )arvard ,-/, President o1 4niversity o1 5outh Carolina %,-G:-,-.,(

Charles +ordon 8therton B.8. )arvard ,-// 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew )am!shire# ,-G=-,-.G(

Fale 4niversity +raduates and Their ;ccu!ation during the 6irst ;!ium War %,-GI-,-./( 4.5. +overnment ;11icials3 +eorge dmund Badger %B.8. ,-,G( C 5ecretary o1 the 9avy %,-.,( )enry L. llsworth %B.8. ,-,J( C 4.5. Commissioner o1 Patents %,-G:-,-.:( )enry Baldwin %B.8. ,=I=( C "ustice o1 the 4.5. 5u!reme Court %,-GJ-,-..( 6rancis +ranger %B.8. ,-,,( C Postmaster +eneral o1 the 4.5. %,-.,(D 4.5. Congressman %Whig-9ew Fork# ,-G:-,-G=# ,-GI-,-.,# ,-.,-.G( William )enry "ones %B.8. ,=IE( C Postmaster o1 9ew )aven# Connecticut %May G# ,-,.- "anuary ,-# ,-./( +eorge C. Woodru11 %B.8. ,-/:( C Postmaster o1 Litch1ield# Connecticut %"anuary .# ,-G/-"anuary /=# ,-./# 5e!t. /# ,-./-5e!t. /-# ,-.E( "ohn C. Calhoun %B.8. ,-J.( C 4.5. 5enator %'emocrat-5outh Carolina# ,-G/-,-.G# ,-.:-,-:J( Thaddeus Betts %B.8. ,-J=( C 4.5. 5enator %Whig-Connecticut# ,-GI-,-.J( "aAeK Williams )untington %B.8. ,-JE( C 4.5. 5enator %Whig-Connecticut# ,-.J-,-.=( Hsaac Cha!man Bates %B.8. ,-J/( C 4.5. 5enator %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-.,-,-.:( "ohn 'avis %B.8. ,-,/( C 4.5. 5enator %W@9?-Massachusetts# ,-G:-,-.,# ,-.:-,-:G(D +overnor o1 Massachusetts %,-G.-,-G:# ,-.,-,-.G( 5amuel 5. Phel!s %B.8. ,-,,( C 4.5. 5enator %Whig-Vermont# ,-GI-,-:,# ,-:G-,-:.( 8sher ?oAAins %B.8. ,=-/( C 4.5. 5enator %8nti-"acksonian@Whig-?hode Hsland# ,-/:-,-GI(D MemAer o1 the ?hode Hsland 5tate 8ssemAly %,-,--,-/:# ,-.J-,-.,(D Postmaster o1 9ew!ort# ?hode Hsland %,-.,-,-.:( "ose!h TrumAull %B.8. ,-J,( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %Whig-Connecticut# ,-G.-,-G:# ,-GI-,-.G( William W. Boardman %B.8. ,-,/( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %Whig-Connecticut# ,-.J-,-.G( Truman 5mith %B.8. ,-,:( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %Whig-Connecticut# ,-GI-,-.G# ,-.:-,-.I( Thomas Burr ;sAorne %B.8. ,-,=( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %Whig-Connecticut# ,-GI-,-.G( "ohn )all Brockway %B.8. ,-/J( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %Whig-Connecticut# ,-GI-,-.G( Christo!her Morgan %B.8. ,-/-( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %Whig-9ew Fork# ,-GI-,-.G( ?ichard 'avid 'avis %B.8. ,-,-( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %'emocrat-9ew Fork# ,-.,-,-.:( ;smyn Baker %B.8. ,-//( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-.J-,-.:( William B. Calhoun %B.8. ,-,.( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G:-,-.G( William )enry Washington %B.8. ,-G.# 5$B ,-G.( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %Whig-9orth Carolina# ,-.,-,-.G( Hsaac dward )olmes %B.8. ,-,:( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %'emocrat-5outh Carolina# ,-GI-,-:,( +raham )urd Cha!in %B.8. ,-,I( C MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %"acksonian-9ew Fork# ,-G:-,-G=( 5tate and Local +overnment ;11icials3 William Wolcott llsworth %B.8. ,-,J( C +overnor o1 Connecticut %,-G--,-./( Charles )awley %B.8. ,-,G( C Lieutenant +overnor o1 Connecticut %,-G--,-./( ?oyal ?al!h )inman %B.8. ,-J.( C 5ecretary o1 5tate o1 Connecticut %,-G:-,-./( AeneKer Learned %B.8. ,=I-( C Connecticut 5tate Bank Commissioner %,-GI( Charles "ohnson McCurdy %B.8. ,-,=( C 5!eaker o1 the Connecticut 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-.J-,-.,# ,-..( Thomas *imAerly Brace %B.8. ,-J,( C Mayor o1 )art1ord# Connecticut %,-.J-,-.G(D President o1 8etna Hnsurance Com!any %,-//-,-EJ( 5amuel ". )itchcock %B.8. ,-JI( C Mayor o1 9ew )aven# Connecticut %,-GI-,-./( ?al!h H. Hngersoll %B.8. ,-J-( C Connecticut 5tateQs 8ttorney 1or 9ew )aven County %,-GG-,-.:( li!halet 5wi1t %B.8. ,-J.( C MemAer o1 Connecticut 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-GI-,-.,# ,-..-,-.:( ?oger 5herman Baldwin %B.8. ,-,,( C MemAer o1 Connecticut 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-.J-,-.,( 8Ai7ah Catlin %B.8. ,-/:( C MemAer o1 Connecticut 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-G=-,-GI# ,-:J-,-:,# ,-E,-,-E/# ,-E:# ,-=.# ,-=I( Thomas 5cott Williams %B.8. ,=I.( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Connecticut %,-G.-,-.=( ?oger Minott 5herman %B.8. ,=I/( C "udge o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Connecticut %,-GI-,-./( William L. 5torrs %B.8. ,-,.( C "udge o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Connecticut %,-.J-,-:E(D MemAer o1 the 4.5. )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %8nti"acksonian-Connecticut# ,-/I-,-GG# ,-GI-,-.J( Willis )all %B.8. ,-/.( C 8ttorney +eneral o1 9ew Fork %,-GI-,-./( 5umner ly %B.8. ,-J.( C 9ew Fork 5tate 5enator %,-.J-,-.G( 6rederick 8. Tallmadge %B.8. ,-,,( C 9ew Fork 5tate 5enator %,-G=-,-.J(D ?ecorder o1 the City o1 9ew Fork %,-.,-,-.E( William 8AAott Moseley %B.8. ,-,E( C9ew Fork 5tate 5enator %,-G--,-.,(D MemAer o1 9ew Fork 5tate 8ssemAly %,-G:( )enry Wyllys Taylor %B.8. ,-,E( C MemAer o1 9ew Fork 5tate 8ssemAly %,-GE-,-GI( "ohn Milton )olley %B.8. ,-//( C MemAer o1 9ew Fork 5tate 8ssemAly %,-G--,-.,( Charles Kra Clarke %B.8. ,-JI( C MemAer o1 9ew Fork 5tate 8ssemAly %,-GI-,-.J( 5amuel "ones "r. %B.8. ,=IJ( C Chie1 "udge o1 the 5u!erior Court o1 9ew Fork City %,-/--,-.=( Thomas "ackson ;akley %B.8. ,-J,( C "udge o1 the 5u!erior Court o1 9ew Fork City %,-/--,-.=( CaleA 5mith Woodhull %B.8. ,-,/( C MemAer o1 the Common Council o1 9ew Fork City %,-GE-,-..( "ustin 'winell %B.8. ,-J-( C 'istrict 8ttorney o1 Madison County# 9ew Fork Lnear 5yracuseM %,-G=-,-.:( +eorge 8shmun %B.8. ,-/G( C 5!eaker %,-.,( and MemAer %,-GG# ,-G:-,-GE# ,-G-# ,-.,( o1 Massachusetts 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives "ulius ?ockwell %B.8. ,-/E( C Massachusetts 5tate Bank Commissioner %,-G--.J(D MemAer o1 Massachusetts 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!. %,-G.-G-( "ohn Wallace )ouston %B.8. ,-G.# 5$B ,-G.( C 5ecretary o1 5tate o1 'elaware %,-.,-,-..( "ohn Myers 6elder %B.8. ,-J.( C 5outh Carolina 5tate 5enator %,-,E-,-/J# ,-.J-,-:,( "ames )o!kins 8dams %B.8. ,-G,( C MemAer o1 the 5outh Carolina 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-G.-,-G=# ,-.J-,-.,# ,-.--,-.I( ?u1us Paine 5!alding %B.8. ,-,=( C MemAer o1 the ;hio 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-GI-,-./( William "essu! %B.8. ,-,:( C Presiding "udge o1 the ,,th "udicial 'istrict o1 Pennsylvania %,-G--,-:,( William Warner )o!!in %B.8. ,-/-( C MemAer o1 the Common Council o1 Providence# ?hode Hsland %,-G--,-./( College Presidents and Pro1essors3 ?ev. "eremiah 'ay %B 8. ,=I:( C President o1 Fale 4niversity %,-,=-,-.E( )eman )um!hrey %B.8. ,-J:( C President o1 8mherst College %,-/G-,-.:( 5imeon 9orth %B.8. ,-/:# valedictorian( C President o1 )amilton College %,-GI-,-:=(D Pro1essor o1 +reek at )amilton College %,-/I-,-GI(

William Ma<well %B.8. ,-J/( C President o1 )am!den-5ydney College %,-G--,-.:(D MemAer o1 Virginia 5tate 5enate %,-G/-,-G-( )ector )um!hreys %B.8. ,-,-( C President o1 5t. "ohn&s College L8nna!olis# MarylandM %,-G,-,-:=( +eorge dmond Pierce %B.8. ,-,E( C President o1 Western ?eserve 4niversity LCleveland# ;hioM %,-G.-,-::( 8Araham B. )asArouck %B.8. ,-,J( C President o1 ?utgers College %,-.J-,-:J( 8ugustus Baldwin Longstreet %B.8. ,-,G( C President o1 mory College L8tlanta# +eorgiaM %,-.J-,-.-( "ohn ). Lathro! %B.8. ,-,I( C inaugural President o1 4niversity o1 Missouri %,-.,-,-.I# ,-E:-,-EE( leaKar Thom!son 6itch %B.8. ,-,J( C Pro1essor o1 'ivinity at Fale 4niversity %,-,=-,-:/( 'avid 'aggett %B.8. ,=-G( C Pro1essor o1 Law at Fale 4niversity %,-/E-,-.-( "osiah Willard +iAAs %B.8. ,-JI( C Pro1essor o1 5acred Literature at Fale 4niversity %,-/E-,-E,(D LiArarian o1 Fale 4niversity %,-/.-,-.G( ?ev. Theodore 'wight Woolsey %B.8. ,-/J# valedictorian( C Pro1essor o1 +reek Language and Literature at Fale 4niversity %,-G,-,-:,( "ames Luce *ingsley %B.8. ,=II( C Pro1essor o1 Latin Language and Literature at Fale 4niversity %,-G,-,-:,( William 8ugustus Larned %B.8. ,-/E( C Pro1essor o1 ?hetoric and nglish Literature at Fale 4niversity %,-GI-,-E/( Chauncey 8llen +oodrich %B.8. ,-,J( C Pro1essor o1 ?hetoric and nglish Literature at Fale 4niversity %,-,=-,-GI(D Pro1essor o1 Pastoral Charge at Fale 4niversity %,-GI-,-EJ( Ben7amin 5illiman %B.8. ,=IE( C Pro1essor o1 Chemistry# Mineralogy# and +eology at Fale 4niversity %,-J/-,-E.( William Tully %B.8. ,-JE( C Pro1essor o1 Medicine and Thera!eutics at Fale 4niversity %,-/I-,-./( Theodore 5trong %B.8. ,-,/( C Pro1essor o1 Mathematics and 9atural Philoso!hy at ?utgers College L9ew "erseyM %,-/=-,-E/( 6rederick 8.P. Barnard %B.8. ,-/-( C Pro1essor o1 Mathematics and 9atural Philoso!hy at 4niversity o1 8laAama %,-G--,-.I( lisha Mitchell %B.8. ,-,G( C Pro1essor o1 Chemistry# Mineralogy# and +eology at 4niversity o1 9orth Carolina %,-/:-,-:=( 5amuel ). 'ickson %B.8. ,-,.( C Pro1essor o1 Medicine at the Medical College o1 5outh Carolina LCharlestonM %,-GG-,-.=# ,-:J-,-:-( Wyllys Warner %B.8. ,-/E( C Treasurer o1 Fale 4niversity %,-GG-,-:/( liKur +oodrich %B.8. ,==I( C 5ecretary o1 Fale 4niversity %,-,E-,-.E( dward 'ickinson %B.8. ,-/G( C Treasurer o1 8mherst College %,-G:-,-=G(D 1ather o1 !oet mily 'ickinson "ose!h Vaill "r. %B.8. ,-,,( C Trustee o1 8mherst College %,-/,-,-EI( 5amuel )uAAard %B.8. ,-J/( C Trustee o1 'artmouth College %,-/--,-.=(D "udge o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Massachusetts %,-./-,-.=( Redekiah 5mith Barstow %B.8. ,-,G( C Trustee o1 'artmouth College %,-G.-,-=,( 5amuel Bulkley ?uggles %B.8. ,-,.( C Trustee o1 ColumAia 4niversity %,-GE-,--,(D 6ounder o1 Bank o1 Commerce L9ew Fork CityM in ,-GI Timothy Mather Cooley %B.8. ,=I/( C Trustee o1 Williams College %,-,/-,-:I(D Vice President o1 Williams College %,-.E-,-:I( 5amuel 5he!ard %B.8. ,=IG( C Vice President o1 Williams College %,-G.-,-.E( Church Leaders3 William )eathcote 'eLancey %B.8. ,-,=( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! 1or the !isco!al 'iocese o1 Western 9ew Fork %,-GI-,-E:( Christo!her dwards +adsden %B.8. ,-J.( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! 1or the !isco!al 'iocese o1 5outh Carolina %,-.J-,-:G( +ardiner 5!ring %B.8. ,-J:( C Pastor o1 Brick PresAyterian Church in 9ew Fork City %,-,J-,-=G( "ohn Pier!ont %B.8. ,-J.( C Minister o1 )ollis 5treet Church in Boston %,-,I-,-.:( +eorge Washington Blagden %B.8. ,-/G( C Pastor o1 ;ld 5outh Church in Boston %,-GE-,-=/(D Pastor o1 5alem 5treet %Congregational( Church in Boston %,-GJ-,-GE( "ohn Todd %B.8. ,-//( C Pastor o1 the 6irst Congregational Church in Philadel!hia %,-GE-,-.,( Thomas T. Waterman %B.8. ,-//( C Pastor o1 the 6i1th PresAyterian Church in Philadel!hia %,-G=-,-.G(D Pastor o1 ?ichmond 5treet Congregational Church in Providence# ?hode Hsland %,-/E-,-GE(D Pastor o1 6ourth Congregational Church in Providence# ?.H. %,-.G-,-:/( ?ichard 'eCharms %B.8. ,-/E( C Minister o1 the 9ew "erusalem Church in Philadel!hia %,-GI-,-..( )enry 8ugustus Boardman %B.8. ,-/I( C Pastor o1 Tenth PresAyterian Church o1 Philadel!hia %,-GG-,-=E( 9athaniel 5heldon Wheaton %B.8. ,-,.( C ?ector o1 Christ Church in 9ew ;rleans# Louisiana %,-G=-,-..( "ohn Chester Backus %B.8. ,-GJ( C Pastor o1 the 6irst PresAyterian Church in Baltimore# Maryland %,-GE-,-=:( "ames Woods McLane %B.8. ,-/I( C Minister o1 the Madison 5treet PresAyterian Church in 9ew Fork City %,-GE-,-..( Lyman Beecher %B.8. ,=I=( C Minister o1 5econd PresAyterian Church in Cincinnati# ;hio %,-G/-,-:J(D President o1 Lane Theological 5eminary LCincinnatiM %,-G/-,-:J(D 1ather o1 )arriet Beecher 5towe %author o1 Un le To!"s #a$in( William Buell 5!rague %B.8. ,-,:( C Minister o1 5econd PresAyterian Church in 8lAany# 9ew Fork %,-/I-,-EI( 8Ael Mc wen %B.8. ,-J.( C Pastor o1 6irst Congregational Church in 9ew London# Connecticut %,-JE-,-:.( Thomas Punderson %B.8. ,-J.( C Pastor o1 the Congregational Church in )untington# Connecticut %,-,--,-..( Leonard Bacon %B.8. ,-/J( C Minister o1 6irst Congregational Church in 9ew )aven# Connecticut %,-/:-,-EE( )iram Phel!s 8rms %B.8. ,-/.( C Pastor o1 6irst %Congregational( Church o1 9orwich# Connecticut %,-GE-,-=G( )orace Bushnell %B.8. ,-/=( C Pastor o1 9orth Church in )art1ord# Connecticut %,-GG-,-:I( Leverett +riggs %B.8. ,-/I( C Pastor o1 the Congregational Church in 9orth )aven# Connecticut %,-GG-,-.:( William Bouton Weed %B.8. ,-GJ( C Pastor o1 6irst Congregational Church in 5trat1ord# Connecticut %,-GI-,-::( Lyman )otchkiss 8twater %B.8. ,-G,( C Pastor o1 6irst Congregational Church in 6air1ield# Connecticut %,-G:-,-:.( Leonard Withington %B.8. ,-,.( C Pastor o1 6irst Congregational Church in 9ewAury# Massachusetts %,-,E-,-:-( ?oger Conant )atch %B.8. ,-,:( C Pastor o1 the Congregational Church in Warwick# Massachusetts %,-GE-,-:/( Milton Badger %B.8. ,-/G( C Pastor o1 the 5outh Congregational Church in 8ndover# Massachusetts %,-/--,-.:( Charles ?ockwell %B.8. ,-/E( C Pastor o1 the Congregational Church in Chatham# Massachusetts %,-GI-,-.:( "ohn 'erAy 5mith %B.8. ,-G/( C Pastor o1 the 5econd Congregational Church in Charlemont# Massachusetts %,-GI-,-..( William Hves Budington %B.8. ,-G.( C Pastor o1 6irst %Congregational( Church in Charlestown# Massachusetts %,-.J-,-:.( "ohn Lord Taylor %B.8. ,-G:( C Pastor o1 the 5outh Congregational Church in 8ndover# Massachusetts %,-GI-,-:/( William Theodore 'wight %B.8. ,-,G( C Pastor o1 Third Congregational Church in Portland# Maine %"une E# ,-G/-May .# ,-E.( "ohn MaltAy %B.8. ,-//( C Pastor o1 )ammond 5treet Church in Bangor# Maine %,-G.-,-EJ( ;thers3 "ames +adsden %B.8. ,-JE( C President o1 Louisville# Cincinnati# $ Charleston ?ailroad %,-.J-,-:J( Thomas 'unla! %B.8. ,-,/( C President o1 4nited 5tates Bank o1 Pennsylvania L1ormerly 5econd Bank o1 the 4nited 5tatesM %,-GI-,-.,( li7ah )uAAard %B.8. ,=I:( C President o1 Middletown Bank in Middletown# Connecticut %,-/.-,-.E( "ohn Cotton 5mith %B.8. ,=-G( C President o1 the 8merican BiAle 5ociety %,-G,-,-.:( "ohn Marsh "r. %B.8. ,-J.( C 5ecretary o1 8merican Tem!erance 4nion %,-GE-,-E:(

)arvard 4niversity +raduates and Their ;ccu!ation during the 6irst ;!ium War %,-GI-,-./( Businessmen3 "ose!h Coolidge %B.8. ,-,=( C Partner o1 ?ussell $ Com!any o!ium syndicate Ldrug dealersM in Canton# China %,-G.-,-.J( ?ussell 5turgis %B.8. ,-/G( C Partner o1 ?ussell $ Com!any o!ium syndicate Ldrug dealersM in Canton# China +overnment ;11icials3 Leonard "arvis %B.8. ,-JJ( C 4.5. Congressman %"acksonian-Maine# ,-/I-,-G=(D 9aval 8gent 1or the Port o1 Boston %,-G--,-.,( "ohn Quincy 8dams %B.8. ,=-=( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G,-,-.-(D ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-GJ-,-.-( William 5. )astings %B.8. ,-,=( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G=-,-./( CaleA Cushing %B.8. ,-,=( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G:-,-.G( Leverett 5altonstall %B.8. ,-J/( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G--,-.G(D Mayor o1 5alem# Massachusetts %,-GE-,-G-( Levi Lincoln "r. %B.8. ,-J/( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G.-,-.,(D Collector o1 the Port o1 Boston %,-.,-,-.G(D ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-/:-,-:/( ?oAert Charles Winthro! %B.8. ,-/-( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-.J-,-./# ,-./-,-:J( Charles +ordon 8therton %B.8. ,-//( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew )am!shire# ,-G=-,-.G( 5amuel )oar %B.8. ,-J/( C 4.5. Congressman %8nti-"acksonian-Massachusetts# ,-G:-,-G=( "ose!h 5tory %B.8. ,=I-( C "ustice o1 the 4.5. 5u!reme Court %,-,,-,-.:( "ohn 'avis %B.8. ,=-,( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or Massachusetts %,-J,-,-.,( li7ah Paine %B.8. ,=-,( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or Vermont %,-J,-,-./( 8shur Ware %B.8. ,-J.( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or Maine %,-//-,-EE( Willard )all %B.8. ,=II( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or 'elaware %,-/G-,-=,( 6ranklin 'e<ter %B.8. ,-,/( C 4.5. 8ttorney 1or the 'istrict o1 Massachusetts %,-.,-,-.:( +orham Parks %B.8. ,-,G( C 4nited 5tates Marshal 1or the 'istrict o1 Maine %,-G--,-.,( +eorge Bancro1t %B.8. ,-,=( C Collector o1 the Port o1 Boston %,-G--,-.,( dward verett %B.8. ,-,,( C +overnor o1 Massachusetts %,-GE-,-.J(D 4.5. Minister to +reat Britain %,-.,-,-.:(D ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-/=-,-.=# ,-.I-,-:.# ,-E/-,-E:( "ames Trecothick 8ustin %B.8. ,-J/( C 8ttorney +eneral o1 Massachusetts %,-G/-,-.G(D ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-/E-,-:G( Lemuel 5haw %B.8. ,-JJ( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Massachusetts %,-GJ-,-EJ( 5amuel 8. liot %B.8. ,-,=( C Mayor o1 Boston %,-G=-,-GI( "onathan Cha!man %B.8. ,-/:( C Mayor o1 Boston %,-.J-,-./( 5te!hen C. Philli!s %B.8. ,-,I( C Mayor o1 5alem# Massachusetts %,-G--,-./( Willard Philli!s %B.8. ,-,J( C ProAate "udge 1or 5u11olk County# Massachusetts LBostonM %,-GI-,-.=(D Chairman o1 Commission to Codi1y Criminal Law o1 Massachusetts %,-G=-,-./(D PuAlisher o1 9ew ngland +ala<y Lnews!a!erM %,-/--,-G.( 'aniel Putnam *ing %B.8. ,-/G( C Massachusetts 5tate 5enator %,-G--,-.,(D President o1 the Massachusetts 5tate 5enate %,-.J( +eorge T. 'avis %B.8. ,-/I( C Massachusetts 5tate 5enator %,-GI-,-.J( Charles W. 4!ham %B.8. ,-/,( C MemAer o1 the Massachusetts 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-.J-,-.I# ,-:I-,-EJ( 5amuel ). Walley %B.8. ,-/E( C MemAer o1 the Massachusetts 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-GE# ,-.J-,-.E( Charles Paine %B.8. ,-/J( C +overnor o1 Vermont %,-.,-,-.G( dward *ent %B.8. ,-/,( C +overnor o1 Maine %,-G--,-GI# ,-.,-,-./( lisha ?eynolds Potter %B.8. ,-GJ( C MemAer o1 ?hode Hsland 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-G--,-.J( )enry 8. Bullard %B.8. ,-J=( C "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Louisiana %,-G.-,-.E( ducators and "ournalists3 "osiah Quincy %B.8. ,=IJ( C President o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-/I-,-.:( ?oAert Woodward Barnwell %B.8. ,-/,( C President o1 4niversity o1 5outh Carolina %,-G:-,-.,( 5te!hen Cha!in %B.8. ,-J.( C President o1 +eorge Washington 4niversity L1ormerly ColumAian CollegeM %,-/--,-.,( +eorge ?a!all 9oyes %B.8. ,-,-( C )ancock Pro1essor o1 )eArew at )arvard 4niversity %,-.J-,-E-( Walter Channing %B.8. ,-J-D M.'. )arvard ,-,/( C 'ean o1 )arvard Medical 5chool %,-,I-,-.=( "ohn Collins Warren %B.8. ,=I=# valedictorian( C Pro1essor o1 8natomy and 5urgery at )arvard Medical 5chool %,-,:-,-.=(D President o1 Massachusetts Tem!erance 5ociety %,-/=-,-:E( ?oAert ?antoul "r. %B.8. ,-/E( C MemAer o1 the Massachusetts 5tate Board o1 ducation %,-G=-,-./( Thomas 5herwin %B.8. ,-/:( C Princi!al o1 nglish )igh 5chool in Boston %,-G=-,-EI( William Ware %B.8. ,-,E( C ditor and PuAlisher o1 #hristian E%a!iner Lnews!a!er in BostonM %,-GI-,-..( 5amuel Treat %B.8. ,-G=( C ditor o1 St& 'ouis Union Lnews!a!er in 5t. Louis# MissouriM %,-.,-,-.I( +eorge Barrell merson %B.8. ,-,=( C President o1 Boston 5ociety o1 9atural )istory %,-G=-,-.G( Church Leaders3 William llery Channing %B.8. ,=I-( C Pastor o1 6ederal 5treet Church in Boston %,-JG-,-./( Charles Lowell %B.8. ,-JJ( C Pastor o1 West LCongregationalM Church in Boston %,-JE-,-E,( 6rancis Parkman %B.8. ,-J=( C Pastor o1 9ew 9orth Church in Boston %,-,G-,-.I( 9athaniel Langdon 6rothingham %B.8. ,-,,( C Pastor o1 6irst LCongregationalM Church o1 Boston %,-,:-,-:J( 6rancis William Pitt +reenwood %B.8. ,-,.( C Minister o1 *ing&s Cha!el in Boston %,-/.-,-.G( 8le<ander Foung %B.8. ,-/J( C Pastor o1 9ew 5outh Church in Boston %,-/:-,-:.(D ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-G=-,-:G( Kra 5tiles +annett %B.8. ,-/J( C Pastor o1 6ederal 5treet Church in Boston %,-/.-,-=,(D ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niv. %,-G:-,-:/# ,-:G-,-:-( 9ehemiah 8dams %B.8. ,-/E( C Pastor o1 4nion Congregational L sse< 5treetM Church in Boston %,-G.-,-=-( Chandler ?oAAins %B.8. ,-/I( C Pastor o1 5econd LCongregationalM Church o1 Boston %,-GG-,-=.( ?ev. 5amuel +ilman %B.8. ,-,,( C Pastor o1 the 4nitarian L5econd Hnde!endentM Church in Charleston# 5outh Carolina %,-,I-,-:-( William )enry 6urness %B.8. ,-/J( C Minister o1 the 6irst 4nitarian Church in Philadel!hia %,-/:-,-=:( +eorge dward llis %B.8. ,-GG( C Pastor o1 )arvard 4nitarian Church in Charlestown# Massachusetts %,-.J-,-EI(

Princeton 4niversity +raduates and Their ;ccu!ation during the 6irst ;!ium War %,-GI-,-./( "ohn 6orsyth %8.B. ,=II( C 4.5. 5ecretary o1 5tate %,-G.-,-.,( Thomas )artley Craw1ord %8.B. ,-J.( C Commissioner o1 Hndian 811airs %,-G--,-.:( 5mith Thom!son %8.B. ,=--( C "ustice o1 the 4.5. 5u!reme Court %,-/G-,-.G( "ames Moore Wayne %8.B. ,-J-( C "ustice o1 the 4.5. 5u!reme Court %,-G:-,-E=( 8l1red CuthAert %8.B. ,-JG( C 4.5. 5enator %'emocrat-+eorgia# ,-G:-,-.G( 5amuel L. 5outhard %8.B. ,-J.( C 4.5. 5enator %Whig-9ew "ersey# ,-/,-,-/G# ,-GG-,-./(D President o1 the 4.5. 5enate %,-.,-,-./( "ohn )enderson %8.B. ,-,/( C 4.5. 5enator %Whig-Mississi!!i# ,-GI-,-.:( "ohn 5ergeant %8.B. ,=I:( C 4.5. Congressman %6ederalist@Whig-Pennsylvania# ,-,:-,-/G# ,-/=-,-/I# ,-G=-,-.,( ?ichard W. )aAersham %8.B. ,-J:( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-+eorgia# ,-GI-,-./( William Montgomery %8.B. ,-J-S( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9orth Carolina# ,-G:-,-.,( +eorge Washington Toland %8.B. ,-,E( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Pennsylvania# ,-G=-,-.G( Thomas ?oAinson# "r. %8.B. ,-/GS( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-'elaware# ,-GI-,-.,( William Pennington %8.B. ,-,G( C +overnor o1 9ew "ersey %,-G=-,-.G( Patrick 9oAle %8.B. ,-JE( C +overnor o1 5outh Carolina %,-G--,-.J( "ohn ?uther1oord %8.B. ,-,J( C +overnor o1 Virginia %,-.,-,-./( "ohn M. 5cott %8.B. ,-J:( C Mayor o1 Philadel!hia %,-.,-,-.G( ;liver 5!encer )alsted %8.B. ,-,J( C Mayor o1 9ewark# 9ew "ersey %,-.J( ?ichard 5tockton 6ield %8.B. ,-/,( C 8ttorney +eneral o1 9ew "ersey %,-G--,-.,( +eorge P. Molleson %8.B. ,-/.( C 8ttorney +eneral o1 9ew "ersey %,-.,-,-..( ?ichard )enry Bayard %8.B. ,-,.( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 'elaware %,-GI-,-.,( "ames Booth "r. %8.B. ,-J-( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 'elaware %,-.,-,-::( Thomas ?u11in %8.B. ,-J:( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 9orth Carolina %,-GG-,-:I( *ensey "ohns "r. %8.B. ,-,J( C Chancellor o1 'elaware Lhead o1 eNuity courtM %,-G/-,-:=( "ames Carnahan %8.B. ,-JJ( C President o1 Princeton 4niversity %,-/G-,-:.( Theodore 6relinghuysen %8.B. ,-J.( C Chancellor o1 9ew Fork 4niversity %,-GI-,-:J( Charles P. McHlvaine %8.B. ,-,E( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! o1 ;hio %,-G/-,-=G(D President o1 *enyon College %,-G/-,-.J(

'artmouth College +raduates and Their ;ccu!ation during the 6irst ;!ium War %,-GI-,-./( 6ederal +overnment ;11icials3 'aniel WeAster %8.B. ,-J,( C 4.5. 5ecretary o1 5tate %,-.,-,-.G# ,-:J-,-:/(D 4.5. 5enator %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-/=-,-.,# ,-.:-,-:J( Levi WoodAury %8.B. ,-JI( C 5ecretary o1 the Treasury %,-G.-,-.,(D 4.5. 5enator %'emocrat-9ew )am!shire# ,-/:-,-G,# ,-.,-,-.:( 8mos *endall %8.B. ,-,,( C Postmaster-+eneral o1 the 4nited 5tates %,-G:-,-.J( )enry )uAAard %8.B. ,-JG( C 4.5. 5enator %'emocrat-9ew )am!shire# ,-G:-,-.,( ?u1us Choate %8.B. ,-,I( C 4.5. 5enator %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-.,-,-.:( +eorge +rennell "r. %8.B. ,-J-( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-/I-,-GI( ?ichard 6letcher %8.B. ,-JE( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G=-,-GI( Hsaac 6letcher %8.B. ,-J-( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-Vermont# ,-G=-,-.,( Hra 8llen astman %8.B. ,-/I( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew )am!shire# ,-GI-,-.G( 'avid Bronson %8.B. ,-,I( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Maine# ,-.,-,-.G( leaKar Wheelock ?i!ley %8.B. ,-JJ( C 4.5. Congressman %"acksonian-Louisiana# ,-G:-,-GI( Matthew )arvey %8.B. ,-JE( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or 9ew )am!shire %,-G,-,-EE( 5tate and Local +overnment ;11icials3 "oel Parker %8.B. ,-,,( C Chie1 "ustice %,-G--,-.-( and 8ssociate "ustice %,-GG-,-G-( o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 9ew )am!shire 9athaniel +. 4!ham %8.B. ,-/J( C "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 9ew )am!shire %,-GG-,-./( 9athan Weston %8.B. ,-JG( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Maine %,-G.-,-.,( 9icholas mery %8.B. ,=I:( C "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Maine %,-G.-,-.,( ther 5he!ley %8.B. ,-,,( C "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Maine %,-GE-,-.-( 5amuel 5umner Wilde %8.B. ,=-I( C"ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Massachusetts %,-,:-,-:J(D MemAer o1 the )art1ord Convention %,-,.( Hsaac 6letcher ?ed1ield %8.B. ,-/:( C 8ssociate "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Vermont %,-G:-,-:/( Charles 6. +ove %8.B. ,-,=( C 8ttorney +eneral o1 9ew )am!shire %,-G=-,-./( rastus ?oot %8.B. ,=IG( C MemAer o1 9ew Fork 5tate 5enate %,-,/-,-,:# ,-.J-,-..( +eorge 8Ael 5immons %8.B. ,-,E( C MemAer o1 9ew Fork 5tate 8ssemAly %,-.J-,-./( Cyrus Porter 5mith %8.B. ,-/.( C Mayor o1 Brooklyn# 9ew Fork %,-GI-,-./( lisha )untington %8.B. ,-,:# M.'. Fale ,-/G( C Mayor o1 Lowell# Massachusetts %,-GI-,-.=( ;thers3 "ohn Wheeler %8.B. ,-,E( C President o1 4niversity o1 Vermont %,-GG-,-.I( Ben7amin LaAaree %8.B. ,-/-( C President o1 MiddleAury College %,-.J-,-EE( "ose!h staArook %8.B. ,-,:( C President o1 4niversity o1 Tennessee %,-G.-,-:J( 'aniel Blaisdell %8.B. ,-/=( C Treasurer o1 'artmouth College %,-G:-,-=:( Charles Marsh %8.B. ,=-E( C Trustee o1 'artmouth College %,-JI-,-.I( +eorge +rennell "r. %8.B. ,-J-( C Trustee o1 8mherst College %,-GI-,-:I( +eorge Bush %8.B. ,-,-( C Pro1essor o1 )eArew Language and Literature at 9ew Fork 4niversity %,-G,-,-.=( 5amuel )arvey Taylor %8.B. ,-G/( C Princi!al o1 Phili!s 8ndover 8cademy LMassachusettsM %,-G=-,-=,( "ose!h Tracy %8.B. ,-,.( C ditor o1 (e) *ork O$server %,-G:-,-=.(D 5ecretary o1 Massachusetts ColoniKation 5ociety %,-./(

Brown 4niversity +raduates and Their ;ccu!ation during the 6irst ;!ium War %,-GI-,-./( William )enry *ing %8.B. ,-G-( C MemAer o1 ?ussell $ Com!any o!ium syndicate in Canton# China 5amuel 5now %8.B. ,=-/( C 4.5. Consul in Canton# China %c. ,-GI( William )unter %8.B. ,=I,( C 4.5. Minister to BraKil %,-G:-,-.G( )enry Wheaton %8.B. ,-J/( C 4.5. Minister to the *ingdom o1 Prussia %,-G:-,-.E( Virgil Ma<cy %8.B. ,-J.( C 4.5. ChargT dQ811aires to Belgium %,-G=-,-./( Marcus Morton %8.B. ,-J.( C +overnor o1 Massachusetts %,-.J-,-.,# ,-.G-,-..(D "ustice o1 5u!reme Court o1 Massachusetts %,-/:-,-.J( 5amuel Willard Bridgham %8.B. ,=I.( C Mayor o1 Providence# ?hode Hsland %,-G/-,-.J( "oA 'ur1ee %8.B. ,-,G( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 ?hode Hsland %,-G:-,-.=( William ?. 5ta!les %8.B. ,-,=( C "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 ?hode Hsland %,-G:-,-:.( Levi )aile %8.B. ,-/,( C "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 ?hode Hsland %,-G:-,-:.( "ohn Pitman %8.B. ,=II( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or the 'istrict o1 ?hode Hsland %,-/:-,-E.( )enry Bowen %8.B. ,-J/( C 5ecretary o1 5tate o1 ?hode Hsland %,-,I-,-.I( "ohn Brown 6rancis %8.B. ,-J-( C ?hode Hsland 5tate 5enator %,-G,# ,-./# ,-.:-,-:E(D Trustee o1 Brown 4niversity %,-/--,-:=( Charles "ackson %8.B. ,-,=( C 5!eaker o1 the ?hode Hsland )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-.,-,-./( ?ichard Ward +reene %8.B. ,-,/( C 4.5. 8ttorney 1or ?hode Hsland %,-/E-,-.:( "ohn )olmes %8.B. ,=IE( C 4.5. 8ttorney 1or Maine %,-.,-,-.G( "ohn ?uggles %8.B. ,-,G( C 4.5. 5enator %'emocrat-Maine# ,-G:-,-.,( 9athan 6. 'i<on 5r. %8.B. ,=II( C 4.5. 5enator %Whig-?hode Hsland# ,-GI-,-./( "ohn ?eed %8.B. ,-JG( C 4.5. Congressman %6ederalist@Whig-Massachusetts# ,-,G-,-,=# ,-/,-,-.,( )orace verett %8.B. ,=I=( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Vermont# ,-/I-,-.G( 8lAert 5mith %8.B. ,-,G( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-Maine# ,-GI-,-.,( "ared Warner Williams %8.B. ,-,-( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew )am!shire# ,-G=-,-.,( )enry Williams %8.B. ,-/E( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-Massachusetts# ,-GI-,-.,# ,-.G-,-.:( "ames Tallmadge "r. %8.B. ,=I-( C President o1 9ew Fork 4niversity %,-GJ-,-.E( "onathan +oing %8.B. ,-JI( C President o1 'enison 4niversity L;hioM %,-G=-,-..(D Trustee o1 Brown 4niversity %,-/:-,-..( Moses Brown Hves %8.B. ,-,/( C Treasurer o1 Brown 4niversity %,-/:-,-:=(D President o1 Providence Bank %,-G:-,-:=( )orace Mann %8.B. ,-,I( C 5ecretary o1 the Massachusetts 5tate Board o1 ducation %,-G=-,-.-( 9athan Bisho! %8.B. ,-G=( C 5u!erintendent o1 PuAlic 5chools o1 Providence# ?hode Hsland %,-GI-,-:/( 5amuel 5tillman +reene %8.B. ,-G=( C 5u!erintendent o1 PuAlic 5chools o1 5!ring1ield# Massachusetts %,-.J-,-./( )enry Bowen 8nthony %8.B. ,-GG( C ditor o1 Providen e +ournal Lnews!a!er in ?hode HslandM %,-G--,-:I(

ColumAia 4niversity +raduates and Their ;ccu!ation during the 6irst ;!ium War %,-GI-,-./( Peter 8. Cowdrey %B.8. ,-/,( C Cor!oration Counsel o1 9ew Fork City %,-GI-,-..( "ames ". ?oosevelt "r. %B.8. ,-,:( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew Fork# ,-.,-,-.G( Peter '. Vroom "r. %B.8. ,-J-( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew "ersey# ,-GI-,-.,( "osiah ;gden )o11man %B.8. ,-,/( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-9ew Fork# ,-G=-,-.,( +ouverneur *emAle %B.8. ,-JG( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew Fork# ,-G=-,-.,( Charles +. 6erris %B.8. ,-,,( C 4.5. Congressman %"acksonian@'emocrat-9ew Fork# ,-G.-,-G:# ,-.,-,-.G( "ohn Mc*eon %B.8. ,-/:( C 4.5. Congressman %"acksonian@'emocrat-9ew Fork# ,-G:-,-G=# ,-.,-,-.G( 5amuel "ones "r. %B.8. ,=IG( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 9ew Fork %,-/--,-.-( +ulian C. Ver!lanck %B.8. ,-J,( C MemAer o1 the 9ew Fork 5tate 5enate %,-G--,-.,( William 'uer %B.8. ,-/.( C MemAer o1 the 9ew Fork 5tate 8ssemAly %,-.J-,-.,( )enry 4. ;nderdonk %B.8. ,-J:( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! o1 Pennsylvania %,-GE-,-..( Ben7amin T. ;nderdonk %B.8. ,-JI( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! o1 9ew Fork %,-GJ-,-E,( Phili! Milledoler %B.8. ,=IG( C Pres. o1 ?utgers College %,-/:-,-.J(D Pastor# Collegiate 'utch ?e1ormed Church in 9ew Fork City %,-,G-,-:/( )enry Vethake %B.8. ,-J-( C Pro1essor o1 Mathematics and Philoso!hy at 4niversity o1 Pennsylvania %,-GE-,-::(

Williams College +raduates and Their ;ccu!ation during the 6irst ;!ium War %,-GI-,-./( Mark )o!kins %B.8. ,-/.( C President o1 Williams College %,-GE-,-=/( Luther Bradish %B.8. ,-J.( C Lieutenant +overnor o1 9ew Fork %,-GI-,-./( 5amuel ?ossiter Betts %B.8. ,-JE( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or the 5outhern 'istrict o1 9ew Fork %,-/E-,-E=( Victory Birdseye %B.8. ,-J.( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-9ew Fork# ,-,:-,-,=# ,-.,-,-.G( dward ?ogers %B.8. ,-JI( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew Fork# ,-GI-,-.,( Timothy Childs %B.8. ,-,,( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-9ew Fork# ,-/I-,-G,# ,-G:-,-GI# ,-.,-,-.G( "ohn ChamAerlain Clark %B.8. ,-,,( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew Fork# ,-/=-,-/I# ,-G=-,-GID Whig-9ew Fork# ,-GI-,-.G( 'aniel 'ewey Barnard %B.8. ,-,-( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-9ew Fork# ,-/=-,-/I# ,-GI-,-.:( Bernard Blair %B.8. ,-/:( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-9ew Fork# ,-.,-,-.G( ?oAert McClellan %B.8. ,-/:( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-9ew Fork# ,-G=-,-GI# ,-.,-,-.G( "acoA Merritt )oward %B.8. ,-GJ( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Michigan# ,-.,-,-.G( lisha )unt 8llen %B.8. ,-/G( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Maine# ,-.,-,-.G(

Fale 4niversity +raduates and Their ;ccu!ation during the 5econd ;!ium War %,-:E-,-EJ( +overnment ;11icials3 Peter Parker %B.8. ,-G,( C 4.5. Commissioner to China %,-:E-,-:=( Trusten Polk %B.8. ,-G,( C 4.5. 5enator %'emocrat-Missouri# ,-:=-,-E/(D +overnor o1 Missouri %,-:=( "ames *no< %B.8. ,-GJ( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Hllinois# ,-:G-,-:=( li 5ims 5horter %B.8. ,-.G# 5$* ,-.G( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-8laAama# ,-::-,-:I( William '. Bisho! %B.8. ,-.I( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-Connecticut# ,-:=-,-:I( )enry L. 'awes %B.8. ,-GI( C 4.5. Congressman %?e!uAlican-Massachusetts# ,-:=-,-=:( William 9athan )arrell 5mith %B.8. ,-G.( C 4.5. Congressman %;!!osition Party-9orth Carolina# ,-:I-,-E,( ;rris 5an1ord 6erry %B.8. ,-..# 5$B ,-..( C 4.5. Congressman %?e!uAlican-Connecticut# ,-:I-,-E,( "acoA *. Mc*enty %B.8. ,-.-( C 4.5. Congressman %'emocrat-Pennsylvania# ,-EJ-,-E,( "ohn *. *ane %B.8. ,-,.( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or the astern 'istrict o1 Pennsylvania %,-.E-,-:-( ?ensselaer ?ussell 9elson %B.8. ,-.E# 5$B ,-.E( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or the 'istrict o1 Minnesota %,-:--,-IE( )enry ?ootes "ackson %B.8. ,-GI# 5$B ,-GI( C 4.5. Minister to the 8ustrian m!ire %,-:.-,-:-( William T. Minor %B.8. ,-G.( C +overnor o1 Connecticut %,-::-,-:=( William Warner )o!!in %B.8. ,-/-( C +overnor o1 ?hode Hsland %,-:.-,-:=( "ames )o!kins 8dams %B.8. ,-G,( C +overnor o1 5outh Carolina %,-:.-,-:E( )enry Cham!ion 'eming %B.8. ,-GE# 5$B ,-GE( C Mayor o1 )art1ord# Connecticut %,-:.-,-:-# ,-EJ-,-E/( lias W. Leavenworth %B.8. ,-/.( C Mayor o1 5yracuse# 9ew Fork %,-.I-,-:J# ,-:I-,-EJ( "ohn Ball BrisArin %B.8. ,-.E# 5$B ,-.E( C Mayor o1 5t. Paul# Minnesota %,-:=( William Pitt Lynde %B.8. ,-G-( C Mayor o1 Milwaukee# Wisconsin %,-EJ( )enry Matson White %B.8. ,-JI( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Connecticut %,-:.-,-:=( Thomas 5lidell %B.8. ,-/:( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Louisiana %,-::-,-:E(D Arother o1 Con1ederate envoy "ohn 5lidell William Wolcott llsworth %B.8. ,-,J( C "udge o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Connecticut %,-.=-,-E,( Levinus Monson %B.8. ,-,,( C "udge o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 9ew Fork %,-:J-,-:I( William 5trong %B.8. ,-/-( C "udge o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Pennsylvania %,-:=-,-E-( "ames 9. Lea %B.8. ,-G.D 5$B ,-G.( C "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Louisiana %,-::-,-EG( "ohn Wallace )ouston %B.8. ,-G.# 5$B ,-G.( C "ustice o1 the 5u!erior Court o1 'elaware %,-::-,-IG( Hsaac 8twater %B.8. ,-..( C "udge o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Minnesota %,-:=-,-E.( "ohn )enry 6elder %B.8. ,-..# 5$B ,-..( C MemAer o1 5outh Carolina 5tate Legislature %,-:/-,-E,( ?ichard Taylor %B.8. ,-.:# 5$B ,-.:( C Louisiana 5tate 5enator %,-:E-,-E,( "ohn Christo!her Burch %B.8. ,-.=( C MemAer o1 Tennessee 5tate Legislature %,-::-,-:E(D Tennessee 5tate 5enator %,-:=-,-:-( 8ugustus Brandegee %B.8. ,-.I# 5$B ,-.I( C MemAer o1 Connecticut 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-:.-,-:=# ,-:I-,-E,( 5amuel 8ugustus Maverick %B.8. ,-/:( C Te<as 5tate 5enator L5an 8ntonio districtM %,-::-,-:I( William Bennett 6leming %B.8. ,-/:( C "udge o1 the 5u!erior Court o1 Chatham County# +eorgia L5avannahM %,-.=-,-.I# ,-:G-,-E-# ,-=I--,( Charles 8llen %B.8. ,-,:( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u11olk County 5u!erior Court LBoston# MassachusettsM %,-:I-,-E=( 6rederick 8. Tallmadge %B.8. ,-,,( C 5u!erintendent o1 the 9ew Fork City Metro!olitan Police L9FP'M %,-:=-,-E/( liKur Wright %B.8. ,-/E( C Massachusetts Commissioner o1 Hnsurance %,-:--,-EE( 6rederick llsworth Mather %B.8. ,-GG# 5$B ,-GG( C MemAer o1 the Common Council o1 9ew Fork City %,-:.-,-:=( College Presidents3 ?ev. Theodore 'wight Woolsey %B.8. ,-/J( C President o1 Fale 4niversity %,-.E-,-=,( 5imeon 9orth %B.8. ,-/:# valedictorian( C President o1 )amilton College %,-GI-,-:=( 5amuel Ware 6isher %B.8. ,-G:( C President o1 )amilton College %,-:--,-EE( 8ugustus Baldwin Longstreet %B.8. ,-,G( C President o1 4niversity o1 5outh Carolina %,-:=-,-E,( William Wilson )udson %B.8. ,-/=( C President o1 4niversity o1 Missouri %,-:E-,-:I( 6rederick 8.P. Barnard %B.8. ,-/-( C President o1 4niversity o1 Mississi!!i %,-:E-,-:-( )enry Barnard %B.8. ,-GJ( C Chancellor o1 4niversity o1 Wisconsin %,-:--,-EJ( "ohn ). Lathro! %B.8. ,-,I( C inaugural Chancellor o1 4niversity o1 Wisconsin %,-.I-,-:-(D President o1 Hndiana 4niversity %,-:I-,-EJ( "ose!h +iAson )oyt %B.8. ,-.J# 5$B ,-.J( C Chancellor o1 Washington 4niversity in 5t. Louis %,-:--,-E/( )enry Lawrence )itchcock %B.8. ,-G/( C President o1 Western ?eserve 4niversity LCleveland# ;hioM %,-::-,-=,( "ulian M. 5turtevant %B.8. ,-/E( C President o1 Hllinois College L"acksonville# HllinoisM %,-..-,-=E( 8aron Lucius Cha!in %B.8. ,-G=( C inaugural President o1 Beloit College LWisconsinM %,-.I-,--E( Church Leaders3 William )eathcote 'eLancey %B.8. ,-,=( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! 1or the !isco!al 'iocese o1 Western 9ew Fork %,-GI-,-E:( 6rancis )uger ?utledge %B.8. ,-/J( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! 1or the !isco!al 'iocese o1 6lorida %,-:,-,-EE( Thomas March Clark %B.8. ,-G,( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! 1or the !isco!al 'iocese o1 ?hode Hsland %,-:.-,IJG( William Hngraham *i! %B.8. ,-G,( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! 1or the !isco!al 'iocese o1 Cali1ornia %,-:=-,-IJ( +ardiner 5!ring %B.8. ,-J:( C Pastor o1 Brick PresAyterian Church in 9ew Fork City %,-,J-,-=G( "ose!h Parrish Thom!son %B.8. ,-G-# 5$B ,-G-( C Pastor o1 Broadway TaAernacle in 9ew Fork City %,-.:-,-=,( +eorge Washington Blagden %B.8. ,-/G( C Pastor o1 ;ld 5outh Church in Boston %,-GE-,-=/( )enry Martyn 'e<ter %B.8. ,-.J( C Pastor o1 Pine 5treet Congregational Church in Boston %,-.I-,-E=( )enry 8ugustus Boardman %B.8. ,-/I( C Pastor o1 Tenth PresAyterian Church o1 Philadel!hia %,-GG-,-=E( "ohn Chester Backus %B.8. ,-GJ( C Pastor o1 the 6irst PresAyterian Church in Baltimore# Maryland %,-GE-,-=:( 5amuel Wolcott %B.8. ,-GG( C Pastor o1 )igh 5treet Congregational Church in Providence# ?hode Hsland %,-:G-,-:I(D Pastor o1 9ew ngland Church in Chicago %,-:I-,-E/( William Theodore 'wight %B.8. ,-,G( C Pastor o1 Third Congregational Church in Portland# Maine %"une E# ,-G/-May .# ,-E.(

)iram Phel!s 8rms %B.8. ,-/.( C Pastor o1 6irst %Congregational( Church o1 9orwich# Connecticut %,-GE-,-=G( ?ay Palmer %B.8. ,-GJ( C Pastor o1 6irst Congregational Church in 8lAany# 9ew Fork %,-:J-,-EE( William Hves Budington %B.8. ,-G.( C Pastor o1 Clinton 8venue Congregational Church in Brooklyn# 9ew Fork %,-::-,-=-( Charles )enry )all %B.8. ,-./( C ?ector o1 the Church o1 the !i!hany in Washington# '.C. %,-:E-,-EI( dward '. Morris %B.8. ,-.I# 5$B ,-.I( C Pastor o1 the 5econd PresAyterian Church o1 ColumAus# ;hio %,-::-,-E=( Businessmen and Miscellaneous3 Charles 6. Pond %B.8. ,-GJ( C President o1 the 9ew )aven# )art1ord and 5!ring1ield ?ailroad Com!any %,-./-,-E=( Lewis Baldwin Parsons %B.8. ,-.J( C President# Treasurer# and 8ttorney o1 ;hio and Mississi!!i ?ailroad %,-:.-,-=.( dward 'ickinson %B.8. ,-/G( C Treasurer o1 8mherst College %,-G:-,-=G(D 1ather o1 !oet mily 'ickinson ?al!h ?andol!h +urley %B.8. ,-,-( C 8gent# 5ecretary# Vice President# and 'irector o1 8merican ColoniKation 5ociety LLiAeriaM %,-//-,-=/( "ames 'arrach %B.8. ,-/=( C 5u!erintendent o1 the 9ew Fork )os!ital in 9ew Fork City Lon Broadway o!!osite Pearl 5treetM %,-:.-,-E.( 6rancis +illette %B.8. ,-/I( C Chairman o1 Connecticut 5tate Board o1 ducation %,-.I-,-E:( Pelatiah Perit %B.8. ,-J/( C President o1 the ChamAer o1 Commerce o1 the 5tate o1 9ew Fork %,-:G-,-EG( "ohn Marsh "r. %B.8. ,-J.( C 5ecretary o1 8merican Tem!erance 4nion %,-GE-,-E:( 6rederick 8dol!hus Porcher %B.8. ,-/-( C President o1 5outh Carolina )istorical 5ociety %,-:E-,---( 5amuel ?ogers 8ndrew %B.8. ,-J=( C 5ecretary o1 Fale 4niversity %,-.E-,-:-( Ben7amin 5illiman %B.8. ,=IE( C Pro1essor o1 Chemistry# Mineralogy# and +eology at Fale 4niversity %,-J/-,-E.( Ben7amin 5illiman "r. %B.8. ,-G=# 5$B ,-G=( C Pro1essor o1 Chemistry at Fale 4niversity %,-.E-,--:( Thomas 8nthony Thacher %B.8. ,-G:# 5$B ,-G:( C Pro1essor o1 Latin at Fale 4niversity %,-./-,--E( )uAert 8nson 9ewton %B.8. ,-:J( C Pro1essor o1 Mathematics at Fale 4niversity %,-::-,-IJ( )arvard 4niversity +raduates and Their ;ccu!ation during the 5econd ;!ium War %,-:E-,-EJ( +overnment ;11icials3 CaleA Cushing %B.8. ,-,=( C 4.5. 8ttorney +eneral %,-:G-,-:=( Charles ames %B.8. ,-G,( C 4.5. Minister to VeneKuela %,-:.-,-:-( Charles 5umner %B.8. ,-GJ# LL.B. ,-G.( C 4.5. 5enator %?e!uAlican-Massachusetts# ,-:,-,-=.( 8mos 9ourse %B.8. ,-,/( C4.5. 5enator %?e!uAlican-Maine# ,-:=( dward "oy Morris %B.8. ,-GE( C 4.5. Congressman %Whig@?e!uAlican# Pennsylvania# ,-.G-,-.:# ,-:=-,-E,( Charles 6rancis 8dams 5r. %B.8. ,-/:( C 4.5. Congressman %?e!uAlican-Massachusetts# ,-:I-,-E,( Ben7amin ?. Curtis %B.8. ,-/I# LL.B. ,-G/( C "ustice o1 the 4.5. 5u!reme Court %,-:,-,-:=( Willard )all %B.8. ,=II( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or 'elaware %,-/G-,-=,( 8shur Ware %B.8. ,-J.( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or Maine %,-//-,-EE( Peleg 5!rague %B.8. ,-,/( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or Massachusetts %,-.,-,-E:( "ames 'andridge )alyAurton %B.8. ,-/G( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or the astern 'istrict o1 Virginia %,-..-,-E,( 5amuel Treat %B.8. ,-G=( C "udge o1 the 4.5. 'istrict Court 1or the astern 'istrict o1 Missouri %,-:=-,--=( "ose!h ). Williams %B.8. ,-G.# LL.B. ,-G=( C +overnor o1 Maine %,-:=-,-:-( 5te!hen )enry Philli!s %B.8. ,-./( C 8ttorney +eneral o1 Massachusetts %,-:--,-E,( William Willis %B.8. ,-,G( C Mayor o1 Portland# Maine %,-:=( Charles W. 4!ham %B.8. ,-/,( C Massachusetts 5tate 5enator %,-:=-,-:-( Charles )ale %B.8. ,-:J( C 5!eaker o1 the Massachusetts 5tate )ouse o1 ?e!resentatives %,-:I( 5amuel 'ana Bell %B.8. ,-,E( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 9ew )am!shire %,-:I-,-E.( Lemuel 5haw %B.8. ,-JJ( C Chie1 "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Massachusetts %,-GJ-,-EJ( Pliny Merrick %B.8. ,-,.( C "ustice o1 the 5u!reme Court o1 Massachusetts %,-:G-,-E.( dward *ent %B.8. ,-/,( C "ustice o1 the Maine 5u!reme Court %,-:I-,-=G( Church Leaders3 5te!hen lliott %B.8. ,-/.( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! 1or the !isco!al 'iocese o1 +eorgia %,-.,-,-EE( 8l1red Lee %B.8. ,-/=( C Protestant !isco!al Bisho! 1or the !isco!al 'iocese o1 'elaware %,-.,-,--=( Charles Lowell %B.8. ,-JJ( C Pastor o1 West LCongregationalM Church in Boston %,-JE-,-E,( Kra 5tiles +annett %B.8. ,-/J( C Pastor o1 6ederal 5treet Church in Boston %,-/.-,-=,(D ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niv. %,-G:-,-:/# ,-:G-,-:-( 9ehemiah 8dams %B.8. ,-/E( C Pastor o1 4nion Congregational L sse< 5treetM Church in Boston %,-G.-,-=-( Chandler ?oAAins %B.8. ,-/I( C Pastor o1 5econd LCongregationalM Church o1 Boston %,-GG-,-=.( 5te!hen )igginson Tyng %B.8. ,-,=( C Pastor o1 5t. +eorge&s Church in 9ew Fork City %,-.:-,-=-( William )enry 6urness %B.8. ,-/J( C Minister o1 the 6irst 4nitarian Church in Philadel!hia %,-/:-,-=:( ?ichard 6uller %B.8. ,-/.( C Pastor o1 =th Ba!tist Church in Baltimore %,-.=-,-=,(D 1ormer President o1 5outhern Ba!tist Convention +eorge dward llis %B.8. ,-GG( C Pastor o1 )arvard 4nitarian Church in Charlestown# Massachusetts %,-.J-,-EI(D ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-:J-,-=I( College Presidents# Pro1essors# and Businessmen3 "ames Walker %8.B. ,-,.( C President o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-:G-,-EJ( William 8ugustus 5tearns %B.8. ,-/=( C President o1 8mherst College %,-:.-,-=E( 8lva Woods %B.8. ,-,=( C Trustee o1 Brown 4niversity %,-.G-,-:I( 9athaniel Bradstreet 5hurtle11 %B.8. ,-G,# M.'. ,-G.( C ;verseer o1 )arvard 4niversity %,-:/-,-E,# ,-EG-,-EI( Theo!hilus Parsons %B.8. ,-,:( C 'ane Pro1essor o1 Law at )arvard Law 5chool %,-.--,-EI( +eorge ?a!all 9oyes %B.8. ,-,-( C )ancock Pro1essor o1 )eArew at )arvard 4niversity %,-.J-,-E-( Willard Philli!s %B.8. ,-,J( C President o1 9ew ngland Mutual Li1e Hnsurance Co. %,-.=-,-=J( 5ydney )oward +ay %B.8. ,-GG( C ditor o1 8merican 8nti-5lavery 5tandard in 9ew Fork City %,-.G-,-:=(D 8gent 1or the underground railway %,-.G-,-:=(

Vie* of the American Garden& $'((/$'(= 7hina Gouache& pen& paper Gift of Mr8 "ouis !appas& $09$ !ea4ody )sse, Museum .%%E Mar <e,ton !hoto -!aintingC Massachusetts 6nstitute of Technology1
2;ollo*ing the close of the 5ar of $'$. further organiJation and differentiation of the trade too place8 The firm of <amuel Russell and 7ompany& of *hich the partners *ere M<amuelN Russell and M!hilipN Ammidon& )d*ard 7arrington& 7yrus Butler& and B8 and T878 Hoppin of !roAidence& *as formed in ?ecem4er& $'$'& the t*o first named 4eing designated to represent the firm in 7anton for fiAe years8 At the end of this period the firm *as reorganiJed under the name of Russell and 7ompany& *ith the approAal and help of the house of !er ins& *hich retired from 7anton three years later8 The Russell house *as further consolidated 4y the incorporation of some smaller firms and came to occupy a financial position in 7hina compara4le *ith that of the famous British firms83 > $mericans in 1astern $sia0 $ %ritical tudy of the Policy of the 3nited tates 'ith reference to %hina) 5apan and 6orea in the *7 th %entury 4y Tyler ?ennett& p8 E$/E. -pu4lished in $0..1 2The esta4lishment of a system of e,change& 4y *hich 4ills on "ondon *ere su4stituted for specie& came 4efore $':% as a result of the increased commercial relationship 4et*een the United <tates and )ngland& and the gro*th of the opium trade8 A part of the American trade *ith 7hina *as financed from "ondon eAen 4efore $'%%8 <hortly after $'$= American merchants 4egan to 4uy British manufactured goods& chiefly cottons& in the )nglish mar et& and to ta e them to 7hina *here they *ere a4le to sell them cheaper than the )ast 6ndia 7ompanyIThe effect of this trade in British manufactured goods *as to ma e "ondon a clearing house for a considera4le amount of )uropean and 7hina trade *hich had formerly 4een settled either in 7anton or )urope 4y payments of specie8 Mean*hile the opium trade from 6ndia to 7hina increased to the point *here 7hina *as consuming more foreign produce than the Aalue of the tea& sil s& etc8& *hich the foreigner *as ta ing out of 7hina8 7hina settled the 4alance against her in silAer8 The )mpire had 4ecome& 4y means of opium& a 4uying more than a selling nation8 More and more the Americans came to 7anton not *ith specie 4ut *ith 4ills on "ondon *hich they disposed of in return for their out*ard cargoes8 6n other *ords& 4y ta ing out 7hinese produce& and settling the account in "ondon& they helped the 7hinese to adjust the 4alance of trade83 > $mericans in 1astern $sia0 $ %ritical tudy of the Policy of the 3nited tates 'ith reference to %hina) 5apan and 6orea in the *7 th %entury 4y Tyler ?ennett& p8 E./E:

View o1 the west !art o1 the city o1 Victoria# )ong *ong# showing the !remises o1 the Peninsular and ;riental 5team 9avigation Com!any with their 1lag over the godown. The 1lags Aehind the P.$;. are 6rench and 8merican. The hong l.# o1 the !icture is !roAaAly the ;riental Bank %o!ened ,-.:( and has long disa!!eared as well as the o11ice o1 the P.$;. The U)ongkong 8lmanack& 1or ,-.E records the Com!any as having the o11ice in Queen&s ?oad. %Painting3 htt!3@@1ree!ages.genealogy.rootsweA.ancestry.com@Bchater1amilytree@chinnery.htm(

American ?iplomats in 7hina

CaleA Cushing %le1t# B.8. )arvard ,-,=( was a 4.5. Congressman %Whig-Massachusetts# ,-G:-,-.G( during the 6irst ;!ium War and a 4.5. Commissioner to China 1rom May -# ,-.G to 8ugust /=# ,-... 8le<ander )ill verett %right# B.8. )arvard ,-JE(# the Arother o1 1ormer Massachusetts +overnor William verett# served as a 4.5. Commissioner to China 1rom March ,G# ,-.: to "une /-# ,-.=.

#ardine& 0atheson A =ompany

A photo of #ardine Matheson merchants 5illiam #ardine -left1 and #ames Matheson is on display at the +pium 5ar Museum in 7hina8 The caption a4oAe the photo statesC 25illiam #ardine and #ames Matheson& 7hief +pium ?ealers from Britain38 Both 5illiam #ardine and #ames Matheson serAed as Mem4er of !arliament in "ondon8 -!hotoC httpCKK***8flic r8comKphotosK(:%:00=0U@%%K'E99E%E%1

View o1 Padder 5treet 1rom the Praya in )ong *ong %香港( in ,-I:. Premises o1 "ardine Matheson $ Co. on the right and o1 Melchers $ Co. on the le1t. "ardine Matheson $ Co. was 1ounded Ay 5cottish merchants William "ardine and "ames Matheson. %Photo3 6lickr(

"ardine-Matheson headNuarters in 5hanghai in the early ,I/Js# Ae1ore the / e<tra 1loors were added. +reat Britain estaAlished di!lomatic relations with Communist China on "anuary :# ,I:J in an attem!t to !rotect its crown colony o1 )ong *ong and its 0investment2 in 5hanghai.

The "ardine Matheson Building %aAove( is located in the Bund in 5hanghai# Communist China. Perha!s the greatest QhongQ o1 them all# "ardine Matheson was 1ounded Ay two 5cottish tea e<!orters# William "ardine and "ames Matheson# who shi1ted their original tea trade to the more !ro1itaAle trade o1 o!ium im!ortation into China 1rom Hndia. )aving estaAlished a 1oothold in China at Canton# it Aecame the im!etus 1or the British acNuisition o1 )ong *ong# where British and 1oreign merchantmen could trade 1reely un1ettered Ay inconsistent Chinese governance Aased u!on a well-1ounded sus!icion o1 1oreigners. "ardines %known as Q woQ in Chinese( grew to Aecome the dominant trading com!any in 5hanghai# )ong *ong and the Treaty PortsD Ay the Hnter-War years# "ardines were involved in shi!!ing# warehousing# engineering# mining# silk# cotton# insurance and !erha!s most im!ortantly# the W; Arewery. The 5hanghai headNuarters were Auilt to re1lect its !remier !osition. The to! two 1loors were later added. %8rchitect3 8W +raham-Brown o1 5tewardson $ 5!ence(

"ardine Matheson Building 6ormerly3 5hanghai 6oreign Trade Commission# 1ormerly housed the then-!ower1ul "ardine Matheson com!any. 8rchitect3 Location3 9o. /=# The Bund# 5hanghai# China 'ate3 5tyle3 Beau<-8rts Construction3 steel 1rame# stone cladding Ty!e3 ;11ice Building

8 5hort )istory o1 "ardine# Matheson $ Com!any <arly history Hn ,-J/# 'r. William "ardine was !ractising medicine on British ast Hndia Com!any vessels sailing Aetween Calcutta and Canton. 4nder a charter granted in the seventeenth century Ay Charles H o1 ngland# the directors in LondonQs Leadenhall 5treet held a mono!oly on British trade Aetween Hndia and China. Ht was customary# however# 1or the Com!anyQs servants to conduct a certain amount o1 !rivate Ausiness o1 their own. Hn order to regularise this# the ast Hndia Com!any allowed each o11icer and memAer o1 the crew a s!ace aAout eNual to two chestsD what the men did with this s!ace was their own Ausiness. 4sing this s!ace# the doctor soon discovered that trading illegal narcotics was 1ar more lucrative than doctoring. Ht was during these early days that William "ardine 1ound himsel1 onAoard a shi! ca!tured Ay the 6rench with all cargo seiKed. )owever# what was to Aecome a highly lucrative !artnershi! was 1ormed with a 1ellow !assenger# a Parsee Hndian called "amshet "e7eeAhouy. They Aecame good 1riends# Aecoming !rominent in their res!ective Ausiness 1ields and 1orming a trading relationshi! that was to endure 1or many years to come. Hn Canton# 'r. "ardine met a naturalised Briton o1 )uguenot e<traction named )ollingworth Magniac and learned that there were ways Ay which# to a small e<tent# the mono!oly o1 the ast Hndia Com!any could Ae circumvented. Hn ,-,=# "ardine le1t his 1irst em!loyers and Aegan the struggle towards estaAlishing his own !rivate 1irm. Hn the meantime# "ames Matheson was in his uncleQs Ausiness in Calcutta. )is uncle one day entrusted him with a letter to Ae delivered to the ca!tain o1 a British vessel which was on the !oint o1 de!arture. "ames 1orgot to deliver the letter# and the vessel sailed. )is uncle was incensed at this negligence# and it was suggested that young "ames had Aetter go home. )e took his uncle at his word and went to engage a !assage to ngland. VWhy not try Canton insteadSV an old ski!!er advised him. "ames Matheson did try Canton. 8nd it was there# in ,-,-# that he met "ardine. The two men 1ormed a !artnershi! which included also )ollingworth Magniac and Beale# an nglish inventor o1 clocks and automata. 8t 1irst they dealt only with BomAay and Calcutta# the socalled Vcountry trade#V Aut later they e<tended their Ausiness to London. The activities o1 these 1our men made an im!ortant contriAution towards Aringing to an end# in ,-G.# the mono!oly o1 the ast Hndia Com!any in China. <sta.lishment of the pri@ate firm of #ardine& 0atheson A =oB 6or a long time the British ast Hndia Com!any had Aeen growing increasingly un!o!ular in Britain. Men such as 5heridan# lliot# Charles "ames 6o<# William Windham# and dmund Burke were its Aitter enemies. Many British !eo!le Aelieved that 1reedom o1 the seas and 1reedom o1 trade were synonymous. They had 1ought 1or years to estaAlish this 1reedom# only to see it threatened Ay a *ingQs charter to a grou! o1 London merchants. 6urther# certain high-handed methods used Ay the ast Hndia Com!any in dealing with com!etitors aroused the moral indignation o1 the British at home. 9evertheless# o!en com!etition with the ast Hndia Com!any was risky Ausiness. The Com!any was em!owered to !unish transgressors vigorously--even to the e<tent o1 hanging. ;ccasionally# 1ree traders did manage to secure a license 1rom the Com!any to engage in the Vcountry trade#V usually with Hndia# Aut never with Britain. Hn rare instances# other 1ree traders# called Vinterlo!ers#V com!eted with the Com!any. The interlo!ers usually were 1riends o1 the +overnment in ngland 1rom which they had Aeen aAle to oAtain some 1orm o1 charter o1 their own. 5ooner or later# however# the ast Hndia Com!any always managed to have these other charters revoked. There was one method# however# Ay which a Briton could estaAlish a Ausiness on the ast Hndia Com!anyQs !reserves. )e could acce!t the consulshi! o1 a 1oreign country and register under its laws. This method was em!loyed Ay "ardine to estaAlish himsel1 in Canton. Magniac had oAtained an a!!ointment 1rom the *ing o1 Prussia# and later "ames Matheson re!resented 'enmark and )awaii. ;n this Aasis the !artners had nothing to 1ear 1rom the Com!anyD in 1act# relations Aetween these two and the ast Hndia Com!any seemed in time to have Aecome amicaAle. Ht is recorded that when shi!s o1 the ast Hndia Com!any were detained outside the harAour Ay the authorities# "ardine o11ered his services Vwithout 1ee or reward.V These services saved the ast Hndia Com!any a consideraAle sum o1 money and earned 1or "ardine the Com!anyQs gratitude. By ,-GJ# the enemies o1 the ast Hndia Com!any had Aegun to trium!h# and its hold on trade with the ast had weakened noticeaAly. 6urthermore# at this time# Aoth Magniac and Beale were getting ready to retire. Hn ,-G/# two years Ae1ore the ast Hndia Com!any 1inally was dissolved# William "ardine and "ames Matheson entered into 1ormal !artnershi! as a !rivate 1irm# "ardine# Matheson $ Co. <sta.lishment of the firm in )on2 Kon2 Hn ,-G.# the 1irst 1ree shi!# "ardinesQ 5arah# le1t Wham!oa with a cargo o1 tea 1or London. This was the signal that showed the ast Hndia Com!any was no longer a !ower in the ast# and was immediately 1ollowed Ay a rush to !artici!ate in the 1ast develo!ing China trade# which was centered on tea. 6rom the middle o1 the seventeenth century this drink had Aeen growing in !o!ularity in Britain and the British colonies# Aut the trade in teas was 1ar 1rom sim!le. 'ue to the ra!acious British ta< collector# the ta< on tea was o1ten as much as two hundred !ercent o1 the value.Lcitation neededM This e<orAitant ta<ation gave rise to wides!read smuggling which Aecame an additional haKard to legitimate Ausiness. To !ro1it in the China trade one had to Ae ahead o1 all com!etition# Aoth legitimate and otherwise. ach year# 1ast shi!s 1rom Britain# uro!e# and 8merica lay ready at the Chinese !orts to load the 1irst o1 the new seasonQs teas. The shi!s raced home with their !recious cargoes# each attem!ting to Ae the 1irst to reach the consumer markets# thereAy oAtaining the !remium !rices o11ered 1or the early deliveries. "ardines Aecame so well estaAlished they commanded an enviaAle !ortion o1 the China trade. ?aw and manu1actured goods were im!orted 1rom Hndia and the 4nited *ingdom. Teas and silks were e<!orted.

Hn ,-./# the 1irm Auilt the 1irst suAstantial house and estaAlished their head o11ice on the recently acNuired island o1 )ong *ong. This Aegan an era o1 increased !ros!erity and e<!ansion. 9ew o11ices soon were o!ened in the trading centres o1 5hanghai# 6uKhou# and Tian7in. 5ince then "ardines have never ceased to e<!and. William *eswick# the young ne!hew o1 'r. "ardine# was sent to "a!an in ,-:- to o!en u! trading 1or the 1irm. )e estaAlished an o11ice in Fokohama. Hn "a!an# "ardines also e<!anded ra!idly and additional o11ices were o!ened -- in *oAe# 9agasaki# and other !orts. 6rom the Aeginning# a large and !ro1itaAle Ausiness was conducted in im!orts# e<!orts# shi!!ing# and insurance. By the end o1 the nineteenth century# Ausiness in the 6ar ast no longer was con1ined to sim!le trading. Hndustrial e<!ansion had Aegun. Hn its wake# the Hndo-China 5team 9avigation Com!any had Aeen 1ormed. To aid 1urther in this develo!ment# "ardines had created insurance com!anies. They Auilt cotton mills. +reat wharves and warehouses were set u!. Cold storage and !ress !acking !lants 1or ChinaQs widening e<!ort trade were erected. 8 more recent e<am!le o1 enter!rise was the Auilding o1 wo Brewery in ,IG:. The directors o1 "ardines have Auilt a great modern Ausiness structure on the 1oundation so solidly laid Ay the !ioneers o1 the 1irm. War and re"onstru"tion Hn ,IG/# a1ter the 1irst "a!anese attack on China# the 1irm closed its o11ices in ManchuriaD when the "a!anese went in# "ardines walked out. When the war came in ,I.,# the "a!anese took over all "ardinesQ interests in )ong *ong and occu!ied China--Aut not Ae1ore o11ices o1 the 1irm had Aeen estaAlished in ChongNing and *unming. %;11ices in BomAay# Hndia were also estaAlished around this time.( Contact with the war-time world o1 Chinese o11icial and commercial li1e thus was maintained. The house 1lag was ke!t 1lying. Hmmediately on cessation o1 hostilities# the sta11 1rom these o11ices and 1rom internment cam!s in China were 1irst in the 1ield recovering the 1irmQs !ro!erties 1rom the "a!anese 1orces. Hn the summer o1 ,I.=# as soon as the authorities !ermitted# "ardines re-entered "a!an. 6rom that date# the task o1 re-estaAlishing their 1ormer wide interests in that country has Aeen under way. Hn Taiwan "ardines have maintained o11ices since early in the last Nuarter o1 the nineteenth century. Today the Tai!ei o11ice not only is the leading tea e<!orter to uro!e# 8sia# and 8merica# Aut also is engaged in shi!!ing and in general e<!ort and im!ort Ausiness. 5"ottish leadership "ardines is controlled Ay the *eswick %!ronounced V*eKKickV( 1amily who are direct descendants o1 William "ardineQs sister. While the leadershi! o1 "ardines is 5cottish# the 1irm is international in its dealings. The sta11 o1 "ardines %/GI#JJJ em!loyees as o1 "anuary /JJ=( is !redominantly 8sian# with the senior levels Aeing a mi<ture o1 British# Chinese# Hndonesian# uro!ean# 8ustralian and 8merican. The *eswicks have maintained a relationshi! with another !rominent 5cottish 1amily# the 6lemings. 6rom ,I=J until ,II-# "ardine Matheson o!erated a !an-8sian investment Aanking 7oint venture# "ardine 6leming# with ?oAert 6leming $ Co.# a London merchant Aank controlled Ay the 6leming 1amily. Hn /JJJ# "ardine 6leming and ?oAert 6leming $ Co. were sold to "P Morgan Chase. *he shippin2 interests 6rom the earliest days o1 the 1irm# shi!!ing can 7ustly claim to have Aeen the most !rominent among the many and varied enter!rises o1 "ardines. Ht was the !ractice o1 "ardines to !ossess the 1astest and Aest-handled shi!s that money could Auy. The 1irm did this in order that its leading !osition could not Ae assailed. Hn the early days# it was o1ten !ossiAle to make a 1ortune with the e<clusive !ossession o1 market or Audget news 1or a !eriod even so Arie1 as a 1ew hours. Conversely# a 1ortune could Ae lost i1 the des!atches 1rom home were late. The keen com!etition 1or 1aster and more e11icient shi!!ing hel!ed immeasuraAly in the ra!id develo!ment o1 trade with the 6ar ast. Ht was due largely# to the e<cellence o1 the 1leet that "ardines outlived all rivals. Hn the days o1 the sailing shi!s# many o1 the most 1amous cli!!ers were those o1 the Com!anyQs 1leet. 8mong these were illustrious names such as V?ed ?overV# V6alconV# and V5yl!hV. The last-named cli!!er made a sailing record that was never Aeaten. Ht sailed 1rom Calcutta to Lintin in the Pearl ?iver estuary in seventeen days# seventeen hours. The 1irst merchant steamer in China# the "ardine# was Auilt to order 1or the 1irm in ,-G:. 5he was a small vessel intended 1or use as a mail and !assenger carrier Aetween Lintin Hsland# Macao# and Wham!oa. )owever# a1ter several tri!s# the Chinese authorities# 1or reasons Aest known to themselves# !rohiAited her entrance into the river. 5he !er1orce had to Ae sent to 5inga!ore. The 1irst steam shi!s owned Ay "ardines ran chie1ly Aetween Calcutta and the Chinese !orts. They were 1ast enough so that they could make the ,#.JJ-mile tri! in two days less than the P. $ ;. vessels. 8s time !assed# more and more shi!s were !rocured 1or "ardinesQ 1leet. The !orts o1 call e<tended as conditions allowed. The 1irm was among the 1irst to send shi!s to "a!an# and at an early date estaAlished a regular service Aetween Fokohama# *oAe# and ChinaQs !orts. 4ntil ,--,# the Hndia and China coastal and river services were o!erated Ay several com!anies. Hn that year# however# these were merged into the Hndo-China 5team 9avigation Com!any# Ltd.# a !uAlic com!any under the management o1 "ardines. The activities o1 this com!any e<tended 1rom Hndia to "a!an# including the 5traits 5ettlements# Borneo# and# o1 course# the China coast. Hn the latter

s!here# the VHndo-ChinaV develo!ed ra!idly. The com!any !ushed inland u! the FangtsKe ?iver on which a s!ecially designed 1leet was Auilt to meet all reNuirements o1 the river trade. 6or many years# this 1leet gave uneNualled service. "ardines estaAlished an enviaAle re!utation 1or the e11icient handling o1 shi!!ing. 8s a result# the ?oyal Mail 5team Packet Com!any invited the 1irm to attend to the 8gency o1 their 5hire Line which o!erated in the 6ar ast. This occurred shortly Ae1ore the 1irst World War and necessitated a 1urther e<!ansion o1 the 1irmQs shi!!ing organisation. Today# no less than 1i1teen internationally known British# Canadian# and 4nited 5tates shi!!ing com!anies entrust their agencies to this organisation. Hn China# the Aulk o1 1reight emanates 1rom domestic sources. ;n account o1 this an e11icient and well-connected Chinese sta11 is maintained at all "ardinesQ Aranches. These Aranches are continuously in touch with the s!ecial 1eatures and tendencies o1 the Chinese markets. With the disa!!earance o1 "a!anese com!etition as a result o1 the war# and with the resurrection o1 ChinaQs merchant navy# shi!!ing conditions in the 6ar ast have changed vastly. The Ausiness demands an e<treme degree o1 1le<iAility in the o!eration o1 1oreign shi!!ing. "ardines !ossess a rich 1und o1 e<!erience which was gained in the !ioneering years o1 the last century and which e<tends through two world wars to the uncertainties o1 the !resent day. "ardinesQ shi!!ing organisation o11ers uneNualled service to shi!owners# not only in the great !orts o1 )ong *ong and 5hanghai# Aut at every ma7or coast !ort in China and also in "a!an. Hn addition# since World War HH# the 1irm has Aeen o!erating the 8ustralia-China Line# an enter!rise owned 7ointly with Commons Bros.# Ltd.# o1 9ewcastle. This line runs 1rom 8ustralia to )ong *ong and 5hanghai. "ardines are leaders also in 5ino-1oreign shi!!ing co-o!eration. Interests in >har@es and >arehouses )on2 Kon2 ;n the initiative o1 "ardines and the late 5ir Paul Chater# the )ongkong $ *owloon Whar1 $ +odown Com!any was 1ormed in ,--E. 5ince that date# the chairmanshi! o1 the Aoard has Aeen held Ay the managing director o1 "ardines. 8t the !ro!erty known as *owloon Point# ten ocean-going vessels o1 u! to thirty-two 1eet draught can Ae Aerthed regardless o1 the state o1 the tide. 8t the West Point !ro!erty on )ongkong Hsland itsel1# one coastal vessel can Ae accommodated. *owloon Point !rovides storage s!ace 1or aAout =:J#JJJ tons o1 cargo. The transit sheds have Aeen designed s!ecially to !rovide ma<imum light and sorting s!ace. The godowns are si<-storeyed# o1 rein1orced concrete# and are 1ully eNui!!ed with cargo li1ts and cranes. 8 treasury# or strong room# ca!aAle o1 storing u! to :JJ measurement tons o1 Aullion or other valuaAle cargo# is a !art o1 the 1acilities o11ered. The com!any also o!erates a launch and lighter 1leet 1or the discharge o1 vessels at Auoys and 1or general transshi!ment work. 5han2hai 6ollowing an amalgamation o1 several local wharves in ,-=:# "ardine# Matheson $ Co. were a!!ointed general managers o1 the 5hanghai $ )ongkew Whar1 Co.# Ltd. Hn ,--G# the ;ld 9ing!o Whar1 was added# and in ,-IJ the Pootung Whar1 was !urchased to com!lete the Com!anyQs already e<tensive !ro!erties. 6or three Nuarters o1 a century# there1ore# "ardines have served the great !ort o1 5hanghai. The Com!any owns some G#JJJ 1eet o1 the most valuaAle whar1 1rontage on the 5hanghai side o1 the river. ;n the o!!osite# or Pudong %Pootung(# side their 1rontage e<tends to /#::J. The wharves are ca!aAle o1 accommodating ten large ocean-going vessels at a time. Be1ore the Paci1ic War# the Com!any !ossessed godown# or warehouse# s!ace o1 /#:J:#JJJ sNuare 1eet. 4n1ortunately there was consideraAle destruction Ay the "a!anese. ?ehaAilitation !rogressed ra!idly# however# and the standard o1 e11icient working 1or which the com!any is well known has Aeen re-estaAlished. 5ource3 htt!3@@www.chinese-architecture.in1o@B49'@5)-B4-J,-.htm

5e"ond Cpium War ,$'D:9$':%-

!a/"i/KiaoHs 4ridge& on the eAening of the 4attle8 The Battle of !ali iao -BaliBiao1 occurred on <eptem4er .$& $'9% during the <econd +pium 5ar -$'=9/$'9%18 The Anglo/;rench Aictory opened a path to Beijing for 5estern armies8

7hinese officers hauling do*n the British flag and arresting the cre* of the British ship $rro' on +cto4er '& $'=98

ComAat at +uangKhou %Canton( during the 5econd ;!ium War

<igning of the Treaty of Tientsin in #une $'='

"ooting of the Quan Ming Quan 4y Anglo/;rench forces in $'9%

!rince Gong& photographed on @oAem4er .& $'9%& after he signed the !e ing 2peace3 treaty on +cto4er .(& $'9%

The 7onAention of !e ing& an uneBual treaty signed 4y 7hina in $'9%& forced 7hina to surrender the Ko*loon area of Hong Kong to Great Britain and the eastern territories of 7hina near the Amur RiAer -including VladiAosto 1 to Russia8

Ma! o1 ast 8sia %,-::-,-=.( dis!laying ?ussia&s acNuisition o1 eastern Manchuria and 5akhalin Hslands

Taiping Re4ellion -$'=%/$'9(1

Territories controlled 4y the Taiping army during the Taiping Re4ellion

Tai!ing soldiers# male and 1emale# outside 5hanghai during the Tai!ing ?eAellion. The Tai!ing ?eAellion Aegan in ,-:J and lasted until ,-E.. )ung )siu-chQWan %,-,G-,-E.(# the leader o1 the Tai!ing ?eAellion# converted to Christianity# estaAlished a Chinese kingdom in the city o1 9anking and ins!ired the Chinese !eo!le in the FangtKe ?iver valley to revolt against Manchurian rule.

Qing !ainting o1 the de1eat o1 the Tai!ing 9orthern e<!edition at LianKhen# close to the +rand Canal

Le1t !hoto3 Cale3 Cushi +3 4.5. Minister to China %May -# ,-.G- 8ugust /=# ,-..( and 4.5. 8ttorney +eneral %,-:G-,-:=( Center !hoto3 $d6i -urd Co +er3 4.5. Minister to China %"anuary ,I# ,-I-C8!ril .# ,IJ:( and 4.5. Congressman %?-Howa# ,--:-,-IJ( ?ight !hoto3 William Wood.ille Ro*5hill %,-:.-,I,.(3 4.5. Minister to China %March -# ,IJ:-"une ,# ,IJI(# 4.5. 8mAassador to ?ussia %"anuary ,,# ,I,J-"une ,=# ,I,,(# 4.5. 8mAassador to the ;ttoman m!ire %8ugust /-# ,I,,-9ovemAer /J# ,I,G(# 4.5. Minister to +reece %,-I=-,-II(# 4.5. Minister to ?omania %,-I=-,-II(# and 4.5. Minister to 5erAia %,-I=-,-II(

Anson Burlingame -$'.%/$'E%& ""8B8 HarAard $'(91 United <tates Minister to 7hina -#une $(& $'9$/@oAem4er .$& $'9E1 and 7hinese Am4assador and <pecial )nAoy -?ecem4er $& $'9E/ ;e4ruary .:& $'E%1 BUR"6@GAM)& Anson& -$'.% / $'E%1 BUR"6@GAM)& Anson& a RepresentatiAe from MassachusettsD 4orn in @e* Berlin& @8Q8& @oAem4er $(& $'.%D moAed *ith his parents to <eneca 7ounty& +hio& in $'.:& and to ?etroit& Mich8& in $'::D attended priAate schools and the ?etroit 4ranch of the UniAersity of MichiganD *as graduated from the la* department of HarAard UniAersity in $'(9D *as admitted to the 4ar and commenced practice in BostonD serAed in the <tate senate in $'=.D mem4er of the Massachusetts constitutional conAention in $'=:D elected as a candidate of the American !arty to the Thirty/fourth 7ongress and as a Repu4lican to the Thirty/fifth and Thirty/si,th 7ongresses -March (& $'==/March :& $'9$1D unsuccessful candidate for reelection in $'9% to the Thirty/seAenth 7ongressD appointed Minister to Austria March ..& $'9$& 4ut *as not accepted 4y the Austrian GoAernment 4ecause of certain opinions he *as no*n to entertain regarding Hungary and <ardiniaD Minister to 7hina from #une $(& $'9$& to @oAem4er .$& $'9ED appointed ?ecem4er $& $'9E& 4y the 7hinese GoAernment its am4assador to negotiate treaties *ith foreign po*ersD died in <t8 !eters4urg& Russia& ;e4ruary .:& $'E%D interment in Mount Au4urn 7emetery& 7am4ridge& Mass8 Bi4liography Anderson& ?aAid "8 2Anson BurlingameC Reformer and ?iplomat83 %ivil War 8istory .= -?ecem4er $0E01C .0:/:%'D Koo& Telly H8 2The "ife of Anson Burlingame83 !h8?8 diss8& HarAard UniAersity& $0..8 <ourceC httpCKK4ioguide8congress8goAKscriptsK4iodisplay8plGinde,VB%%$$$.

George ;rederic <e*ard serAed as U8<8 7onsul General in <hanghai -$'9(/$'9E1 and U8<8 Minister to 7hina -$'E9/$''%18

5oon2 Family& Green Gan2& A *he 6ise of 5han2hai

@an ing Road in <hanghai in the $0:%s 2This role of comprador lies at the heart of hatreds that fired the reAolutionary upheaAals of the t*entieth century8 6t *as a comple, role > some*here 4et*een pimp and patrician > that lin ed the separate economic classes in the +rient and proAided the lu4rication 4et*een )ast and 5est8 <hanghai *as a city of compradors8 @o British gentleman& and therefore no foreigner of any nationality hoping to pass as a gentleman& *ould haAe dreamed of engaging in direct 4usiness dealings *ith 7hinese8 <uch a thing *ould haAe 4een de4asing8 6t *ould also haAe 4een hard *or & reBuiring a mastery of the 7hinese language& 7hinese social customs& and 7hinese 4usiness practice& the latter a mystery unto itself8 The British had engaged compradors in their opium trade& often !ersians or 6raBi #e*s& *ho 4ecame fa4ulously rich in the process and emerged as some of the great families of <hanghai& including the <assoons& the Hardoons& and the Kadoories8 6t *as said that they 2came do*n from Baghdad to <hanghai on camels and left in Rolls/Royces83 "i e them& many 7hinese compradors also gre* rich8 @othing could moAe *ithout them8 < illful politicians& they made profits from 4oth sides8 <uccessful compradors *ere senior mem4ers of triads8 The head of the Red Gang *as the chief of detectiAes for the colonial goAernment in the ;rench 7oncessionC a comprador of crime83 > The oong Dynasty 4y <terling <eagraAe& p8 99 2!oc mar ed3 Huang #inrong *as the senior 7hinese officer in the ;rench gendarmerie in the $0.%s and $0:%s8 Through his relationship *ith ?u Que/sheng MTu Queh/shengN& he organised crime in the ;rench 7oncession& ma ing sure that the 4rothels and opium dens *ere profita4le and *ell/ordered8 The ;rench& much more pragmatic in these matters than the superficially moralistic British in the 6nternational <ettlement& sa* little pro4lem in haAing a police chief eeping criminal actiAity under control *ith eAery4ody& including the ;rench e,patriates& 4enefiting handsomely8 6t is said that ?u had an intimate relationship *ith HuangHs *ife& and that she helped conAince Huang to go into partnership *ith ?u8 Huang is also said to haAe o*ned the Great 5orld pleasure centre on the 4order of the ;rench and 6nternational concessions8 -<ourceC httpCKK***8earnsha*8comKshanghai/ed/indiaKtalesKt/peop$%8htm1

?o*nto*n <hanghai during the $0.%s

Hotel employee greets guest arriAing 4y car outside the delu,e 7athay Hotel in <hanghai& 7hina on August $(& $0:E& a fe* days 4efore 4om4s dropped 4y accident from 7hinese planes caused a lot of damage and death8 -Time "ife photo1

7athay Hotel in <hanghai after a @ational ReAolutionary Army Marmy of the Repu4lic of 7hinaN 4om4ing run during the Battle of <hanghai in $0:E

A truc carrying prisoners to their e,ecution appears in the middle of the )uropean 7oncession in <hanghai& 7hina in $0.98

6mperial #apanese army troops enter <hanghai in @oAem4er $0:E8

The leaders o1 the +reen +ang in ,I/Js %0Big ars2 Tu Fueh-sheng on right(. 0Big ars2 Tu Fueh-sheng and his +reen +ang controlled the drug and !rostitution trade in 5hanghai 1rom the early ,I/Js until ,I.I when the Chinese Communists occu!ied 5hanghai and outlawed drugs and !rostitution.

Chinese gangsters and drug dealers 0Big ars2 Tu Fueh-sheng %杜月笙, le1t( and QPockmarkedQ )uang Chin-rung L)uang "inrongM %right(. 0Big ars2 Tu was the +od1ather o1 5hanghai who controlled various Aanks and Ausinesses in 5hanghai during the ,I/Js and ,IGJs. 0Big ars2 Tu was +eneralissimo Chiang *ai-shek&s mentor and 0god1ather2D 0Big ars2 Tu 1led to )ong *ong in ,I.I a1ter the Chinese Communists overran 5hanghai.

27hiang Kai/she al*ays seemed to sBuea 4y financially despite KungFs horrific economic 4lunders and strangulation of the 7hinese economy8 This *as 4ecause 7hiang& although personally uninterested in economics& had a source of giant reAenues that guaranteed him great amounts of secure foreign currency8 The source of 7hiangFs comfort *as narcotics8 Keeping in mind that Green Gang domination of the 7hinese under*orld originated in its Airtual monopoly of opium traffic& that <hanghai itself had 4een founded on a great 4ro*n s*amp of opium tar& and that the only e,porta4le resource for some proAinces li e Qunnan *as opium& it can come as no surprise that @an ing *as Buietly paying many of its 4ill *ith narcotics reAenues8 The opium trade& *hich had 4een inflicted on 7hina 4y the British& had fallen into the hands of the 7hinese under*orld after the turn of the century& *hen Britain *ithdre* from the trade in a moralistic turna4out8 ?uring the *arlord era that follo*ed& opium *as also the main source of reAenue for the military rulers *ho controlled 7hina proAince 4y proAinceD ta,es on its cultiAation and transportation& opium dens and paraphernalia proAided the sums to meet 4oth military and ciAilian needs of these poc et dictatorships8 <un Qat/sen had ta,ed 7anton opium dens to raise reAenues for his hard/pressed treasury& and 7hiang Kai/she sa* opium in much the same practical light > only on a grander scale8 6f 7hiangFs regime could control 7hinaFs entire illicit opium trade& it *ould proAide a Aast source of sustaining reAenue for his armies8 There *as nothing original in the idea8 This *as precisely the same reasoning that Big/eared Tu gaAe to !oc mar ed Huang t*o decades earlier& leading to the amalgamation of all the QangtJe Valley triads into an opium cartel dominated 4y the Green Gang8 7hiang simply *anted to 2eleAate3 this principle to national policy83 > The oong Dynasty 4y <terling <eagraAe& p8 ::%/::$ 2+ne of the richest opium/producing areas *as in @orth 7hina& and *hen #apan oAerran these territories in the early $0:%s& 7hiang too a heaAy loss financially8 The pro4lem *as t*ofoldC he lost reAenues from his share in the opium trade in that area& and the #apanese *ere running a Aery profita4le international heroin trade using the ra* opium from the conBuered 7hinese territory8 7hiang solAed the pro4lem 4ay ma ing it illegal for 7hinese to use the refined drugs morphine and heroin& and then concluded a trade treaty *ith #apan to purchase opium from them8 As illogical as they may sound& 7hiang preferred to pay the #apanese a 4asic price for ra* opium from @orth 7hina rather than to forfeit all the reAenues he could ma e from it8 +ther*ise #apan *ould smuggle it into KMT/controlled 7hina any*ay8 By the early $0:%s& opium *as ta ing a 4ac seat to its more po*erful products& morphine and heroin8 The eAolution *as gradual8 Morphine had 4een *idely used 4y 5estern missionaries in the late $'%%s to cure 7hinese opium addictsD so in 7hina the drug 4ecame no*n as 2#esus opium83 Then heroin& first deriAed from opium in $'E( 4y chemists at Bayer pharmaceuticals in Germany& and launched 4y Bayer as a patent medicine in $'0'& sho*ed promise as a treatment for morphine addicts8 7hinese first 4ecame opium addicts& then graduated to morphine& then to heroin8 By $0.(& 7hina *as importing enough heroin from #apan each year to proAide four strong doses of the drug to eAery one of the nationFs (%% million inha4itants8 6n that same year& ho*eAer& the U8<8 7ongress& *hich had only recently 4anned alcohol& 4anned heroin as a patent medicine8 6mmediately& American mo4sters *ho *ere doing a thriAing trade in 4ootlegging& plunged into the heroin trade8 5hile )uropean criminal syndicates dre* their supplies of opium from the poppy fields of !ersia and the so/called Golden 7rescent& American mo4s found it easier and cheaper to 4uy from 7hina8 6n $0:$& the "eague of @ations esta4lished international Buotas for the production of heroin designed to reduce the supply to strictly medicinal needs83 > The oong Dynasty 4y <terling <eagraAe& p8 ::(

8 !hoto o1 Charlie 5oong when he was a student at VanderAilt 4niversity %le1t( and as a 1ather %right(. Charles "ones 5oong&s real name was )an Chiao-shun. Charlie 5oong lived in 5hanghai where he was a !reacher at a Methodist church in the Hnternational Concession. Charlie 5oong was a memAer o1 the ?ed +ang# a triad organiKation that o!!osed the Manchu 'ynasty and su!!orted the restoration o1 the old Ming 'ynasty.

<ilas Aaron Hardoon -$'=$/$0:$1 *as a #e*ish 4usinessman in <hanghai8 <ilas Aaron Hardoon *as a partner in )8 ?8 <assoonHs and 7ompany in <hanghai8 Hardoon *as 4orn and raised in Baghdad& 6raB and moAed to <hanghai in $'9'8

Portrait o1 the 5oong 6amily# the 06irst 6amily2 o1 5hanghai# taken in 5hanghai in "uly ,I,=. 6ront3 T.8. 5oong# 5econd row 1rom le1t3 5oong 8i-ling# T.V. 5oong# 5oong Ching-ling. Third row 1rom le1t3 T.L. 5oong# Chalres "ones 0Charlie2 5oong# Madame Charles "ones 5oong %9i *wei-tseng(# 5oong May-ling. %Photo3 VanderAilt 4niversity LiArary( 5oong Mei-ling s!ent most o1 her childhood living in Macon# +eorgia and attended Wellesley College in Massachusetts. 5oong 8i-ling and 5oong Ching-ling graduated 1rom Wesleyan College in +eorgia. Charlie 5oong lived in 9orth Carolina with an industrialist named "ulian Carr and attended Trinity College %!resent-day 'uke 4niversity( 1or one year. The 5oong 1amily along with 5un Fat-sen lived in Tokyo# "a!an 1rom ,I,G to ,I,E when Fuan 5hih-kai was the dictator o1 China. Charlie 5oong died on May G# ,I,-.

A @ationalist 7hinese 4an note from $0:% -produced 4y American Ban note 7ompany1

Lone Gunman or Patsy?: <ung 7hiao/jen -宋教仁& $''./$0$:1-a4oAe1& the !resident of the Kuomintang -7hinese @ationalist !arty1 in $0$. and $0$:& *as assassinated 4y a 2lone gunman3 at the train station in <hanghai on March .%& $0$:8 <ung died t*o days later in <hanghai on March ..& $0$:8 7hinese *arlord Quan <hih/ ai *as allegedly the mastermind 4ehind the assassination of <ung 7hiao/jen8 The 2<econd ReAolution3& a political re4ellion against Quan <hih/ ai& 4egan in #uly $0$:8

Mitsuru Toyama %頭山 満, le1t(# chie1 o1 the Black 'ragon 5ociety %黒龍会, *okuryukai(# a!!ears with 1uture Prime Minister o1 "a!an Tsuyoshi Hnukai %犬養 毅, center(# 1uture President o1 ?e!uAlic o1 China Chiang *ai-shek %蔣中正 K 蔣 !, second 1rom right(# and other dignitaries in ,I/I. Prime Minister o1 "a!an Tsuyoshi Hnukai was assassinated on May ,:# ,IG/. %Photo3 htt!3@@www.toyamamitsuru.7!@syashin@inde<.html(

9aKi +ermany&s dictator 8dol1 )itler stand on a !atio with *ung )siang-hsi L).). *ungM %"#$(# 9ationalist China&s Minister o1 6inance %,IGG-,I..( and +overnor o1 the Central Bank o1 China %,IGG-,I.:(# during *ung&s visit to Berchtesgaden# +ermany in ,IG=. ).). *ung earned a Bachelor o1 8rts degree at ;Aerlin College in ,IJE and a Master o1 8rts degree at Fale 4niversity in ,IJ=. ).). *ung was married to 5oong 8i-ling# the sister o1 Madame Chiang *ai-shek %5oong Mei-ling(. 9aKi +erman o11icers trained +eneralissimo Chiang *ai-shek&s army during the ,IGJsD +eneralissimo Chiang *ai-shek&s ado!ted son Chiang Wei-kuo served in the Wehrmacht and !artici!ated in the 8nschluss. %Time Li1e !hoto(

Generalissimo 7hiang Kai/she Fs e,ecution sBuad& primarily led 4y mem4ers of the Green Gang& 4eheads communist *or ers in <hanghai on April $.& $0.E8

American soldiers of the U8<8 7aAalry patrol the streets of <hanghai& 7hina on horse4ac in $0.=8

<oAiet military adAiser Mi hail Mar oAich Borodin and Whang Tayley appear together in front of a podium in <hanghai on #une .:& $0.=& during a protest against the eAents of May :%8

2+n April 9& the <uperAisory 7ommittee of the KMT > a mostly honorary 4ody that did not haAe e,ecutiAe authority and included 7hiangFs ey 4ac er 7hang #ieru& as *ell as ?ai #itao and the 7hen 4rothers > unanimously agreed to remoAe 7ommunists from the party and esta4lished a coordinating group to do soC the 2<hanghai !urge 7ommittee83 The 2most important o4jectiAe&3 7hen "ifu tells us in his memoirs& *as to assure that the Green Gang did not ally *ith the 77!& *hich the KMT considered a real possi4ility8 The t*o principal leaders of the Green Gang& ?u Quesheng M2Big )ars3 TuN and Huang #inrong M2!oc mar ed Huang3N& 2for political reasons3 had 2stayed close to the 7ommunist !arty3 as *ell as the Kuomintang8 According to 7hen "ifu& ?u had direct contact *ith 5ang <houhua& a Green Gang and 77! mem4er *ho *as leader of the 7ommunist/led <hanghai ;ederation of Trade Unions8 Because of these ties& the 77! 7entral 7ommittee did not 4elieAe the po*erful Green Gang *as an imminent threat8 But a ran ing gang mem4er named Qang Hu& *ho had *or ed *ith 7hiang Kai/she in the early years of the reAolution& serAed as the KMT purge committeeFs principal contact *ith ?u Quesheng& *ho *as giAen 9%%&%%% 7hinese yuan 4y the committee to create a 2Mutual !rogress <ociety3 of armed thugs to help carry out the gangFs assigned actions8 6ndeed& 4efore leaAing& 7hiang appointed Qang commander of <hanghaiFs garrisons8 That same day& Manchurian marshal Whang WuolinFs police stormed into the large <oAiet em4assy in !e ing& arresting Russian diplomats and 77! mem4ers& and carrying off truc loads of documents that proAided 2persuasiAe eAidence of the degree to *hich Mosco*& though its agent& Borodin& controlled the 77!83 Marshal Whang ordered the strangulation of "i ?aJhao and nineteen other 77! mem4ers ta en at the em4assy8 But ruthlessness and treachery *ere inherent on 4oth sides8 By coincidence& also on April 9& <talin& ignorant of eAents in !e ing& told a meeting of three thousand party *or ers in Mosco* that 25hen the MKMTN Right is of no more use& 7hiang Kai/she *ill 4e sBueeJed out li e a lemon and flung far a*ay83 The t*enty/t*o/year/long 7hinese ciAil *ar 4egan in <hanghai in the early morning hours of April $.& $0.E8 The preAious eAening& the Green GangFs ?u Quesheng inAited his friend 5ang <houhua& the 7ommunist la4or leader& to his home for a chat8 5hile there& ?u adAised 5ang to Buit the 7ommunist party and join the KMT8 5ang declined and as he left the house& t*o assassins gunned him do*n8 Then& after midnight& Bai 7hong,iFs <eAenth 7orps units in <hanghai too oAer the offices of the pro/7ommunist "a4or ;ederation and shot resisting *or ers& *hile armed 4ands organiJed 4y the Green Gang as the Mutual !rosperity <ociety attac ed *or ersF inspection corps in seAeral localities& illing seAeral doJen resisters8 Many more& including Whou )nlai& *ere arrested and sent to BaiFs headBuarters8 Whou *as the ran ing 77! official in the city& 4ut Bai released him& Aery li ely *ith 7hiangFs approAal or on his orders8 Green Gang mem4ers rooted out other 7ommunists in hiding& reportedly illing hundreds *hile thousands fled8 5hen troops of the <eAenth 7orps fired on a demonstration& scores more lost their liAes8 <imilar purges too place in 7anton& Guilin& @ing4o& Amoy& and else*here83 > The 2eneralissimo0 %hiang 6ai.shek and The truggle for #odern %hina 4y #ay Taylor -.%%01& p8 99/9E 27hiangFs realm included the commercial and 4an ing cities of <hanghai& @ing4o& and @an ing8 His support from the financial leaders of these cities *ould not suffer from the factional riAalry and jealousy that afflicted his military 4ase8 6n fact& the capitalists *ere giAen no role in the KMT and the party remained anticapitalist8 Throughout his career& 7hiang Kai/she *ould tightly control the Aarious organiJations of 4an ers and merchants in these cities& mil ing them of funds *hen necessary *ith the unac no*ledged help of ?u QueshengFs gang through such means as threats& destruction of property& and eAen idnapping8 ;or the ne,t ten years 7hiang *ould also o4tain large funds from ta,es on the gro*th and consumption of opium& part of a control system officially intended to gradually reduce use of the drug > and a system in *hich ?u Quesheng M2Big )ars3 TuN *ould play an official part83 > The 2eneralissimo0 %hiang 6ai.shek and The truggle for #odern %hina 4y #ay Taylor -.%%01& p8 90/E%

+eneralissimo Chiang *ai-shek and 1riends during the early ,I/Js

'owntown 5hanghai in ,IGJ

8 5hanghai street is 1illed with rickshaws on May ,# ,I.I. 8t this time# many Ausinesses had already Aegan closing their doors and moving. %+etty@Po!!er1oto@Paul Po!!er(

5hanghai 6inancial 'istrict 5kyline %Photo3 6lickr(

The Bund in 5hanghai# the 1ormer uro!ean Concessions. The uro!ean cor!orate merchants estaAlished 0concessions2 in 5hanghai# 1ollowing the 6irst ;!ium War.

The Bund in 5hanghai# the 1ormer uro!ean Concessions. The uro!ean cor!orate merchants estaAlished 0concessions2 in 5hanghai# 1ollowing the 6irst ;!ium War. %Photo3 6lickr(

0The trade in such drugs results in mono!oly which not only centraliKes the drug tra11ic# Aut also restructures the social and economic terrain in the !rocess. Two ma7or e11ects are the creation o1 mass markets and the generation o1 enormous P un!recedented# cash 1lows. LWhichM results in the concentrated accumulation o1 vast !ools o1 wealth. LWhichM have Aeen among the !rimary 1oundations o1 gloAal ca!italism and the modern nation-state itsel1. Hndeed# it may Ae argued that the entire rise o1 the West# 1rom ,:JJ to ,IJJ# de!ended on a series o1 drug trades. 'rug trades destaAiliKed e<isting societies not merely Aecause they destroyed individual human Aeings Aut also# and !erha!s most im!ortantly LtheyM undercut the e<isting !olitical economy o1 any state. They have created new 1orms o1 ca!italD and they have redistriAuted wealth in radically new ways. %" is possi3le "o su++es" "ha" mass *o sump"io 7 as i" e8is"s i moder so*ie"&7 3e+a 6i"h dru+ addi*"io . 8nd# Aeyond that# addiction Aegan with a drug-as-commodity. 5omething was necessary to !rime the !um!# as it were# to initiate the cycles o1 !roduction# consum!tion and accumulation that we identi1y with ca!italism. ;!ium was the catalyst o1 the consumer market# the money economy. ;!ium created !ools o1 ca!ital and 1ed in the institutions that accumulated it3 the Aanking and 1inancial systems# the insurance systems and the trans!ortation and in1ormation in1rastructures.2 C Opiu!, E!pire and the Glo$al Politi al E ono!y Ay Carl 8. Trocki %,III(

The H<B7 Main Building in $0%$ in Hong Kong& the headBuarters of the Hong Kong and <hanghai Ban ing 7orporation -H<B71 from $''9 to $0:: for its Hong Kong operation8 H<B7 *as founded in the cities of Hong Kong and <hanghai in $'9=8

Hong Kong and <hanghai Ban ing 7orporation -H<B71 headBuarters -center1 in do*nto*n <hanghai

Hong Kong and <hanghai Ban ing 7orporation -H<B71 logo

Le2a"y of the Cpium War: ;ru2 *raffi"4in2 A ;ru2 ?ddi"tion

8 grou! o1 )mong women harvest !o!!y seeds in the +olden Triangle area near Thailand. %9ational +eogra!hic !hoto(

6ormer British Crown Colony o1 )ong *ong

*owloon 'istrict in )ong *ong

Thailand 9ational Police o11icers e<amine a load o1 contraAand o!ium. %9ational +eogra!hic !hoto(

-<ourceC @ational Geographic& ;e4ruary $0'= issue1

"eft photoC A man in Thailand smo es opium8 -<ourceC @ational Geographic& ;e4ruary $0'= issue1 Right photoC An unidentified 7hinese *oman suffers from physical effects of opium addiction8

Rural landscape in the <han <tate in eastern Burma

The sign at the entrance to the city o1 Tachilek called the +olden Triangle city on March G,# /JJI in Tachilek# Burma LMyanmarM. Tachilek# Burma sits on the Thai-Burmese Aorder in 5han 5tate and is known to Ae the crossing !oint 1or the ma7ority o1 am!hetamine !ills into Thailand. The drugs are re!ortedly manu1actured and distriAuted Ay various armed cease1ire grou!s in 5han 5tate. The Thai- Burma Aorder town is a Ausy trading town 1or gems 1ull o1 chea! goods# !lus many varieties o1 co!ies 1rom China. Many Burmese work in Thailand to make a Aetter wage Aut live across the Aorder# Burmese also get Aadly needed medical care in the Thai Aorder town o1 Mae 5ai. %Photo Paula Bronstein@+etty Hmages(

Heroin *arlord Khun <a -also no*n as 7hang 7hi/fu1 -right1 *ith Australian journalist <tephen Rice& pictured in April $0'' at Khun <aHs jungle headBuarters inside Burma& in <outh )ast AsiaHs Golden Triangle8 -!hotoC httpCKKen8*i ipedia8orgK*i iKKhunX<a1

8merican 4.5. 8rmy soldiers raid a !o!!y 1ield in 81ghanistan during the 0+loAal War on Terrorism2.

Le1t !hoto3 The War on 'rugs in ColomAia and the Medellin Cartel ?ight !hoto3 Com!any logo o1 "ardine-Matheson

0PLHMn the +olden Triangle C the Burma-Thailand-Laos area o1 5outheast 8siaP4.5. government estimates say aAout /J !ercent o1 the heroin consumed in the 4.5. comes 1rom !o!!ies growing here# near hundreds o1 villages scattered at G#JJJ 1eet or higher# Ay the mountain !eo!le# as they&re called in Thailand C the Fao# )mong# and 8khaD the Lahu and Lisu. They !roduce rice to eat and o!ium 1or medicine and 1or cash# to !ut into silver Aars or ornaments# mayAe a good ri1le or a radio# or more !igs or a Au11alo. <tensive !o!!y growing Aegan here in the ,Ith centuryPTaking the o!ium to laAoratories C to Ae turned into mor!hine Aase or heroin C makes 1or a lot o1 coming and going Ay caravans o1 !ack mulesPThis is a hallmark o1 +olden Triangle tra11ic3 the involvement o1 siKaAle 1orces o1 armed outlaws. They&re 1rom minorities in revolt against the Burma government# such as 548# the 5han 4nited 8rmy. 8nd the *MT# or *uomintang soldiers C remnants o1 anti-Communist armies that le1t China a1ter Mao&s victory# now settled in northern Thailand.2 C 9ational +eogra!hic magaKine# 6eAruary ,I-:# The Poppy: For Good and Evil# !. ,=J

;ru2 *raffi"4in2 in =olonial !ietnam

7hinese opium den in Vietnam8 The smo ers are in clean surroundings and healthy/loo ing& possi4ly 4ecause at least one is smo ing a to4acco pipe& not an opium pipe& &9:llustration& $0$'8 ;rom !hilip 7hoy collection8 -<ourceC httpCKK***8cinarc8orgK+pium/.8html1

8 Vietnamese man !re!ares to smoke o!ium. %Photo3 htt!3@@www.o!iummuseum.com@inde<.!lS!ics$EE(

!aul ?oumer serAed as the GoAernor/General of ;rench 6ndochina from $'0E/$0%. and !resident of ;rance from #une $:& $0:$ to May E& $0:.8 !aul ?oumer *as assassinated 4y a 2lone gunman3 named !aul Gorguloff& a Russian YmigrY& in !aris& ;rance on May 9& $0:.D !aul ?oumer died of his *ounds the ne,t day8 -<ourceC (ietnam0 $ 8istory 4y <tanley Karno*1

2The la4oring classes& mostly 7hinese and Vietnamese 7hinese& upon *hom the predominantly agriculturally 4ased economy relied& spent much of their earnings on opium8 ;amilies starAed to death& disease *as *idespread and the drug undermined *or ersF a4ilities8 The ;rench/trained natiAe ciAil serAice elite *ere most of them addicts and corrupt8 5hen anti/colonial& nationalist sentiments 4egan to 4e Aoiced& the opium monopoly *as cited as the *orst aspect of ;rench domination and one of the linch/pins of Ho 7hi MinhFs anti/colonial propaganda8 6t *as the ;rench *ho enticed the Hmong hill tri4es of northern "aos to change their cash crop to opium during the <econd 5orld 5ar& o4taining their co/operation 4y promising political support8 !roduction rose 4y '%% per cent from E8= tons in $0(% to 9%89 tons in $0(( and the Hmong tri4es& arguing oAer opium rights and reAenues& split into factions *hich caused a Buarter of a century of ciAil *ar8 6n neigh4ouring Ton in& the ;rench politically sided *ith Tai feudal leaders *ho purchased Hmong opium 4ut dou4le/crossed them *hen it came time to pay& causing the Hmong to ta e sides *ith the Viet Minh against the ;rench8 The Viet Minh and& therefore& ultimately the Viet 7ong& had their struggle partly aided 4y the opium trade they detested8 The ;rench stopped the opium monopoly in $0(9 4ut& upon losing the reAenue from it& unofficially sanctioned ;rench intelligence organiJations to ta e oAer the traffic ing of opiates to fund coAert operations in the ;irst 6ndo/7hina 5ar of $0(9/=(8 5ith typical Gallic guile& corrupt ;rench intelligence officers in colla4oration *ith 7orsican gangsters operated the 6ndo/7hinese 4ased international drugs trade8 The money they earned *as Aital8 The *ar *as underfunded from !aris& *here pu4lic opinion *as against it& so ;rench military and intelligence officers too a ne* tac 8 6n +peration Z& they dealt in opium to pay and arm local groups in order to eep the Viet Minh at 4ay8 The ;rench& therefore& increased the illicit traffic in opium& ta ing a cut of the profits to pay *hat *ere& in effect& mercenariesC indiAidual ;rench officials and military personnel also creamed off percentages for themselAes and 4ecame rich on the proceeds8 This practice did not stop until the ;rench Buit 6ndo/7hina8 The ra* opium in *hich they dealt *as purchased from the Hmong then flo*n 4y ;rench military transport to <aigon *here it *as prepared and distri4uted to dens and dealers 4y the Binh Zuyen8 This *as a Vietnamese criminal syndicate *hich controlled organiJed crime in the south of the country and to *hose nefarious actiAities the ;rench turned a 4lind eye in e,change for their co/operation and occasional help against the Viet Minh8 The Binh Zuyen leader& "e Van [BayF Vien& 4ecame the richest man in <aigon 4y $0=( for he not only ran the domestic opium mar et 4ut he sold any surplus on to 7hinese and 7orsican syndicates8 5ith ;rench colonial po*er receding and Vietnam partitioned& the Americans& *ho *ere increasing their influence in the ne* <outh Vietnam to counter 7ommunist e,pansion& supported a ne* prime minister& @go ?inh ?iem& *ho *as fiercely opposed to the 7ommunist Viet Minh8 ?iem destroyed the Binh Zuyen *hich he perceiAed as a political threat8 5ith the departure of "e Van Vien and his cohorts& and the closure of +peration Z& opium smuggling in 4ul from "aos ceased *ith selling left to petty criminals8 The Aacuum *as Buic ly filled 4y the 7orsican syndicates *ho had had representatiAes in <aigon and Vientiane& the capital of "aos& since the ;rench ),peditionary 7orps had arriAed in the late $0(%s& sent out to fight in the *ar8 7onnected to comrades in Marseilles& they had 4een running gold& gemstones& currency and narcotics 4et*een the ;rench port and <aigon throughout hostilities8 They instigated a num4er of small charter air freight companies& collectiAely referred to as Air +pium -not to 4e confused *ith Air America18 <ome pilots *ere ;rench criminals and some e,/Resistance fighters form the <econd 5orld 5ar& including the famous dou4le agent& Henri ?ericourt8 Under the leadership of BonaAenture [Roc F ;rancisci& a 7orsican gangster *ho operated Air "aos 7ommerciale& they fle* morphine 4ase form the golden Triangle to <aigon then freighted it on*ard 4y sea to )urope8 5hilst the 7orsicans *ere setting up a <outh/east Asian 4ranch of the ;rench 7onnection& the goAernment of @go ?inh ?iem *as running short of funds8 He legaliJed opium dens in $0=' and& as other <outh Vietnamese goAernments *ere to do& used the reAenue to pay for the fight against the Viet 7ong83 > Opium0 $ 8istory 4y Martin Booth

1inh Euyen
5ith their stronghold in the 7holon section near <aigon& the 1inh Euyen >ere dru2 smu22lers *ho traditionally traded support for legal protection of their rac ets& *hether they *ere dealing *ith the ;rench )mpire or the Vietminh nationalists8 Their trade *as prostitution& gam4ling casinos& and opium dens8 6n post/5orld 5ar 66 Vietnam& the Binh Zuyen 4ecame a po*erful political faction under the leadership of Bay Vien8 6n $0(= the Binh Zuyen proAided terrorists to the Vietminh& *ho assassinated more than $=% ;rench ciAilians& including *omen and children8 6n order to generate the funds necessary to sustain his goAernment& )mperor Bao ?ai readily accepted money from the Binh Zuyen& *ho receiAed legal protection for their rac ets in return8 Bao ?ai made Bay Vien a general in the Vietnamese army and gaAe him complete authority oAer the casinos& prostitution& opium traffic& gold smuggling& currency manipulation& and other rac ets8 The ;rench accepted Bay VienHs authority and eAen used his priAate Binh Zuyen army to fight the Vietminh8 By the early $0=%s& the Binh Zuyen army had reached more than (%&%%% soldiers and it *as a major political/military faction in southern Vietnam8 After securing control of the ne* goAernment of <outh Vietnam in the spring of $0==& @go ?inh ?iem decided to crush the political and religious factions in the <outh\li e the Hoa Hao and 7ao ?ai\and one of the most po*erful *as the Binh Zuyen8 +n April .E& $0==& ?iem ordered Bay Vien and the Binh Zuyen to remoAe its troops from <aigon& and *hen they refused ?iem attac ed8 The 4attle raged inside the city& illing more than =%% people and leaAing .=&%%% *ithout homes8 The ;rench and Bao ?ai tried to assist the Binh Zuyen& 4ut ?iem preAailed8 By the end of May& Bay Vien had fled to !aris and the Binh Zuyen army had 4een driAen into the Me ong ?elia& *here many of them joined the Vietcong guerrillas8 <ourceC httpCKK***8Aietnam*ar8netKBinhZuyen8htm

"e Grand Monde 7asino in the 7holon ?istrict M7hinese ?istrictN in <aigon in the early $0=%s -!hotoC httpCKKsaigon8Aietnam8free8frKsaigonXenE8php1

Bay Vien& head of the Binh Zuyen

),cerpts from The Politics of 8eroin in outheast $sia 4y Alfred 58 Mc7oy -$0E.1

=hapter /': *he 1inh Euyen: Crder and Cpium in 5ai2on

5hile the history of <?)7) and MA7Gs direct inAolAement in the tri4al opium trade proAides an e,otic chapter in the history of the narcotics traffic& the inAolAement of <aigonHs Binh Zuyen riAer pirates *as the product of a type of political relationship that has 4een repeated *ith alarming freBuency oAer the last half/century/the alliance 4et*een goAernments and gangsters8 #ust as the relationship 4et*een the +<< and the 6talian Mafia during 5orld 5ar $$ and the 76A/7orsican alliance in the early years of the cold *ar affected the resurrection of the )uropean heroin trade& so the ;rench .eme BureauHs alliance *ith the Binh Zuyen allo*ed <aigonHs opium commerce to surAiAe and prosper during the ;irst 6ndochina 5ar8 The .eme Bureau *as not an integral cog in the mechanics of the traffic as MA7G had 4een in the mountainsD it remained in the 4ac ground proAiding oAerall political support& allo*ing the Binh Zuyen to ta e oAer the opium dens and esta4lish their o*n opium references8 By $0=( the Binh Zuyen controlled Airtually all of <aigonHs opium dens and dominated the distri4ution of prepared opium throughout 7ochin 7hina -the southern part of Vietnam18 <ince 7ochin 7hina had usually consumed oAer half of the monopolyHs opium& and <aigon*ith its 7hinese t*in city& 7holon/had the highest density of smo ers in the entire colony& -=E1 the .eme BureauHs decision to turn the traffic oAer to the Binh Zuyen guaranteed the failure of the goAernmentHs anti/opium campaign and ensured the surAiAal of mass opium addiction in Vietnam8 The .eme BureauHs pact *ith the Binh Zuyen *as part of a larger ;rench policy of using ethnic& religious& and political factions to deny territory to the Viet Minh8 By supplying these splinter groups *ith arms and money& the ;rench hoped to ma e them strong enough to ma e their localities into priAate fiefs& there4y neutraliJing the region and freeing regular com4at troops from garrison duty8 But <aigon *as not just another clump of rice paddies& it *as ;ranceHs ]!earl of the +rient&] the richest& most important city in 6ndochina8 6n giAing <aigon to the Binh Zuyen& 4loc 4y 4loc & oAer a si,/year period& the ;rench *ere not just 4uilding up another fiefdom& they *ere ma ing these 4andits the ey to their hold on all of 7ochin 7hina8 Hunted through the s*amps as riAer pirates in the $0(%s& 4y $0=( their military commander *as director/general of the @ational !olice and their great chief& the illiterate Bay Vien& *as nominated as prime minister of Vietnam8 The ro44ers had 4ecome the cops& the gangsters the goAernment8 The Binh Zuyen riAer pirates first emerged in the early $0.%s in the marshes and canals along the southern fringes of <aigon/7holon8 They *ere a loosely organiJed coalition of pirate gangs& a4out t*o hundred to three hundred strong8 Armed *ith old rifles& clu4s& and niAes& and schooled in <ino/Vietnamese 4o,ing& they e,torted protection money from the sampans and jun s that traAeled the canals on their *ay to the 7holon doc s8 +ccasionally they sortied into 7holon to idnap& ro4& or sha e do*n a *ealthy 7hinese merchant8 6f too sorely pressed 4y the police or the colonial militia& they could retreat through the streams and canals south of <aigon deep into the impenetra4le Rung <at <*amp at the mouth of the <aigon RiAer& *here their reputations as popular heroes among the inha4itants& as

*ell as the maJe of mangroAe s*amps& rendered them inAulnera4le to capture8 -='1 6f the Binh Zuyen pirates *ere the Ro4in Hoods of Vietnam& then the Rung <at -];orest of the Assassins]1 *as their <her*ood ;orest8 Their popular image *as not entirely undeserAed& for there is eAidence that many of the early outla*s *ere ordinary contract la4orers *ho had fled from the ru44er plantations that sprang up on the northern edge of the Rung <at during the ru44er 4oom of the $0.%s8 6nsufficient food and 4rutal *or schedules *ith 4eatings and torture made most of the plantations little 4etter than slaAe la4or campsD many had an annual death rate higher than .% percent8 -=01 But the majority of those *ho joined the Binh Zuyen *ere just ordinary 7holon street toughs& and the career of "e Van Vien -]Bay] Vien1 *as rather more typical8 Born in $0%( on the outs irts of 7holon& Bay Vien found himself alone& uneducated and in need of a jo4 after an inheritance dispute cost him his 4irthright at age seAenteen8 He soon fell under the influence of a small/time gangster *ho found him employment as a chauffeur and introduced him to the leaders of the 7holon under*orld8 -9%1 As he esta4lished his under*orld reputation& Bay Vien *as inAited to meetings at the house of the under*orld ingpin& ?uong Van ?uong -]Ba] ?uong1& in the hamlet of Binh Zuyen -*hich later lent its name to the group1& just south of 7holon8 The early history of the Binh Zuyen *as an intermina4le cycle of idnapping& piracy& pursuit& and occasionally imprisonment until late in 5orld 5ar 66& *hen #apanese military intelligence& the Kempeitai& 4egan da44ling in Vietnamese politics8 ?uring $0(:/$0(( many indiAidual gang leaders managed to ingratiate themselAes *ith the #apanese army& then administering <aigon jointly *ith the Vichy ;rench8 Than s to #apanese protection& many gangsters *ere a4le to come out of hiding and find legitimate employmentD Ba ?uong& for e,ample& 4ecame a la4or 4ro er for the #apanese& and under their protection carried out some of <aigonHs most spectacular *artime ro44eries8 +ther leaders joined #apanese/sponsored political groups& *here they 4ecame inAolAed in politics for the first time8 -9$1 Many of the Binh Zuyen 4andits had already ta en a crash course in Vietnamese nationalist politics *hile imprisoned on 7on <on -!uolo 7ondore1 island8 ;inding themselAes sharing cells *ith em4ittered political prisoners& they participated& out of 4oredom if nothing else& in their heated political de4ates8 Bay Vien himself escaped from 7on <on in early $0(=& and returned to <aigon politiciJed and em4ittered to*ard ;rench colonialism8 -9.1 +n March 0& $0(=& the fortunes of the Binh Zuyen improAed further *hen the #apanese army 4ecame *ary of gro*ing anti/;ascist sentiments among their ;rench military and ciAilian colla4orators and launched a lightning preemptiAe coup8 5ithin a fe* hours all ;rench police& soldiers& and ciAil serAants *ere 4ehind 4ars& leaAing those Vietnamese political groups faAored 4y the #apanese free to organiJe openly for the first time8 <ome Binh Zuyen gangsters *ere giAen amnestyD others& li e Bay Vien& *ere hired 4y the ne*ly esta4lished Vietnamese goAernment as police agents8 )ager for the intelligence& money& and men the Binh Zuyen could proAide& almost eAery political faction courted the organiJation Aigorously8 Rejecting oAertures 4y conserAatiAes and Trots yites& the Binh Zuyen made a decision of considera4le importance /they chose the Viet Minh as their allies8 5hile this decision *ould haAe 4een of little conseBuence in Ton in or central Vietnam& *here the 7ommunist/dominated Viet Minh *as strong enough to stand alone& in 7ochin 7hina the Binh Zuyen support *as crucial8 After launching an a4ortiAe reAolt in $0(%& the 7ochin diAision of the 6ndochina 7ommunist party had 4een *ea ened 4y mass arrests and e,ecutions8-9:1 5hen the party 4egan re4uilding at the end of 5orld 5ar 66 it *as already outstripped 4y more conserAatiAe nationalist groups& particularly politicoreligious groups such as the Hoa Hao and 7ao ?ai8 6n August $0(= the head of the Viet Minh in 7ochin 7hina& Tran Van Giau& conAinced Bay Vien to persuade Ba ?uong and the other chiefs to align *ith the Viet Minh8 -9(1 5hen the Viet Minh called a mass demonstration on August .= to cele4rate their installation as the ne* nationalist goAernment& fifteen *ell/armed& 4are/chested 4andits carrying a large 4anner declaring ]Binh Zuyen Assassination 7ommittee] joined the tens of thousands of demonstrators *ho marched ju4ilantly through do*nto*n <aigon for oAer nine hours8 -9=1 ;or almost a month the Viet Minh ran the city& managing its pu4lic utilities and patrolling the streets& until late <eptem4er& *hen arriAing British and ;rench troops too charge8 5orld 5ar 66 had come to an a4rupt end on August $=& *hen the #apanese surrendered to the Allies in the *a e of atomic attac s on Hiroshima and @agasa i8 Allied commanders had 4een preparing for a long& 4loody inAasion of the #apanese home islands& and *ere suddenly faced *ith the enormous pro4lems of disarming thousands of #apanese troops scattered across )ast and <outheast Asia8 +n <eptem4er $. some $&(%% 6ndian Gur has and a company of ;rench infantry under the command of British General ?ouglas ?8 Gracey *ere airlifted to <aigon from Burma8 Although he *as under strict orders to stay out of politics& General Gracey& an arch/ colonialist& interAened decisiAely on the side of the ;rench8 5hen a Viet Minh *elcoming committee paid a courtesy call he made no effort to conceal his prejudices8 ]They came to see me and said H*elcomeH and all that sort of thing&] he later reported8 ]6t *as an unpleasant situation and 6 promptly ic ed them out8 -991 Ten days later the British secretly rearmed some fifteen hundred ;rench troops& *ho promptly e,ecuted a coup& reoccupying the cityHs main pu4lic 4uildings8 Bac ed 4y #apanese and 6ndian troops& the ;rench cleared the Viet Minh out of do*nto*n <aigon and 4egan a house/to/house search for nationalist leaders8 And *ith the arriAal of ;rench troop ships from Marseille seAeral *ee s later& ;ranceHs reconBuest of 6ndochina 4egan in earnest8 -9E1 ;earing further reprisals& the Viet Minh *ithdre* to the *est of <aigon& leaAing Bay Vien as military commander of <aigon/7holon8 -9'1 <ince at that time the Binh Zuyen consisted of less than a hundred men& the Viet Minh suggested that they merge forces *ith the city*ide nationalist youth moAement& the AAant/Garde Qouth8 -901 After meeting *ith Bay Vien& one of the AAant/GardeHs <aigon leaders& the future police chief "ai Van <ang& agreed that the merger made senseC his t*o thousand men lac ed arms and money& *hile

the *ealthy Binh Zuyen lac ed ran and file8 -E%1 6t *as a peculiar allianceD <aigonHs toughest criminals *ere no* commanding idealistic young students and intelligentsia8 As British and ;rench troops reoccupied do*nto*n <aigon& the Binh Zuyen too up defensiAe positions along the southern and *estern edges of the city8 Beginning on +cto4er .=& ;rench thrusts into the su4ur4s smashed through their lines and 4egan driAing them 4ac into the Rung <at <*amp8 -E$1 Ba ?uong led the amphi4ious retreat of thousands of Binh Zuyen troops& AAant/Garde Qouth& and #apanese deserters deep into the Rung <atHs *atery maJe8 Ho*eAer& they left 4ehind a net*or of clandestine cells no*n as ]action committees] -formerly ]assassination committees]1 totaling some .=% men8 5hile Binh Zuyen *ater4orne guerrillas harassed the canals& the action committees effectiAely proAided intelligence& e,torted money& and unleashed political terror8 Merchants paid the action committees regular fees for a guarantee of their personal safety& *hile the famous casino& the Grand Monde& paid P.&9%% a day as insurance that Binh Zuyen terrorists *ould not toss a grenade into its gaming halls8 -E.1 These contri4utions& along *ith arms supplies& ena4led the Binh Zuyen to e,pand their forces to seAen full regiments totaling ten thousand men& the largest Viet Minh force in 7ochin 7hina8 -E:1 6n $0(E& *hen the Viet Minh decided to launch a *aAe of terror against ;rench colonists& the Binh Zuyen action committees played a major role in the 4om4ings& nifings& and assaults that punctuated the daily life of <aigon/7holon8 -E(1 But despite their important contri4utions to the reAolutionary moAement& the Binh Zuyen marriage to the Viet Minh *as doomed from the Aery start8 6t *as not sophisticated ideological disputes that diAided them& 4ut rather more mundane sBua44lings oAer 4ehaAior& discipline& and territory8 Relations 4et*een Binh Zuyen gangs had al*ays 4een managed on the principle of mutual respect for each chiefHs autonomous territory8 6n contrast& the Viet Minh *ere attempting to 4uild a mass reAolution 4ased on popular participation8 7onfidence in the moAement *as a must& and the e,cesses of any unit commander had to 4e Buic ly punished 4efore they could alienate the people and destroy the reAolution8 +n the one hand the 4rash& impulsiAe 4andit& on the other the disciplined party cadre/a clash *as ineAita4le8 A confrontation came in early $0(9 *hen accusations of murder& e,tortion and *anton Aiolence against a minor Binh Zuyen chieftain forced the Viet Minh commander& @guyen Binh& to conAene a military tri4unal8 6n the midst of the heated argument 4et*een the Binh Zuyen leader Ba ?uong and @guyen Binh& the accused gra44ed the Viet Minh commanderHs pistol and shot himself in the head8 Blaming the Viet Minh for his friendHs suicide& Ba ?uong 4egan 4uilding a moAement to oust @guyen Binh& 4ut *as strafed and illed 4y a ;rench aircraft a fe* *ee s later& *ell 4efore his plans had matured8 -E=1 <hortly after Ba ?uongHs death in ;e4ruary $0(9& the Binh Zuyen held a mass rally in the heart of the Rung <at to mourn their fallen leader and elect Bay Vien as his successor8 Although Bay Vien had *or ed closely *ith the Viet Minh& he *as no* much more am4itious than patriotic8 Bored *ith 4eing ing of the mangroAe s*amps& Bay Vien and his adAisers deAised three strategems for catapulting him to greater heightsC they ordered assassination committees to fi, their sights on @guyen BinhD -E91 they 4egan *or ing *ith the Hoa Hao religious group to forge an anti/;rench& anti/Viet Minh coalitionD -EE1 and they initiated negotiations *ith the ;rench .eme Bureau for some territory in <aigon8 The Viet Minh remained relatiAely tolerant of Bay VienHs machinations until March $0('& *hen he sent his top adAisers to <aigon to negotiate a secret alliance *ith 7aptain <aAani of the .eme Bureau8 -E'1 7oncealing their no*ledge of Bay VienHs 4etrayal& the Viet Minh inAited him to attend a special conAocation at their camp in the !lain of Reeds on May $0& Ho 7hi MinhHs 4irthday8 RealiJing that this *as a trap& Bay Vien strutted into the meeting surrounded 4y t*o hundred of his toughest gangsters8 But *hile he allo*ed himself the lu,ury of denouncing @guyen Binh to his face& the Viet Minh *ere stealing the Rung <at8 Viet Minh cadres *ho had infiltrated the Binh Zuyen months 4efore called a mass meeting and e,posed Bay VienHs negotiations *ith the ;rench8 The shoc ed nationalistic students and youths launched a coup on May .'D Bay VienHs supporters *ere arrested& unrelia4le units *ere disarmed and the Rung <at refuge *as turned oAer to the Viet Minh8 Bac on the !lain of Reeds& Bay Vien sensed an ugly change of temper in the conAocations& massed his 4odyguards& and fled to*ard the Rung <at pursued 4y Viet Minh troops8 -E01 )n route he learned that his refuge *as lost and changed direction& arriAing on the outs irts of <aigon on #une $%8 Hounded 4y pursuing VietMinh columns& and a*are that return to the Rung <at *as impossi4le& Bay Vien found himself on the road to <aigon8 Un*illing to join *ith the ;rench openly and 4e la4eled a colla4orator& Bay Vien hid in the marshes south of <aigon for seAeral days until .eme Bureau agents finally located him8 Bay Vien may haAe lost the Rung <at& 4ut his coAert action committees remained a potent force in <aigon7holon and made him inAalua4le to the ;rench8 7aptain <aAani -*ho had 4een nic named ]the 7orsican 4andit] 4y ;rench officers1 Aisited the Binh Zuyen leader in his hideout and argued& ]Bay Vien& thereHs no other *ay out8 Qou haAe only a fe* hours of life left if you donHt sign 5ith U<8 -'%1 The captainHs logic *as irrefuta4leD on #une $9 a ;rench staff car droAe Bay Vien to <aigon& *here he signed a prepared declaration denouncing the 7ommunists as traitors and aAo*ing his loyalty to the present emperor& Bao ?ai8 -'$1 <hortly after*ard& the ;rench goAernment announced that it ]had decided to confide the police and maintenance of order to the Binh Zuyen troops in a Jone *here they are used to operating] and assigned them a small piece of territory along the southern edge of 7holon -'.1 6n e,change for this concession& eight hundred gangsters *ho had rallied to Bay Vien from the Rung <at& together *ith the coAert action committees& assisted the ;rench in a massiAe and enormously successful s*eep through the t*in cities in search of Viet Minh

cadres& cells& and agents8 As Bay VienHs chief political adAiser& "ai Huu Tai& e,plained& ]<ince *e had spent time in the maBuis and fought there& *e also ne* ho* to organiJe the counter maBuis8 -':1 But once the operation *as finished& Bay Vien& afraid of 4eing damned as a colla4orator& retired to his slender turf and refused to 4udge8 The Binh Zuyen refused to set foot on any territory not ceded to them and la4eled an independent ]nationalist Jone8] 6n order to aAail themselAes of the Binh ZuyenHs uniBue a4ilities as an ur4an counterintelligence and security force& the ;rench *ere o4liged to turn oAer <aigon/7holon 4loc 4y 4loc 8 By April $0=( the Binh Zuyen military commander& "ai Van <ang& *as director/general of police& and the Binh Zuyen controlled the capital region and the si,ty/mile strip 4et*een <aigon and 7ap <aint #acBues8 <ince the Binh ZuyenHs pacification techniBue reBuired Aast amounts of money to 4ri4e thousands of informers& the ;rench allo*ed them carte 4lanche to plunder the city8 6n giAing the Binh Zuyen this economic and political control oAer <aigon& the ;rench *ere not only eradicating the Viet Minh& 4ut creating a political counter*eight to Vietnamese nationalist parties gaining po*er as a result of gro*ing American pressure for political and military VietnamiJation8 -'(1 By $0=( the illiterate& 4ullnec ed Bay Vien had 4ecome the richest man in <aigon and the ey to the ;rench presence in 7ochin 7hina8 Through the Binh Zuyen& the ;rench .eme Bureau countered the gro*ing po*er of the nationalist parties& ept Viet Minh terrorists off the streets& and 4attled the American 76A for control of <outh Vietnam8 <ince the ey to the Binh ZuyenHs po*er *as money& and Buite a lot of it& their economic eAolution 4ears e,amination8 The Binh ZuyenHs financial hold oAer <aigon *as similar in many respects to that of American organiJed crime in @e* Qor 7ity8 The <aigon gangsters used their po*er oAer the streets to collect protection money and to control the transportation industry& gam4ling& prostitution& and narcotics8 But *hile American gangsters prefer to maintain a lo* profile& the Binh Zuyen flaunted their po*erC their green/4ereted soldiers strutted do*n the streets& opium dens and gam4ling casinos operated openly& and a goAernment minister actually presided at the dedication of the Hall of Mirrors& the largest 4rothel in Asia8 !ro4a4ly the most important Binh Zuyen economic asset *as the gam4ling and lottery concession controlled through t*o spra*ling casinos / the Grand Monde in 7holon and the 7loche dH+r in <aigon/*hich *ere operated 4y the highest 4idder for the annually a*arded franchise8 the Grand Monde had 4een opened in $0(9 at the insistence of the goAernor/general of 6ndochina& Adm8 Thierry dHArgenlieu& in order to finance the colonial goAernment of 7ochin 7hina8 -'=1 The franchise *as initially leased to a Macao 7hinese gam4ling syndicate& *hich made payoffs to all of <aigonHs competing political forces/the Binh Zuyen& )mperor Bao ?ai& prominent ca4inet ministers& and eAen the Viet Minh8 6n early $0=% Bay Vien suggested to 7apt8 Antoine <aAani that payments to the Viet Minh could 4e ended if he *ere a*arded the franchise8 -'91 The ;rench agreed& and Bay VienHs political adAiser& "ai Huu Tai -"ai Van <angHs 4rother1& met *ith )mperor Bao ?ai and promised him strong economic and political support if he agreed to support the measure8 But *hen Bao ?ai made the proposal to !resident Huu and the goAernor of 7ochin& they refused their consent& since 4oth of them receiAed stipends from the Macao 7hinese8 Ho*eAer& the Binh Zuyen 4ro e the deadloc in their o*n inimita4le fashionC they adAised the 7hinese franchise holders that the Binh Zuyen police *ould no longer protect the casinos from Viet Minh terrorists -'E1 idnapped the head of the Macao syndicate& -''1 and& finally& pledged to continue eAery4odyHs stipends8 After agreeing to pay the goAernment a P.%%&%%% deposit and P.%&%%% a day& the Binh Zuyen *ere a*arded the franchise on ?ecem4er :$& $0=%8 -'01 ?espite these heaAy e,penses& the a*ard of the franchise *as an enormous economic coupD shortly 4efore the Grand Monde *as shut do*n 4y a ne* regime in $0==& no*ledgea4le ;rench o4serAers estimated that it *as the most profita4le casino in Asia& and perhaps in the *orld8 -0%1 <ometime after $0=% the ;rench military a*arded the Binh Zuyen another lucratiAe colonial asset& <aigonHs opium commerce8 The Binh Zuyen started processing MA7GHs ra* Meo opium and distri4uting prepared smo ersH opium to hundreds of dens scattered throughout the t*in cities8 -0$1 They paid a fi,ed percentage of their profits to )mperor Bao ?ai& the ;rench .eme Bureau& and the MA7G commandos8 The 76AHs 7olonel "ansdale later reported thatC ;The !inh <uyen 'ere participating in one of the 'orld9s major arteries of the dope traffic) helping move the pri4e opium crops out of &aos and outh %hina= The profits 'ere so huge that !ao Dai9s tiny cut 'as ample to keep him in yachts) villas) and other comforts in France=; >7?@ The final Binh Zuyen aset *asT prostitution8 They o*ned and operated a *ide Aariety of 4rothels& all the *ay from small& intimate Aillas staffed *ith attractiAe young *omen for generals and diplomats do*n to the Hall of Mirrors& *hose t*elAe hundred inmates and assem4lyline techniBues made it one of the largest and most profita4le in Asia8 -0:1 The 4rothels not only proAided income& they also yielded a steady flo* of political and military intelligence8 6n reAie*ing Bay VienHs economic actiAities in $0=(& -0(1 the ;rench .eme Bureau concludedC ;:n summary) the total of the economic potential built up by 2eneral &e (an >!ay@ (ien has succeeded in follo'ing eAactly the rules of hori4ontal and vertical monopoli4ation so dear to $merican consortiums=; >7B@ ;!ay (ien9s control over aigon.%holon had enabled him to build ;a multi.faceted business enterprise 'hose economic potential constitutes === one of the most solid economic forces in outh (ietnam=; >7-@

After haAing allo*ed the Binh Zuyen to deAelop this financial empire& the .eme Bureau *itnessed its liBuidation during the desperate struggle it *aged *ith the 76A for control of <aigon and <outh Vietnam8 Bet*een April .' and May :& $0==& the Binh Zuyen and the Vietnamese army -ARV@1 fought a saAage house/to/house 4attle for control of <aigon/7holon8 More troops *ere inAolAed in this 4attle than in the Tet offensiAe of $09'& and the fighting *as almost as destructiAe8 -0E1 6n the si, days of fighting fiAe hundred persons *ere illed& t*o thousand *ounded& and t*enty thousand left homeless8 -0'1 <oldiers completely disregarded ciAilians and leAeled *hole neigh4orhoods *ith artillery& mortars& and heaAy machine guns8 And *hen it *as all oAer the Binh Zuyen had 4een driAen 4ac into the Rung <at and !rime Minister @go ?inh ?iem *as master of <aigon8 This 4attle had 4een a *ar 4y pro,yD the Binh Zuyen and ?iemHs ARV@ *ere stand/ins& mere pa*ns& in a po*er struggle 4et*een the ;rench .eme Bureau and the American 76A8 Although there *ere longstanding tactical disagreements 4et*een the ;rench and Americans& at the am4assadorial and goAernmental leAels& there *as an atmosphere of friendliness and fle,i4ility that *as not to 4e found in their respectiAe intelligence agencies8 !rior to the ;rench de4acle at ?ien Bien !hu the t*o goAernments had cooperated *ith a minimum of Aisi4le friction in 6ndochina8 ?uring the early $0=%s the United <tates paid E' percent of the cost for maintaining the ;rench ),peditionary 7orps and hundreds of American adAisers serAed *ith ;rench units8 After ?ien Bien !hu and GeneAa& ho*eAer& the partnership 4egan to crum4le8 ;rance resigned herself to granting full independence to her former colony& and agreed at GeneAa to *ithdra* from the northern half of the country and hold an all/Vietnam referendum in $0=9/an election the Viet Minh *ere sure to *in/to determine *ho *ould rule the unified nation8 Under the guidance of !remier Mendes/;rance& ;rance planned ]a precedent/setting e,periment in coe,istence]D she *ould grant the Viet Minh full control oAer Vietnam 4y adhering strictly to the GeneAa Accords& and then *or closely *ith Ho 7hi Minh ]to preserAe ;rench cultural influence and salAage ;rench capital8 -001 @eedless to say& the ;rench premierHs plans did not sit *ell in a U8<8 <tate ?epartment operating on <ecretary #ohn ;oster ?ullesH anti/7ommunist first principles8 ;undamental policy disagreements 4egan to deAelop 4et*een 5ashington and !aris& though there *as no open conflict8 The !entagon !apers haAe summariJed the points of disagreement 4et*een 5ashington and !aris rather neatly8 All the foregoing tension resolAed to t*o central issues 4et*een the United <tates and ;rance8 The first *as the Buestion of ho* and 4y *hom VietnamHs armed forces *ere to 4e trained8 The second& and more far reaching& *as *hether @go ?inh ?iem *as to remain at the head of VietnamHs goAernment or *hether he *as to 4e replaced 4y another nationalist leader more sympathetic to Bao ?ai and ;rance8 -$%%1 The first Buestion *as resolAed soon after <pecial Am4assador Gen8 #8 "a*ton 7ollins arriAed in Vietnam on @oAem4er '& $0=(8 The Americans *ere already supplying most of ARV@Hs aid& and ;rench High 7ommissioner Gen8 !aul )ly readily agreed to turn the training oAer to the Americans8 The second Buestion/*hether ?iem should continue as premier proAo ed the 76A/.eme Bureau *ar of April $0==8 ?iem *as a political un no*n *ho had acceded to the premiership largely 4ecause 5ashington *as conAinced that his strong anti/7ommunist& anti/;rench 4eliefs 4est suited American interests8 But the immediate pro4lem for ?iem and the Americans *as control of <aigon8 6f ?iem *ere to 4e of any use to the Americans in 4loc ing the unification of Vietnam& he *ould haAe to *rest control of the streets from the Binh Zuyen8 ;or *hoeAer controlled the streets controlled <aigon& and *hoeAer controlled <aigon held the ey to VietnamHs rice/ rich Me ong ?elta8 5hile the ;rench and American goAernments politely disaAo*ed any self/interest and tried to ma e eAen their most partisan suggestions seem a pragmatic response to the changing situation in <aigon& 4oth gaAe their intelligence agencies a free hand to see if <aigonHs reality could 4e molded in their faAor8 Behind the smiles on the diplomatic front& 7olonel "ansdale& of the 76A& and the ;rench .eme Bureau& particularly 7aptain <aAani& engaged in a saAage clandestine 4attle for <aigon8 6n the moAie Aersion of Graham GreeneHs noAel on this period& The Quiet American& 7olonel "ansdale *as played 4y the 5orld 5ar 66 com4at hero& Audie Murphy8 MurphyHs preAious roles as the typical American hero in doJens of 4lac hat/*hite hat *esterns ena4led him accurately to project the eAangelistic anti/7ommunism so characteristic of "ansdale8 5hat Murphy did not portray *as "ansdaleHs mastery of the 76AHs repertoire of ]dirty tric s] to achieAe limited political ends8 5hen "ansdale arriAed in <aigon in May $0=( he *as fresh from engineering !resident Ramon MagsaysayHs successful counterinsurgency campaign against the !hilippine 7ommunist party8 As the prophet of a ne* counterinsurgency doctrine and representatiAe of a *ealthy goAernment& "ansdale *as a formida4le opponent8 6n see ing to depose Bay Vien& 7olonel "ansdale *as not just challenging the .eme Bureau& he *as ta ing on <aigonHs 7orsican community > 7orsican 4usinessmen& 7orsican colonists& and the 7orsican under*orld8 ;rom the late nineteenth century on*ard& 7orsicans had dominated the 6ndochina ciAil serAice8 -$%$1 At the end of 5orld 5ar 66& 7orsican resistance fighters& some of them gangsters& had joined the regular army and come to 6ndochina *ith the ),peditionary 7orps8 Many remained in <aigon after their enlistment to go into legitimate 4usiness or to reap profits from the 4lac mar et and smuggling that flourished under *artime conditions8 Those *ith strong under*orld connections in Marseille *ere a4le to engage in currency smuggling 4et*een the t*o ports8 The Marseille gangster Barthelemy Guerini *or ed closely *ith contacts in 6ndochina to smuggle <*iss gold to Asia immediately

after 5orld 5ar 668 -$%.1 MoreoAer& 7orsican gangsters close to 7orsican officers in <aigonHs .eme Bureau purchased surplus opium and shipped it to Marseille& *here it made a small contri4ution to the cityHs gro*ing heroin industry8 -$%:1 The unchallenged leader of <aigonHs 7orsican under*orld *as the eminently respecta4le Mathieu ;ranchini8 +*ner of the e,clusiAe 7ontinental !alace Hotel& ;ranchini made a fortune playing the piastergold circuit 4et*een <aigon and Marseille during the ;irst 6ndochina 5ar8 -$%(1 He 4ecame the Binh ZuyenHs inAestment counselor and managed a good deal of their opium and gam4ling profits8 5hen Bay VienHs fortune reached monumental proportions& ;ranchini sent him to !aris *here ]ne* found 7orsican friends gaAe him good adAice a4out inAesting his surplus millions8] -$%=1 And according to relia4le Vietnamese sources& it *as ;ranchini *ho controlled most of <aigonHs opium e,ports to Marseille8 @either he nor his associates could Aie* *ith eBuanimity the prospect of an American ta eoAer8 Many people *ithin the .eme Bureau had *or ed as much as eight years 4uilding up sect armies li e the Binh ZuyenD many 7orsicans outside the military had 4usinesses& positions& rac ets& and po*er that *ould 4e threatened 4y a decline in ;rench influence8 5hile they certainly did not share !remier Mendes ;ranceHs ideas of cooperation *ith the Viet Minh& they *ere eAen more hostile to the idea of turning things oAer to the Americans8 5hen "ansdale arriAed in <aigon in May $0=( he faced the tas of 4uilding an alternatiAe to the mosaic of religious armies and criminal gangs that had ruled <outh Vietnam in the latter years of the *ar8 @go ?inh ?iemHs appointment as premier in #uly gaAe "ansdale the leAer he needed8 Handpic ed 4y the Americans& ?iem *as strongly anti/;rench and uncompromisingly anti/7ommunist8 Ho*eAer& he had spent most of the last decade in e,ile and had fe* political supporters and almost no armed forces8 !remier in name only& ?iem controlled only the fe* 4loc s of do*nto*n <aigon surrounding the presidential palace8 The ;rench and their clients/ ARV@& the Binh Zuyen& and the armed religious sects& 7ao ?ai and Hoa Hao/could easily mount an anti/?iem coup if he threatened their interests8 "ansdale proceeded to fragment his oppositionHs solid front and to 4uild ?iem an effectiAe military apparatus8 ;rench control oAer the army *as 4ro en and 7ol8 ?uong Van Minh -]Big Minh]1& an American sympathiJer& *as recruited to lead the attac s on the Binh Zuyen8 By manipulating payments to the armed religious sects& "ansdale *as a4le to neutraliJe most of them& leaAing the Binh Zuyen as the only ;rench pa*n8 The Binh Zuyen financed themselAes largely from their Aice rac ets& and their loyalty could not 4e manipulated through financial pressures8 But& deserted 4y ARV@ and the religious sects& the Binh Zuyen *ere soon crushed8 "ansdaleHs Aictory did not come easily8 <oon after he arriAed he 4egan siJing up his opponentHs financial and military strength8 Kno*ing something of the opium tradeHs importance as a source of income for ;rench clandestine serAices& he no* 4egin to loo more closely at +peration Z *ith the help of a respected 7holon 7hinese 4an er8 But the 4an er *as a4ruptly murdered and "ansdale dropped the inBuiry8 There *as reason to 4elieAe that the 4an er had gotten too close to the 7orsicansD inAolAed& and they illed him to preAent the information from getting any further8 -$%91 An attempted anti/?iem coup in late $0=( led to "ansdaleHs replacing the palace guard8 After the )m4assy approAed secret funding -later estimated at P. million1& "ansdale conAinced a 7ao ?ai dissident named Trinh Minh The to offer his maBuis near the 7am4odian 4order as a refuge in case ?iem *as eAer forced to flee <aigon8 -$%E1 5hen the impending crisis 4et*een the ;rench and the Americans threatened ?iemHs security in the capital& The moAed his forces into the city as a permanent security force in ;e4ruary $0== and paraded .&=%% of his 4arefoot soldiers through do*nto*n <aigon to demonstrate his loyalty to the premier8 -$%'1 The .eme Bureau *as outraged at "ansdaleHs support for The !racticing *hat "ansdale jocularly referred to as the ]unorthodo, doctrine of Japping a commander& -$%01The had murdered ;rench General 7hanson in $0=$ and had further incensed the ;rench *hen he 4le* up a car in $0=: in do*nto*n <aigon& illing a num4er of passers4y8 .eme Bureau officers personally Aisited "ansdale to *arn him that they *ould ill TM& and they ]usually added the pious hope that 6 *ould 4e standing ne,t to him *hen he *as gunned do*n8 -$$%1 +n ;e4ruary $$& $0==& the ;rench army a4dicated its financial controls and training responsi4ilities for ARV@ to the United <tates& losing not only the ARV@ 4ut control of the Hoa Hao and 7ao ?ai religious sects as *ell& Appro,imately .%&%%% of them had serAed as supplementary forces to the ;rench and Vietnamese army& -$$$1 and had 4een paid directly 4y the .eme Bureau8 @o*& *ith their stipends cut and their num4ers reduced& they *ere to 4e integrated into ARV@& *here they *ould 4e controlled 4y ?iem and his American adAisers8 "ansdale *as giAen P'89 million to pay 4ac salaries and ]4onuses] to sect commanders *ho cooperated in ]integrating] into the ARV@8 -$$.1 @eedless to say& this aroused enormous hostility on the part of the ;rench8 5hen "ansdale met *ith General Gam4ieJ of the ;rench army to discuss the sect pro4lem& the tensions *ere o4AiousC ;We sat at a small table in his office==== $ huge $lsatian dog crouched under it= 2ambie4 informed me that at one 'ord from him) the dog 'ould attack me) being a trained killer= : asked 2ambie4 to please note that my hands 'ere in my pockets as : sat at the tableC : had a small ?B automatic pointing at his stomach 'hich 'ould tickle him fatally= 2ambie4 called off his dog and : put my hands on the table= We found 'e could 'ork together=; >**D@

By ;e4ruary the .eme Bureau realiJed that they *ere gradually losing to "ansdaleHs team& so they tried to discredit him as an irresponsi4le adAenturer in the eyes of his o*n goAernment 4y conAening an unprecedented secret agentsH tri4unal8 But the session *as unsuccessful& and the .eme Bureau officers *ere humiliatedD their animosity to*ard "ansdale *as& no dou4t& intensified8 -$$(1 But the ;rench *ere not yet defeated& and late in ;e4ruary they mounted a successful counteroffensiAe8 5hen ?iem refused to meet the sectsH demands for financial support and integration into ARV@& the ;rench seiJed the opportunity and 4rought all the sect leaders together in Tay @inh on ;e4ruary ..& *here they formed the United ;ront and agreed to *or for ?iemHs oAerthro*8 Money *as to 4e proAided 4y the Binh Zuyen8 5hen a month of fruitless negotiations failed to *ring any concessions from ?iem& the United ;ront sent a fiAe/day ultimatum to ?iem demanding economic and political reforms8 -$$=1 <uddenly the lethargic Buadrille of political intrigue *as oAer and the time for confrontation *as at hand8 "ansdale *as no* *or ing feAerishly to 4rea up the United ;ront and *as meeting *ith ?iem regularly8 -$$91 5ith the help of the 76A station chief& "ansdale put together a special team to tac le the Binh Zuyen& the financial linchpin of the United ;ront8 "ansdale recruited a former <aigon police chief named Mai Huu Zuan& *ho had formed the Military <ecurity <erAice -M<<1 *ith t*o hundred to three hundred of his 4est detectiAes *hen the Binh Zuyen too oAer the police force in $0=(8 )m4ittered 4y four years of losing to the Binh Zuyen& the M<< 4egan a year/long 4attle *ith the Binh ZuyenHs action committees8 Many of these coAert cells had 4een eliminated 4y April $0==& a factor that Zuan feels *as critical in the Binh ZuyenHs defeat8 -$$E1 Another of "ansdaleHs recruits *as 7ol8 ?uong Van Minh& the commander for <aigon/7holon8 "ansdale made ample discretionary funds aAaila4le to Minh& *hom he incorporated in his plans to assault the Binh Zuyen8 -$$'1 The fighting 4egan on March .' *hen a pro/?iem paratroop company attac ed the Binh Zuyen/occupied police headBuarters8 The Binh Zuyen counterattac ed the follo*ing night and 4egan *ith a mortar attac on the presidential palace at midnight8 5hen ;rench tan s rolled into the city seAeral hours later to impose a cease/fire agreed to 4y the United <tates& "ansdale protested 4itterly to Am4assador 7ollins& ]e,plaining that only the Binh Zuyen *ould gain 4y a cease fire8 -$$01 ;or almost a month ;rench tan s and troops ept the Binh Zuyen and ARV@ apart8 Then on April .E Am4assador 7ollins met *ith <ecretary of <tate ?ulles in 5ashington and told him that ?iemHs o4stinacy *as the reason for the Aiolent confrontation in <aigon8 ?ismayed& ?ulles ca4led <aigon that the U8<8 *as no longer supporting ?iem8 -$.%1 A fe* hours after this telegram arriAed& ?iemHs troops attac ed Binh Zuyen units& and droAe them out of do*nto*n <aigon into neigh4oring 7holon8 )lated 4y ?iemHs easy Aictory& ?ulles ca4led <aigon his full support for ?iem8 The )m4assy 4urned his earlier telegram8 -$.$1 ?uring the fighting of April .' "ansdale remained in constant communication *ith the presidential palace& *hile his riAal& 7aptain <aAani& moAed into the Binh Zuyen headBuarters at the Q Bridge in 7holon& *here he too command of the 4andit 4attalions and assigned his officers to accompany Binh Zuyen troops in the house/to/house fighting8 -$..1 The Binh Zuyen radio offered a re*ard to anyone *ho could 4ring "ansdale to their headBuarters *here& Bay Vien promised& his stomach *ould 4e cut open and his entrails stuffed *ith mud8-$.:1 +n May . the fighting resumed as ARV@ units penetrated 7holon& leAeling *hole city 4loc s and pushing the Binh Zuyen steadily 4ac *ard8 <oftened 4y years of corruption& the Binh Zuyen 4andits *ere no longer the tough guerrillas of a decade 4efore8 5ithin a *ee most of them had retreated 4ac into the depths of the Rung <at <*amp8 Although the *ar 4et*een ?iem and Bay Vien *as oAer& the struggle 4et*een "ansdale and the 7orsicans *as not Buite finished8 True to the 7orsican tradition& the defeated ;rench launched a Aendetta against the entire American community8 As "ansdale descri4es itC A group of soreheads among the ;rench in <aigon undertoo a spiteful terror campaign against American residents8 Grenades *ere tossed at night into the yards of houses *here Americans liAed8 American o*ned automo4iles *ere 4lo*n up or 4oo4y/trapped8 ;rench security officials 4landly informed nerAous American officials that the terrorist actiAity *as the *or of the Viet Minh8 -$.(1 A sniper put a 4ullet through "ansdaleHs car *indo* as he *as driAing through <aigon& a ;renchman *ho resem4led him *as machine/ gunned to death in front of "ansdaleHs house 4y a passing car8 5hen "ansdale *as finally a4le to determine *ho the ringleaders *ere -many of them *ere intelligence officers1& grenades started going off in front of their houses in the eAenings8 -$.=1 ?uring his May '/$$& $0==& meeting *ith ;rench !remier )dgar ;aure in !aris& ?ulles asserted his continuing support for ?iem& and 4oth agreed that ;rance and the United <tates *ould pursue independent policies in 6ndochina8 The partnership *as oAerD ;rance *ould leaAe& and the United <tates *ould remain in Vietnam in order to 4ac ?iem8 -$.91 ?iemHs Aictory 4rought a4out a three/year respite in large/scale opium traffic ing in Vietnam8 5ithout the Binh Zuyen and +peration Z managing the trade& 4ul smuggling operations from "aos came to an end and distri4ution in <aigon of *hateAer opium *as aAaila4le 4ecame the proAince of petty criminals8 +4serAers also noticed a steady decline in the num4er of opium dens operating in the capital region8 But although American press correspondents descri4ed the Binh Zuyen/?iem conflict as a morality play/a clash

4et*een the honest& moral !remier ?iem and corrupt& dope/dealing ]super 4andits]/the Binh Zuyen *ere only a superficial manifestation of a deeper pro4lem& and their eAiction from <aigon produced little su4stantiAe change8 -$.E1 ;or oAer eighty years ;rench colonialism had inter*oAen the Aice trades *ith the 4asic fa4ric of the Vietnamese economy 4y using them as legitimate sources of goAernment ta, reAenue8 ?uring the late $0(%s the ;rench simply transferred them from the legitimate economy to the under*orld& *here they haAe remained a tempting source of reAenue for political organiJations eAer since8 By e,ploiting the rac ets for the ;rench& the Binh Zuyen had deAeloped the only effectiAe method eAer deAised for countering ur4an guerrilla *arfare in <aigon8 Their formula *as a com4ination of crime and counterinsurgencyC control oAer the municipal police allo*ed systematic e,ploitation of the Aice tradeD the rac ets generated large sums of ready cashD and money 4ought an effectiAe net*or of spies& informants& and assassins8 The system *or ed so *ell for the Binh Zuyen that in $0=. Viet Minh cadres reported that their actiAities in <aigon had come to a Airtual standstill 4ecause the 4andits had either 4ought off or illed most of their effectiAe organiJers8 -$.'1 5hen the ?iem administration *as faced *ith large/scale insurgency in $0=' it reAerted to the Binh Zuyen formula& and goAernment clandestine serAices reAiAed the opium trade *ith "aos to finance counterinsurgency operations8 ;aced *ith similar pro4lems in $09=8 !remier KyHs adAiser& General "oan& *ould use the same methods8 -$.01 <ourceC httpCKK***8drugte,t8orgKli4raryK4oo sKMc7oyK4oo K.'8htm

The Central Hntelligence 8gency %CH8( was involved in various drug tra11icking o!erations in 5outh Vietnam# Laos# Thailand# CamAodia# and other areas o1 5outheast 8sia during the Vietnam War. 5ome o1 the drugs Arought to 5outh Vietnam were later e<!orted to the 4nited 5tates o1 8merica and sold to unsus!ecting 8mericans during the TurAulent ,IEJs. The CH8 used illicit drug !ro1its to 1inance various covert o!erations in 5outh Vietnam# CamAodia# and Laos.

0;ne day in ,IE= at the !lace where Burma# Thailand# and Laos meet C a con7unction that gives the +olden Triangle its name C an 548 L5han 4nited 8rmyM caravan with ,E tons o1 o!ium# coming south 1rom Burma# sought to avoid !aying the customary ta< to the *MT L*uomintangM. 5o the 548 crossed the Mekong ?iver into LaosD the *MT gave chase. 8t the height o1 the 1ight# at the village o1 Ban *hwanD Lao war!lanes swoo!ed in# dro!!ing AomAs. Then came Lao !aratroo!ers# seiKing the o!iumD it went to the commander in chie1 o1 the ?oyal Lao 8rmy# who was in the o!ium Ausiness too.2 C 9ational +eogra!hic magaKine# 6eAruary ,I-:# The Poppy: For Good and Evil# !. ,=J

2The 7old 5ar played a direct and prominent role in the production and traffic ing of illicit drugs8 6ndeed& the financing of many anti/7ommunist coAert operations& such as those led 4y the 76A& deriAed from the drug economy that e,isted in Aarious pro,y states *here traffic ing *as often condoned and eAen encouraged8 <pecific historical e,amples illustrated ho* the anti/ 7ommunist agenda of the 76A played a decisiAe role in stimulating the glo4al illicit drug trade8 These include the ;rench 7onnection and the role of the 7orsican mafia against 7ommunists in ;rance and in <outheast Asia -"aos and Vietnam1& the propping up of the defeated KMT MKuomintangN in northern Burma& the 6slamic mujahideen resistance in Afghanistan and& on another continent& the 7ontras in @icaragua8 The United <tates& as the leader of the glo4al struggle against communism& made e,tensiAe use of its special serAices and intelligence agencies to conduct coAert operations *orld*ide8 6n the glo4al struggle to contain communism& local aid *as needed and *idely found in the form of local criminal organiJations8 The first such case dates 4ac to the early $0:%s& *hen @e* Qor Fs organiJed crime ingpins > <alAatore "ucania a8 8a8 7harles ["uc yF "uciano& and Meyer "ans y > traffic ed heroin e,ported from 7hina to support 7hiang Kai/she Fs KMT in the ciAil *ar there8 "uciano *as jailed in $0:9 in the United <tates& not long 4efore traffic ing in 7hinese heroin *as considera4ly disrupted 4y 5orld 5ar 668 6t *as during 5orld 5ar 66 that the American +ffice of @aAal 6ntelligence cooperated *ith "ucianoC he *as to 4e freed after the *ar so long as he ordered his thugs to *atch U8<8 doc s and orts to protect them from @aJi sa4oteurs8 Then& the +ffice of <trategic <erAices -+<<1& the precursor to the 76A& used mafia assistance in the Allied inAasion of <icily8 <uch actiAities initiated *hat *as to 4ecome a long/term feature of coAert operations led 4y United <tates intelligence serAices *hen consent of the United <tates 7ongress could not 4e o4tainedC the enlistment of nefarious groups engaged in illicit actiAities in order to *age secret *ars through 4oth pro,ies and alternatiAe funding8 Basically& drug traffic ers *ere useful to special serAices and politicians& and in turn relied on such connections to e,pand their actiAities8 "uciano *as freed in $0(9 and sent to <icily *here he *as to cooperate *ith the 76A8 6ndeed& to counter the gro*ing communist influence in ;rance and 6taly& the 76A turned to the mafia and condoned its drug traffic ing actiAities8 The 76A soon as ed "uciano to use his connections in ;rance to 4rea the stri es led 4y socialist unions in MarseilleFs doc s& from *hich arms and supplies *ere sent to 6ndochina8 The sometimes Aiolent assistance of 7orsican mo4sters in crac ing do*n on the unions *as especially motiAated 4y their inAolAement in the opium 4usiness in 6ndochina and 4y the smuggling of ra* opium from Tur ey to Marseille& *here it *as refined into heroin for e,port to the United <tates8 "uciano too adAantage of such high refining capacities and helped turn Marseille into the heroin capital of )urope8 These Marseille syndicates& du44ed the [;rench 7onnectionF& supplied the United <tates heroin mar et for t*o decades8 But it is in <outheast Asia& <outh*est Asia& and "atin America that the 76A most significantly influenced the illicit drug trade8 6ts anti/7ommunist coAert operations 4enefited from the participation of a num4er of drug/related com4at units *ho& to finance their o*n struggle& *ere directly inAolAed in illicit drug production and traffic ing8 The 76AFs 4ac ing of different groups in the drug trade -for e,ample& the Hmong in "aos& the KMT in Burma and the mujahideen in Afghanistan1& inferred that the agency condoned the used of drug proceeds and the increase in opiate production in Asia8 Ho*eAer& no eAidence has surfaced to suggest that the 76A condoned or facilitated the e,port of heroin to the United <tates or )urope& as clearly happened *ith cocaine and the @icaraguan 7ontras83 > Opium0 3ncovering the Politics of the Poppy 4y !ierre/Arnaud 7houAy& p8 0(/09 -pu4lished in .%$%1 26n +cto4er $0(0& the 7ommunists defeated the KMT in 7hina& and in the years that follo*ed they crac ed do*n on *hat *as then the *orldFs largest opium production net*or 8 +pium production then shifted to the mountainous and frontier areas of Burma& "aos& and Thailand& *here KMT remnants had fled and 4ecome deeply inAolAed in drug traffic ing8 Beginning in $0=$& the 76A supported the KMT in Burma in an unsuccessful effort to assist it in regaining a foothold in 7hinaFs Qunnan proAince8 Arms& ammunition& and supplies *ere flo*ed into Burma from Thailand 4y the 76AFs 7iAil Air Transport -7AT1& later renamed Air America and& still later& <ea <upply 7orporation& created to mas the shipments8 The Burmese Army eAentually droAe KMT remnants form Burma in $09$& 4ut the latter resettled in "aos and northern Thailand and continued to run most of the opium trade8 7AT not only supplied military aid to the KMTC it also fle* opium to Thailand and Tai*an8 There is no dou4t that the 76A sanctioned 4oth the KMTFs inAolAement in the opium trade and the use of 7AT -and later Air America aircraft1 in that trade8 The KMT *ould eAentually enlarge its role in the opium trade after the 76AFs *ithdra*al of financial and logistical support8 Burma eAentually 4ecame one of the *orldFs t*o main opium producers8 ;ollo*ing the ;rench defeat in 6ndochina in $0=(& the United <tates gradually too oAer the intelligence and military fight against communism in 4oth "aos and Vietnam8 6t also too oAer the drug traffic ing 4usiness deAeloped 4y the ;rench 4y the 4uying the opium produced 4y the Hmong and Qao hill tri4es in return for help *ith counterinsurgency operations against the Viet Minh8 To meet the costs of this *ar& the ;rench secret intelligence serAice& the <?)7) -<erAice de documentation e,terieure et de contreespionnage1& had allied itself *ith the 7orsican syndicates& traffic ing opium form 6ndochina to Marseille in order to gain control of the opium trade that the colonial goAernment had outla*ed in $0(98 The 76A ran its secret army in "aos& composed largely of Hmong tri4esmen led 4y General Vang !ao8 Air America *ould fly arms to the Hmong and fly 4ac their opium to the 76A 4ase at "ong Tieng& *here Vang !ao had set up a large heroin la4oratory8 <ome of the heroin *as then flo*n to <outh Vietnam& *here part of it *as sold to U8<8 troops8 After the Americans pulled out of Vietnam in $0E=& "aos 4ecame the *orldFs third largest opium producer and retained this ran until the mid/.%%%s8 > Opium0 3ncovering the Politics of the Poppy 4y !ierre/Arnaud 7houAy& p8 09/0E -pu4lished in .%$%1

2Ho*eAer& Vietnam *as not the only 4attleground of 7old 5ar drug operations8 The 76A launched a major ne* coAet operation in <outh*est Asia in the early $0'%s to support AfghanistanFs mujahideen guerillas in their fight against <oAiet occupation8 United <tates !resident& Ronald Reagan& *as determined to counter *hat he Aie*ed as <oAiet hegemony and e,pansionism& a goal shared 4y his 76A director& 5illiam 7asey8 To support the mujahideen *ith arms and funds& the 76A turned to one of !a istanFs intelligence serAices& the 6nter/<erAices 6ntelligence -6<618 The 6<6 chose *hich Afghan leaders to 4ac and used truc s from !a istanFs military @ational "ogistics 7ell -@"71 to carry arms from Karachi to the Afghan 4order8 Ho*eAer& the 6<6 not only chose Gul4uddin He matyar & an important Afghan opium traffic er& as its main 4eneficiaryC it also allo*ed @"7 truc s to return from the 4order loaded *ith opium and heroin8 After the <oAiet *ithdra*al from Afghanistan in $0'0& United <tates aid to the mujahideen stopped& and the internecine conflict that ensued in the country faAoured an increase in opium production in order to maintain riAal *arlords and armies8 Afghanistan eAentually 4ecame the *orldsF leading opium/ producing country8 As #ill #onnes puts itC :n the years before World War ::) $merican international narcotics policy had been eAtremely straightfor'ard= The 3nited tates 'as righteously against anything that promoted or sustained the non.medical use of addicting drugs= !ut the %old War created not only ne' national security policies) but a ne' shado' 'orld that accepted a far more ambivalent attitude to'ard drugs and drug trafficking= 6llicit drug production and traffic ing increased during the 7old 5ar8 ?uring this period& the United <tates goAernment *as less interested in *aging the [*ar on drugsF 4egun in $0E$ 4y Richard @i,on that n in using drug traffic ers to support its *ar and pro,ies a4road8 6ndeed& had the 76A crac ed do*n on drug traffic ing during the 7old 5ar& it *ould haAe forgone Aalua4le intelligence sources& political influence and much needed funding for its coAert& and sometimes illegal& operations8 6ronically& there is no eAidence that the <oAiet Union or its secret intelligence agency& the KGB -Komitet GosudarstAennoy BeJopasnosti1& resorted to drug sales to fund actiAities during the 7old 5ar8 Thus& after the modern international narcotics traffic ing industry emerged in pre/<econd 5orld 5ar 7hina& and after communism had ena4led the !eopleFs Repu4lic of 7hina to suppress local opium production& traffic ing and consumption& it *as the 7old 5ar fight against communism that proAide the justification for using proceeds from opium production and traffic ing to finance coAert operations and secret *ars8 6n the third edition of The Politics of 8eroin& Alfred Mc7oy *ritesC Rhetoric about the drug evil and the moral imperative of its eAtirpation has been matched by a paradoAical 'illingness to subordinate or even sacrifice the cause for more Euestionable goals= The same governments that seem to rail most sternly against drugs) such as Nationalist %hina in the *7D,s and the 3nited tates since the *7F,s) have freEuently formed covert alliances 'ith drug traffickers= 6n his effort to reAeal the e,tent of the [76A complicity in the glo4al drug tradeF Mc7oy then e,plains that [no*here is this contradiction 4et*een social idealism and political realism more eAident than in the clash 4et*een prohi4ition and protection during the cold *arF8 Ho*eAer& the end of the 7old 5ar *ould not reduce illicit opium production in Asia& as the end of foreign su4sidies to *arring Afghan factions largely stimulated opium poppy cultiAation in Afghanistan8 ?uring most of the t*entieth century& *ars and conflicts fostered illicit opium production and made peace/4uilding more difficult& as *ar economies and drug economies fed each other in a Aicious circle83 > Opium0 3ncovering the Politics of the Poppy 4y !ierre/Arnaud 7houAy& p8 0E/0' -pu4lished in .%$%1

Le1t3 CH8 'irector 8llen 'ulles greets his Arother 4.5. 5ecretary o1 5tate "ohn 6oster 'ulles. ?ight3 4.5. 5ecretary o1 5tate "ohn 6oster 'ulles reviews a ma! o1 6rench Hndochina at a con1erence.