You are on page 1of 47

FM Transmitter

Final Report
Project Team: Dec06-01
Client
Iowa State University-Senior Design
Faculty Advisor
Dr. John W. Lamont
Prof. Ralph E. Patterson III
Team Members
Grant Blythe
Luke Erichsen
Tony Hunziker
Disclaimer Notice:
This document was developed as a part of the requirements of an electrical and computer
engineering course at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. This document does not
constitute a professional engineering design or a professional land surveying document.
Although the information is intended to be accurate, the associated students, faculty, and
Iowa State University make no claims, promises, or guarantees about the accuracy,
completeness, quality, or adequacy of the information. The user of this document shall
ensure that any such use does not violate any laws with regard to professional licensing
and certification requirements. This use includes any work resulting from this studentprepared document that is required to be under the responsible charge of a licensed
engineer or surveyor. This document is copyrighted by the students who produced this
document and the associated faculty advisors. No part may be reproduced without the
written permission of the senior design course coordinator.

Date Submitted
November 10, 2006

Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Definitions

Executive Summary
1. Introduction Materials
1.1 Executive Summary
1.2 Acknowledgment
1.3 Problem Statement
1.3.1 General Problem Statement
1.3.2 General Solution Approach
1.4 Operating Environment
1.5 Intended User(s) and Intended Use(s)
1.5.1 Intended User(s)
1.5.2 Intended Use(s)
1.6 Assumptions and Limitations
1.6.1 List of Assumptions
1.6.2 List of Limitations
1.7 End-Product Description and Other Deliverables

2. Project Approach and Results


2.1 End-Product Functional Requirements
2.2 Design Constraints
2.3 Proposed Approaches and Approach Used
2.4 Detailed Design
2.4.1 Inputs
2.4.2 Processing
2.4.3 Outputs
2.4.4 Overview schematic
2.5 Prototype Implementation Process
2.5.1 Prototype Layout
2.6 End-Product Testing Description
2.6.1 Project Team Testing
2.6.2 User Testing
2.7 Resources and Schedules
2.7.1 Resource Requirements
2.7.2 Schedule of Tasks

3 Closure Materials
3.1 Project Evaluation
3.2 Commercialization
3.3 Recommendations for Additional Work
3.4 Lessons Learned
3.4.1 What Went Well
3.4.2 What Didnt Go Well
3.4.3 Technical Knowledge Gained

ii
iii
iv

1
1
1
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5

5
6
7
7
10
10
14
19
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
23
31

32
32
34
35
35
35
35
35

3.4.4 Non-Technical Knowledge Gained


3.4.5 What Would the Team Do Differently?
3.5 Risk and Risk Management
3.5.1 Anticipated Potential Risks
3.5.2 Anticipated Risks Encountered
3.5.3 Unanticipated Risks Encountered
3.5.4 Resultant Changes to Risk Management
3.6 Project Team Information
3.6.1 Client
3.6.2 Faculty Advisors

35
36
36
36
37
37
37
38
38
38

List of Figures
Figure 1: Schmart Board......................................................................................................9
Figure 2: Device Functional Diagram...............................................................................10
Figure 3: Device User Interface.........................................................................................11
Figure 4: Preset Pushbuttons Schematic............................................................................13
Figure 5: PIC16F877A Microcontroller............................................................................15
Figure 6: Rohm BH1415F.................................................................................................16
Figure 7: Transmission Circuit Schematic.........................................................................17
Figure 8: Data Packet Diagram..........................................................................................18
Figure 9: Transmission Frequency Encoding....................................................................19
Figure 10: BH1415F Package and Dimensions.................................................................19
Figure 11: VIM-404-DP-FC-S-HV....................................................................................20
Figure 12: Overall Circuit Schematic................................................................................21
Figure 13: Project Schedule...............................................................................................31
Figure 14: Gantt chart of schedule of deliverables............................................................32

List of Tables
Table 1: Manual Input Behavior Matrix............................................................................11
Table 2: Preset Input Behavior Matrix...............................................................................12
Table 3: Original personal effort time table.......................................................................25
Table 4: Revised personal effort time table.......................................................................25
Table 5: Final personal effort time table............................................................................26
Table 6: Original miscellaneous requirements...................................................................27
Table 7: Revised miscellaneous requirements...................................................................27
Table 8: Final miscellaneous requirements........................................................................28
Table 9: Original financial requirement estimate..............................................................28
Table 10: Revised financial requirements..........................................................................29
Table 11: Final financial requirements..............................................................................30
Table 12: Milestone Relative Importance..........................................................................33
Table 13: Milestone Evaluation Criteria............................................................................33
Table 14: Project Evaluation..............................................................................................34

List of Definitions
FCC:

Federal Communications Commission

Gantt chart:

a schedule showing the specific tasks of a project, start dates,


and completion dates.

IC:

integrated circuit

LCD:

liquid crystal display

MP3 player:

digital music player, (i.e. ipod)

PIC processor:

programmable integrated circuit processor

PLL:

phase locked loop

RF:

radio frequency

Satellite radio:

subscription radio signal sent via satellite, (i.e. XM radio,


Sirius radio)

Transmission frequency: The frequency at which the device is transmitting the FM


modulated signal to the FM radio.
VCO:

voltage controlled oscillator

Wall wart:

AC power transformer designed to plug into a standard wall


outlet

1. Introduction Materials
This section will introduce the project, including the executive summary,
acknowledgements, problem statement and solution, operating environments, intended
users and uses, limitations and assumptions, expected end-product and other deliverables.

1.1 Executive Summary


The FM transmitter project solved a problem facing many consumers with linking their
personal music devices, be it MP3 players or satellite radios, to their existing stereo
systems. Most of the existing equipment has FM radio capabilities, so the solution
approach was to develop a portable FM transmitter to link personal music devices to
any FM receiver. The audio signal that is generated by personal music devices is
accepted by the transmitter, manipulated into an FM signal, and transmitted to the FM
tuner in the users car or home.
The project adheres to a wide collection of requirements. Some set by the client, others
by government agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission, and the rest
were made by the team. The transmission frequency will be chosen by the user
between 88MHz and 108 MHz, in compliance with the FCC regulations.
The
minimum transmission range is 12 feet. To operate in a car the device accepts power
from a cigarette lighter. The on/off operation is dictated by the input signal. With the
presence of an input signal the device turns on and in the absence of one, it turns off
after a minute. The controls of the device include a set of 4 preset stations that can be
customized by the user to transmit at, much like the preset stations of a radio. It also
includes an UP and DOWN button to manually adjust the transmitting frequency.
This transmitting frequency is displayed on a LCD screen, for the users convenience.
There are inherent requirements for this device as a result of its intended use. It must to
be small and rugged. The environment that this device will work in could include
extreme temperatures, constant movement, and small space. The power consumption
of the device must be low in order to prevent drain on the power source, the car battery.
After considering numerous technologies, the team settled on a set of solutions that
satisfied or exceeded all requirements while still remaining inexpensive enough to
remain under budget and completed in the given time frame.
The completed device design can be separated into three different sections; inputs,
processing, and outputs. The inputs to the device include the manual frequency tuner,
four preset buttons, power, and the source signal input. These are the only inputs to the
device. The processing category includes a transmission component that would include
amplification and modulation. It also includes a microcontroller circuit. This circuit
manipulates the transmission component and the LCD output based on the device
inputs. An example of the microcontrollers function is to determine whether an input
exists and turn on the surrounding components. The outputs of the device include a

LCD display and an antenna. The LCD is used to display the transmission frequency
and is controlled by the microcontroller. The antenna would simply be transmitting the
actual signal from the transmission component.
The transmission component is made up of a single integrated circuit from ROHM.
This unit includes the modulation circuit and amplification circuit in stereo. The
information signal and the carrier signal are kept in-line with a phase locked loop. This
integrated circuit allows for a variable frequency transmission with a mute feature
that effectively turns the transmission off. These features are controlled by the
microcontroller. The fact that this component is solid state allows it to function within
the environment stated above. This integrated circuit needs a clock signal so a 555
timer IC was added to perform this function.
The microcontroller circuit will also be supplied in a single integrated circuit. This
integrated circuit is a PIC processor from Microchip. The PIC also uses the clock
signal from the 555 timer. It includes analog devices that aid in implementing some
evaluation functionality. It also contains flash memory and EPROM programmable
circuitry. These are used to store the code and the four frequency presets. The PIC also
comes equipped with 28 input/output pins that make a perfect candidate to control the
LCD screen.
The team has successfully completed all design tasks. The project implementation and
testing is behind schedule due to PIC programmer not installed on computers and
receiving incorrect parts. The team anticipates that the remainder of the project can be
completed, meeting all requirements within the time frame and budget specified.
Possible future work for the FM transmitter includes moving the project to
commercialization and adding increased functionality. In the process of designing the
project, the team came up with several unique functions but because of time and budget
constraints, the team decided not to implement these functions. Some of the possible
functions the team thought of are: including a Scan or Seek button that would
automatically find an empty frequency to broadcast on, capable of accepting multiple
input sources, and HD radio output.

1.2 Acknowledgment
The team would like to thank and acknowledge the following people for contributing
significant technical advice:
Jason Boyd
For showing us various possibilities for prototyping surface mount components.
Dr. John W. Lamont and Prof. Ralph E. Patterson III
For your knowledge and guidance regarding part selection and referring us to
expert advice when needed.
Dr Geiger
For assistance in understanding phase locked loop systems.

1.3 Problem Statement


The problem statement was broken up into two separate sections; one that defined the
general problem area and another that described the proposed approach to the solution.

1.3.1 General Problem Statement


Currently many people use MP3 players and satellite radios, but do not have a way to
connect them to their other audio equipment. The problem calls for a device that will
receive an input signal and broadcast it on the FM band. The device is to receive its
signal input from the headphone jack of an MP3 player or output jack of a satellite
radio and its power input from the 12V DC cigarette lighter/power socket in an
automobile or 120V AC outlet from a house. It should be easily tunable to transmit on
any desired frequency in the FM band (88-108 MHz) with the ability to preset four
selectable frequencies within this range. The minimum transmission distance is to be
at least twelve feet. It should recognize when there is an input signal and turn itself on
automatically and automatically turn itself off after one minute if the input signal is
absent.

1.3.2 General Solution Approach


Most of this existing equipment has FM radio capabilities, so the solution approach
was to develop a portable FM transmitter to link MP3 players and satellite radios to
any FM receiver. This transmitter accepts power from two types of sources. The two
sources will include a wall wart and a cigarette lighter outlet adapter. The FM
transmitter modulates the signal, sends it through an amplifier, and finally through an
internal antenna. An internal memory source stores four programmable station
presets from the frequency band. An LCD screen displays the current frequency
transmitting. This LCD is backlit for easy night time use. The transmission frequency
and presets are accessible through a button interface that also includes a lighting

system. There is a microcontroller to control access to memory, the automatic turn


on/off function, backlit lighting, LCD display, and other controlling concerns.

1.4 Operating Environment


The finished device operates within a personal vehicle or a household room. The
normal conditions for which would be a smaller space that could be potentially exposed
to moisture, dust, dirt, impacts and overall reckless negligence. It may be exposed to
rougher conditions such as minor vibrations and shocks from being moved from
location to location.

1.5 Intended User(s) and Intended Use(s)


This section is divided into two parts, one to cover the intended user(s), and the second
is to cover the intended use(s).

1.5.1 Intended User(s)


The intended user for this product is anyone owning MP3 players or satellite radio
devices. This is not exclusive to age, size, sex, or handicap. It does assume the
amount of operating knowledge associated with MP3 player/satellite radio users.

1.5.2 Intended Use(s)


The FM transmitter is intended to make personal music players more accessible to
listen to through home and car stereos. It should do so in a cost efficient and highly
functional design.

1.6 Assumptions and Limitations


This section contains the assumptions and limitations for the project.

1.6.1 List of Assumptions


The following is the list of assumptions that was considered in the design:

The transmitter may be used for all varieties of personal music players.
The transmitter may be used in a variety of environments including varying
temperatures, humidity, seismic conditions, and electromagnetic noise.
The transmitter may be used at all hours of the day.
The device will be used with standard North American FM radio equipment.
The input audio signal will consist of standard music with a frequency range of 20
Hz to 20 kHz.

The device design will implement solid state electronics.


The user will have access to a steady power source able to supply the rated
voltage and frequency (if AC) within a 10 percent tolerance.

1.6.2 List of Limitations


The following is a list of limitations that was inherent in the design preventing it to
function in certain ways:
The cost to purchase this product shall be competitive.
The transmitter must conform to FCC regulations.
o Part 15 concerning unlicensed FM broadcasting
o Broadcast strength: 0.1W
o Broadcast band: 88-108 MHz
The device shall be capable of obtaining power from both a 120 V AC from a wall
wart or a 12 V DC source from a car battery.
The form of the device must be manageable for ease of transportation and storage.
There must be at least 4 programmable preset transmission frequencies.
The device must transmit at least 12 feet.
Transmission frequency must be adjustable.
Transmission frequency must be displayed.
The size shall not exceed 6 in. by 6 in. by 3 in.
The weight shall not exceed 1 lb.
The device shall be compatible with both digital and analog tuned radios.

1.7 End-Product Description and Other Deliverables


The end product is a small handheld device that allows the user to easily listen to their
personal music player on any FM radio. The device implements an LCD screen
displaying the transmission frequency and the user input interface consists of six
buttons. Both the LCD display screen and the buttons are backlit for use in low ambient
light environments. The device receives its input from a 3.5 mm stereo jack. An
instruction manual is also included. This describes the basic operations to the user. A
final report will also be included describing the project.

2. Project Approach and Results


This section will go into more depth about the end-product functional requirements,
design constraints, approaches considered and used, detailed design, implementation
process, testing, and end results.

2.1 End-Product Functional Requirements


The following functions are implemented into this project and are required to
complete this project successfully. These primary requirements were specified by the
client as well as the faculty advisors.

Transmit audio through frequency modulation on the standard North American


FM bands. This range is 88.1-107.9 MHz stepped by 200 kHz intervals.

Turn off and on automatically according to the existence of an input signal.


o Upon detection of an input signal, the device turns on and begins
transmitting within 1 second.
o After detecting no input signal for 1 minute, the device powers down within
1 second.

The device transmission range has a radius of at least 12 ft around the device in
open air. This transmission range should not violate any FCC standards or
regulations.

Have 4 programmable frequency presets.


o Four programmable preset frequencies are stored in non-volatile memory in
the device. The transmission frequency is adjusted to any of these
frequencies by pushing one of the four corresponding buttons.
o A preset is programmed to the current frequency by pushing and holding the
corresponding button for greater than 3 seconds.
o These four buttons are backlit for use in low light environments.

The device shall accept a stereo input audio signal through a standard 3.5 mm
stereo jack.

Operate on a 5 volt DC source.


o The device shall receive its power input from a 12 V DC cigarette
lighter/power socket in an automobile or a standard 120 V AC wall outlet.
o An adapter will be provided for each of these two sources. Both adapters
will provide a common 5 V DC output to the device.
o The device will have one power input jack that will be capable of
connecting to either adapter.

The dimensions of the device will not exceed 6 x 6 x 3 inches.

The device weight shall not exceed 1 lb.

The form of the device case will allow for hand manipulation and transportation
of the device.

The design will also take into consideration the requirements of use in a vehicle.
These requirements include storage, accessibility, and stability.

Possible lighting for night time use.


o The device will include backlighting for easy use in low light environments.
o This includes a backlit display and backlit buttons.

The device shall include an LCD to display the current transmission frequency.
The format of this display will be XXX.X (i.e. 102.7).

2.2 Design Constraints


These design constraints were developed from the functional requirements and the
limitations and assumptions that were defined. The entire project was designed and
constructed to perform under the following conditions and constraints.

Size: The device dimensions will not exceed 6 x 6 x 3 inches.


Weight: The total device weight will not exceed 1 lb.
Operation Environment:
o Temperature: The device will operate within a temperature range of 32 to
100 degrees Fahrenheit.
o Humidity: The device will operate within normal humidity levels.
o Pressure: The device will operate within normal atmospheric pressure.
o Dust and moisture: The case should be sealed adequately to protect from
dust and moisture.
o Impacts: The device will operate in the presence of minor vibrations and
shocks.
Transmission power: The FCC has regulation broadcast strength of .1kW. The
transmitter must not exceed this strength. The device shall conform to FCC
rules Part 15 concerning unlicensed FM broadcasting. The RF field strength 3
meters from the device should not exceed 250uV/m.
Power requirements: The device shall receive its power input from a 12 V DC
cigarette lighter/power socket in an automobile or a standard 120 V AC / 12V
DC wall outlet. While there is no maximum power usage limit, the device
power consumption should not interfere with operation of the automobile.
Budget considerations: The project budget may not exceed $150 as described
in the project description. The cost of programming and labor is not included.
The final market cost ideally should not exceed $40.

2.3 Proposed Approaches and Approach Used

There were many different proposed ideas on which technologies were best suited for
this project. This section includes the methods considered for amplification, antenna
design, logic controllers, LCDs, surface-mount prototype boards, and backlit buttons.

Modulation & amplification: There are primarily two types of amplification


used in audio electronics. The first is steady state; the use of a transistor to
amplify the signal. This is cheaper, smaller, and is much more portable. The
second of which is tube technology. This would have use vacuum tube as the
amplifying device. This is not very portable but provides better clarity of
signal during amplification. It is generally used only on expensive, high-end
systems.
After examining the available technologies and comparing each technology to
the teams list of design requirements, the decision was made to use a solid
state device. In order to satisfy the requirements for powering on time and the
requirements for durability and portability, solid state was the only logical
solution.

Antenna design: This technology is important to the transmitter due to how


effective different designs are at transmitting their signals. It must remain
internal as to not take up space, yet provide adequate coverage area. The
effective usage of power is important to this project.
The team found that the cheapest and simplest antenna design that will meet
the project needs is a small wire antenna. A small wire antenna will provide
the necessary signal transmission while taking up a small amount of case
space and costing very little.

Logic controllers: Logic controllers are needed to save/retrieve station


frequencies for preset use, run the LCD, and run the automatic on/off
detection. This can be taken care of by personal designs or can be used by
programmed microcontrollers. Both accomplish the task at hand. The
personal designs would be more labor intensive. The microcontroller would
be more expensive.
The team considered several different approaches toward solving the logic
problem. After comparing the project needs with the available technologies,
the team decided to implement the logic controller with a PIC processor. PIC
processors will give the team the necessary computing power to control all
components of the device including the LCD. At the same time PIC
processors are inexpensive and will fall within the project budget. PIC
processors also possess the non-volatile memory necessary to store the preset
stations.

LCD Display: An LCD is needed to display the transmitting frequency.


There are three types of LCD technologies: reflective, transmissive, and

transflective. Reflective LCDs use ambient light to illuminate the display and
can not be illuminated in low light environments. Transmissive LCDs use a
backlight to illuminate the display and are too illuminated in high light.
Transflective LCDs can use both a backlight and ambient light to illuminate
the display.
After examining the available technologies, the team decided to go with the
transflective LCD with a backlight. This was a good LCD to use in low and
high ambient light.

Surface-mount prototype board: Some of the parts needed for this project
only came in the surface-mount package SOP22. This posses the problem
when trying to prototype on the breadboard. The team looked at two different
prototyping boards: the Surfboard and the Schmartboard. They are both
relatively cheap, but the Surfboard did not have enough pins for the
transmitter. The Schmartboard, shown in Figure: 1 also provided an easy way
to solder the chip to the board and the team had enough room for multiple
chips if needed.
The team used the Schmartboard because of its low price and its convenient
way to solder the chip on to the board.

Backlit Buttons: There are many different switches on the market. After
talking with our advisors, the team decided to use single pull single throw
momentary switches for the device.

Figure 1: Schmart Board

2.4 Detailed Design


The following is an elaboration of the device design. This includes the different
systems within the design, the parts used to implement these systems, and specific
subsystem schematics.

Figure 2: Device Functional Diagram

The figure above is a block diagram displaying the top level systems implemented
in the device. The diagram has been split up into three different stages: inputs,
processing, and outputs. Below each stage is elaborated on.

2.4.1 Inputs
The inputs to the device are on the left section of Figure 2. The three inputs
specified in the diagram are preset inputs, power supply, and audio input signal.

Figure 3: Device User Interface

Figure 3 shows the user interface for the device. Visible are the LCD display, the
preset inputs, the manual inputs, the audio input and the power input.

2.4.1.1 Manual Input


The manual inputs allow the user to adjust the transmission frequency manually.
There are two buttons used for the manual inputs, an up button and a down
button. These are shown to the right of the LCD in Figure 3. These inputs were
implemented with momentary push button switches. They are backlit for use at
night. The behavior of the keys are defined in the matrix below.
Table 1: Manual Input Behavior Matrix
Pushed

Held

Up

Increment transmission
frequency .2 MHz

After 1 second, increment


transmission frequency .2
MHz every .25 seconds
until released

Down

Decrement transmission
frequency .2 MHz

After 1 second, decrement


transmission frequency .2
MHz every .25 seconds
until released

For example, a transmission frequency of 102.7 MHz will be increased to 102.9


MHz by a single push of the up button.

2.4.1.2 Preset Inputs


The preset inputs interface with four preset transmission frequencies stored in the
non-volatile memory of the microcontroller. They can be used to save and access
up to four user favorite transmission frequencies. The preset inputs consist of

four momentary push button switches. These are shown directly below the LCD
in Figure 3. These keys are backlit for use at night. The behaviors of the keys are
defined in the matrix below.
Table 2: Preset Input Behavior Matrix
Pushed
1

Set transmission frequency


to preset frequency 1.

Set transmission frequency


to preset frequency 2.

Set transmission frequency


to preset frequency 3.

Set transmission frequency


to preset frequency 4.

Held
After 3 seconds, store
current transmission
frequency as preset
frequency 1.
After 3 seconds, store
current transmission
frequency as preset
frequency 2.
After 2 seconds, store
current transmission
frequency as preset
frequency 3.
After 2 seconds, store
current transmission
frequency as preset
frequency 4.

Figure 4: Preset Pushbuttons Schematic

Figure 4 is a schematic of how the preset inputs are wired in the device. This
portion of the design is not shown in the overall schematic to avoid clutter.

2.4.1.3 Power Supply


The device receives its power input from a 12V DC cigarette lighter/power socket
in an automobile or a standard 120V AC / 12V DC wall adapter. An adapter is
provided for each of these two sources above. The device has one power input
jack that is capable of connecting to either adapter.
The adapter for the cigarette lighter is a single stage adapter that plugs directly
into the standard cigarette lighter / power outlet of and automobile.
The source from the wall outlet is a wall wart; that converts the 120V AC to a
12V DC output for the device. This wall wart was provided by the EE/CprE
senior design group for the prototype testing and demonstrations.

2.4.1.4 Input Signal


The input signal may come from an MP3 player, or a satellite radio system. The
device accepts a stereo input audio signal through a standard 3.5 mm stereo jack.
The output from the MP3 player, the satellite radio system or another source of
audio input may have different output connections but it is assumed that the user
will provide proper adapters to convert the output to the specified 3.5mm input
jack of the device. The audio signal input is expected to consist of audio
frequencies within the range of 20Hz to 20 kHz.

2.4.2 Processing
The processing consists of the microcontroller, modulator, and amplifier. The bulk
of the functions of the device are performed by these three systems. The following
is a detailed design of the three systems.

2.4.2.1 Microcontroller
The microcontroller is the control center for the device. It takes in the manual and
preset inputs and tunes the device to a transmission frequency depending on
which buttons are pushed. It will also allow the device to store transmission
frequencies into the preset buttons. The microcontroller also implements the auto
turn on/turn off function with respect to the input signal. The LCD display is also
controlled by the microcontroller.
Frequency tuning is taken care of in the modulation and amplification chip. The
control of this is handled by the microcontroller.
The auto/on off implementation is another feature controlled by the
microcontroller. The microcontroller operates in a continuous loop awaiting the
input in order to control the peripherals. The input is sampled through one of the
input pins of the microcontroller. This is only used to detect the input, no data is
sampled and once there is an absence of an input the power off count down
begins. This count down is a period to wait for signal before actually powering
down. This prevents premature power down.
The microcontroller controls the LCD display as well. When a frequency change
occurs, the microcontroller sends the appropriate control signals to the LCD
display. Each of the 4 digits displayed are controlled individually, and only need
to be refreshed when the frequency is changed. The display is always backlit.
The microcontroller is connected to the inputs of the display.

Figure 5: PIC16F877A Microcontroller

The team considered several different approaches toward solving the logic
problem. After comparing the project needs with the available technologies, the
team decided to implement the logic controller with a PIC processor. The PIC
processor chosen was the PIC16F877A processor. It contains a 40 pin IO
interface and the memory and processing power needed for the teams application.
PIC processors will give us the necessary computing power to control all
components of the device including the LCD. At the same time PIC processors
are inexpensive and will fall within the project budget. PIC processors also
possess the non-volatile memory necessary to store the preset stations.

2.4.2.2 Transmission Block


After examining the available technologies, an integrated solution was found to
provide the modulation, amplification, and transmission. The device implements
a Rohm Electronics BH1415F Wireless Audio Link IC to provide stereo
modulation and FM transmission.
The BH1415F is a FM stereo transmitter IC. The stereo modulator generates a
composite signal which consists of a MAIN, SUB, and pilot signal from a 38 kHz
oscillator. The FM transmitter then radiates FM wave on the air by modulating
the carrier signal with a composite signal.

Figure 6: Rohm BH1415F

The BH1415F operates on a 4.0 to 6.0 V DC source. This is consistent with other
components in the device and the 5 V DC supplied from the power adapters. The

IC will also meet the device environmental requirements.


temperature range is -40 to 80 degrees Celsius.

The operation

This IC accepts a stereo audio input through two pins, an L-ch input and an R-ch
input. The audio input frequency band ranges from 20 Hz to 15 kHz. The signal
is then be adjusted through a pre-emphasis circuit, a limiter circuit, and a low pass
filter. The signal is then modulated on a frequency from 76 to 108 MHz. The
carrier frequency can be set at any level within that range at 100 kHz intervals.
Because FM radio in North America is only broadcast on odd ending frequencies,
the microcontroller software steps the transmitter on 200 kHz intervals.
Figure 7 shows the schematic for the transmission subsystem. This schematic
includes all components needed for the audio signal adjustment and for the phase
locked loop system.

Figure 7: Transmission Circuit Schematic

The signal is transmitted with a maximum of 450 mW power dissipation. This is


adjusted and limited to comply with FCC regulations.

The IC transmission settings are controlled via a serial data connection with the
microcontroller. The serial connection is implemented through three pins on the
BH1415F, CE (chip enable), CK (clock), and DA (data). The IC is refreshed
through a binary data packet as shown in figure 8.

Figure 8: Data Packet Diagram

The data packet consists of 16 bits transmitted from the microcontroller to the
BH1415F. No transmission frequency is specified for the data stream; however,
the frequency may not exceed .66 MHz. The transmission frequency is set using
the first 10 bits of the packet. The frequency is first divided by 10^5. This is then
encoded as a hex value and then transmitted in binary. For example, in the case of
99.7 MHz, the frequency divided by 10^5 is 997 which is 3E5 in hexadecimal.
The binary stream uses D0 as the LSB and D10 as the most significant bit.

Figure 9: Transmission Frequency Encoding

The remaining bits of the data packet are not be used in the implementation. This
includes control of stereo/mono operation, phase detection manipulation, and test
settings.
The BH1515f is available in a SOP22 package that is easy to mount without a
complex manufacturing process.

Figure 10: BH1415F Package and Dimensions

2.4.3 Outputs
There are two outputs from the device. An LCD screen displays the frequency that
the device is currently transmitting. The other output is the FM audio output
transmitted by the antenna. These two outputs are described in the following
sections.

2.4.3.1 LCD Screen


The LCD Screen is a 7 segment display with a backlight. It is equipped with a
module for it to interpret the data given from the microcontroller. There are 4
digits and a decimal point.

Figure 11: VIM-404-DP-FC-S-HV

The LCD chosen was the VIM-404-DP-FC-S-HV LCD manufactured by


Varitronix. It is a transflective backlit display that meets and exceeds size,
temperature, and cost for this part. The way it accepts inputs is dependant upon
its programming making it a versatile choice. Its 20 I/O pin interface is typical for
LCD components on the market.

2.4.3.2 Antenna
The output to the antenna is broadcasted to the FM radio. This is the primary
output of the signal.
The device uses a small wire antenna that will remain inside the device case.
Because the case is plastic and the transmission range is small, there should not be
a need for an external antenna. However, the device could be easily modified to
accept an external antenna that could increase the effective transmission range.

2.4.4 Overview schematic


The following is the overall schematic of the teams design. This includes the
output pin connections to the input pin connections of the parts listed above.
Passive components, power buses, and switch circuitry are not included on this
schematic to make it easily readable.

Figure 12: Overall Circuit Schematic

2.5 Prototype Implementation Process


A prototype of the end-product was implemented using bread boarding techniques. The
implementation process included layout and interconnection of circuit components, as
well as programming the PIC microcontroller.

2.5.1 Prototype Layout


The layout process included the physical layout and interconnection of all circuit
components. The components were inserted into an electrical breadboard
according to the circuit schematic. Jumper wires were used when necessary to
reduce congestion in some of the busier areas of the circuit.
The BH1415F IC was only available in a surface mount package. Therefore a
means to connect this IC with the rest of the bread boarded circuit was needed. To

do this, the team used a component, mentioned earlier, called a Schmartboard.


Using this Schmartboard, connecting leads to the pins of the BH1415F IC was
much easier.

2.5.2 PIC Programming


Several compilers were used to construct the code implemented in the
microcontroller. Initially, a free program from Microchip called MPLAB IDE was
used. Later, however, another program called PICC Lite was used. Free versions
of both were used.
The switch from the free version of MPLAB IDE to PICC Lite occurred due to
the programming language each required. MPLAB IDE required that the
software be written in an assembly like code. While, initially, this did not seem to
be a problem, a few difficulties implementing the desired functions, and the
discovery of a program allowing the used of C programming language spawned
the change is software. Using PICC Lite allowed the programming to be done in
C, a language the entire team was more familiar with.

2.6 End-Product Testing Description


Testing on the prototype was performed by two groups of people. Initial testing was
performed by the project team. Addition testing was performed by a test user audience,
acquaintances of the team members, who had no part in the project creation.

2.6.1 Project Team Testing


The prototype was initially tested by the project team in order to ensure that the
prototype was functioning properly and according to specifications. All input
buttons were tested, the LCD was monitored for proper display, and the
transmission distance was tested.
The manual buttons were first tested to ensure the receipt and execution of an
input signal. The manual buttons were used to tune the transmitter to a number of
frequencies across the available frequency band. A stereo was used to ensure that
the device was transmitting properly at the selected frequency.
In order to test the designated preset buttons, it was necessary to first set the
buttons to a preset station. The frequency stored in each preset was recorded by a
team member. After setting all the presets to different frequencies, the device was
tuned to a frequency other than any of the stored preset frequencies. The preset
buttons were then pressed to make sure they recalled the proper frequency. This
process was performed a number of times to ensure the preset buttons would store
new frequencies.

Preservation of the stored presets when lacking a power source was also tested.
The device was disconnected from its power source for a short period of time, and
then reconnected to power. Once reconnected, the preset buttons were pressed and
the transmission frequency was observed and compared to the stored frequency
before power loss.
The final test was to make sure the minimum testing distance was achieved. To
test this, a portable stereo was used. The transmitter and stereo were tuned to the
same frequency. Once the stereo was verified to be receiving the transmitted
audio, the stereo was gradually moved away from the device. When noticeable
signal degradation was audible, the distance was noted. The process was then
repeated for different frequencies, and in different locations.

2.6.2 User Testing


Upon the completion of testing by the team members, user testing began. In order
to obtain possible users, team members invited personal acquaintances to test the
prototype. The acquaintances were oriented with the device.
In orientation, the user was told that the device was an FM transmitter to be used
with an mp3 audio device. The user was then seated at a table where all necessary
components were readily available (mp3 player playing audio, tunable stereo,
power source with proper connections, audio cable). The preset buttons and
manual tuning buttons were differentiated for the user by a team member. Then
the user was asked to use the device to transmit the mp3 player audio to the
stereo. At least one team member was present to help the user if needed, however
the users were strongly encouraged to try to figure out how to use the device on
their own.
Upon completion of the task, users were asked by team members to explain how
the device was used. The user was also asked about ease of use, functionality, and
for any comments about the device.

2.7 Resources and Schedules


The following section reports the project resource requirements, project schedules, and
a deliverable schedule. All data includes original estimated, revised totals, and the todate actual totals.

2.7.1 Resource Requirements


This project required many hours of planning, researching, designing, and testing, as
well as organizational skills, developed methods of communication, and each
members devotion. The following contains the final reporting of personal effort. For
comparison, the original estimates and revised personal effort tables are included as
well.

2.7.1.1 Personal Effort Requirements


As an assurance to the success of this project, the project was broken down into 8
tasks. Each member of the team planned on the amount of time to be dedicated to
each particular task. The 8 individual tasks are outlined as follows:
Task 1: Project Plan
Includes the statement of the problem, requirements, and specifications made by the
client.
Task 2: Technical Considerations
Contains a list of the teams choices of technologies that could be used in product
design. The team will select the best and most feasible approach. This section
includes extensive research of each technologies considered and their components.
Task 3: End-Product Design
Consists of the design process for the product once a technology is selected. The
end result will be a functional design that meets requirements
Task 4: End-Product Implementation
Task consist of the actual implementation of the end product design
Task 5: End-Product Testing
Testing of the prototype will be done in this task. The testing is done in order to
ensure that the prototype functions safely and properly.
Task 6: End-Product Documentation
Documentation occurs through out the project and is revised and packaged near
completion of the project.
Task 7: End-Product Demonstration
Demonstrate the functionality of device to client and advisor.
Task 8: Project Reporting
Creating a full and detailed report covering the entire process from problem
definition to presentation.

Personal efforts per each task were estimated in the project planning stage. Table 3
lists the original personal time effort estimate to be spent on each task.
Table 3: Original personal effort time table

Time consumption for various tasks in hour


2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Grant Blythe

16

78

16

20

18

17

180

Luke Erichsen

18

75

14

23

15

15

174

Tony Hunziker

20

78

13

18

16

14

175

Jacob Sloat

19

82

15

21

17

16

185

Totals

29

73

313

58

82

66

31

62

714

Personal Name

Totals

These original estimates however, were updated near the end of the first semester
in the design report. Table 4 displays the actual time input for tasks one and two,
and revised estimates for all the other tasks.
Table 4: Revised personal effort time table

Time consumption for various tasks in hour


2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Grant Blythe

10

10

16

20

18

17

107

Luke Erichsen

24

10.5

14

23

15

15

116.5

Tony Hunziker

26.5

8.5

9.5

13

18

16

14

113.5

Jacob Sloat

19

7.5

15

21

17

16

110.5

Totals

76.5

34.5

37.5

58

82

66

31

62

447.5

Personal Name

Totals

There are noticeable differences between original and revised values. The project
plan, Task 1, was a larger commitment than expected. It accumulated almost two
times the amount of hours expected. Task 2, technical considerations did not take
as long as expected. This is because the most viable technical opportunities were
identified within the project definition. The third task was significantly less due
to two aspects. A number of aspects concerning the initial design were partially
resolved in surrounding tasks. It was also noted that, Task 3 was not fully
completed at the time the revised personal efforts were estimated.

Table 5: Final personal effort time table

Personal Name

Time consumption for various tasks in hour


3
4
5
6
7
8

Totals

Grant Blythe

10

89

73

12

16

15

230

Luke Erichsen

24

79

69

11

12

12

223

Tony Hunziker

26.5

8.5

82

72

10

14

16

235

Jacob Sloat

19

53

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

80

Totals

76.5

34.5

303

214

33

42

22

43

768

Table 5 shows the to-date personal efforts. Task 3s and Task 4s hours clearly
passed estimated values. Early attempts at implementation revealed that the initial
design needed revising. Further implementation revealed other necessary design
revisions. The formation of this implementation, revision loop is the reason of the
large increase in hours devoted to Task 3, and Task 4.
More specifically Task 3s time demand increase may be largely attributed to the
need of deeper technical understanding of the phase lock loop circuit used by the
signal processor. This portion of the design was more complex than initially
thought. Along with that, further research on PIC programming was necessary.
Task 4 also accumulated larger than expected hours for multiple reasons. This
task, when estimated, was expected to go quickly and be a simple breadboard
assembly of components. However, after reaching this task, hours quickly added
up as difficulties arose. Accurate soldering and difficulties programming the PIC
processor were the major hurdles causing the hours to add up under this task.
It should also be acknowledged that Task 5 and Task 7 have little to no hours
currently attributed to them. This is because of their dependence upon the full
completion of Task 4. At this time, Task 4 is still being implemented.
It should also be noted that Jacob Sloat, was studying abroad during the project
second semester and therefore is no longer a team member.

2.7.1.2 Other Resource Requirements


There were other miscellaneous requirements that were estimated but not included
in the design budget. The original estimates of these resources and their costs
were outlined in the project plan, and can be seen in Table 4. The original
estimates were to cover the cost for all necessary printing
Table 6: Original miscellaneous requirements

Item

Cost

Paper Printing
Photocopy

$11.00
$5.00

Miscellaneous

$6.00

Total

$22.00

The miscellaneous requirements were revised in the design report. The revised
estimates can be seen below, in Table 5.
Table 7: Revised miscellaneous requirements

Item

Cost

Printing of project
plan
Printing of design
report
Project Poster

$4.00

$25.00

Miscellaneous

$6.00

Total

$40.00

$5.00

The revised estimates contain the actual cost for the printing of the two reports.
An estimate cost was added for the creation of the project poster. The project
poster and the last of the miscellaneous resources are outlined in Table 6.

Table 8: Final miscellaneous requirements

Item

Cost

Project plan

$4.00

Design report
Project poster

$5.00
$15.00

Final Report

$5.00

Product
Documentation
PIC programmer

$5.00
Free(Senior D Lab)

PIC software
compiler
Total

Free
$34.00

2.7.1.3 Financial Requirements


This section includes financial costs associated with this project. Beside the
material cost, the cost due to labor is also calculated base on hourly rate of
$10.00. Tables containing the original estimates, revised estimates, and final
financial requirements follow below.
Table 9: Original financial requirement estimate

Item
Part & Material
1. modulator
2. amplifier
3. antenna
4. liquid crystal display
5. microcontroller
6. case
8. DC adapter
Subtotal
Other costs (from Table 6)

W/O labor

With Labor

$ 2.74
$ 2.29
$ 2.17
$ 1.50
$ 12.95
$ 3.75
$ 5.65

$ 2.74
$ 2.29
$ 2.17
$ 1.50
$ 12.95
$ 3.75
$ 5.65

$31.05
$ 22.00

$31.05
$ 22.00

Labor at $ 10.00/hr
Grant Blythe
Luke Erichsen
Tony Hunziker
Jacob Sloat

$ 1800.00
$ 1740.00
$ 1750.00
$ 1850.00

Subtotal

$ 7140.00

Total Project Cost

$ 53.05

$ 7193.05

The information in Table 9 lists the original estimated cost based on market
research through an online vendor. The labor was calculated using the original
total hours estimated for each person, which is given in Table 3.
Table 10: Revised financial requirements

Item
Part & Material
1. amplifier/modulator
2. clock
3. antenna
4. liquid crystal display
5. microcontroller
6. case
8. DC adapter
Subtotal
Other costs (from Table 7)

W/O labor

With Labor

$ 3.76
$ 0.75
$0.25
$ 4.50
$ 7.50
$ 8.00
$ 3.75

$ 3.76
$ 0.75
$ 0.25
$ 4.50
$ 7.50
$ 8.00
$ 3.75

$28.51
$40.00

$28.51
$40.00

Labor at $ 10.00/hr
Grant Blythe
Luke Erichsen
Tony Hunziker
Jacob Sloat

$ 1070.00
$ 1165.00
$ 1135.00
$ 1105.00

Subtotal

$ 4475.00

Total Project Cost

$ 68.51

$ 4543.51

Table 10 contains the revised financial requirements as outlined in the design


report near the end of the first semester. The cost of parts changed as exact
products were selected as opposed to the general, original estimate found in Table
7. The labor costs were also revised. For this table the labor was calculated using
the revised total hours found in Table 4.

Table 11: Final financial requirements

Item
Part & Material (quantity)
1. amplifier/modulator (3)
2. clock
3. antenna
4. liquid crystal display
5. microcontroller (3)
6. case
8. DC adapter
9.Buttons
10. miscellaneous components
11. prototyping board(2)
Subtotal
Other costs (from Table 8)

W/O labor

With Labor

$11.28
$ 0.50
$0.25
$ 4.54
$23.10
$ 8.00
$ 11.58
$10.78
$8.77
$19.98

$11.28
$ 0.50
$ 0.25
$ 4.54
$23.10
$ 8.00
$ 11.58
$10.78
$8.77
$19.98

$98.78
$34.00

$98.78
$34.00

Labor at $ 10.00/hr
Grant Blythe
Luke Erichsen
Tony Hunziker
Jacob Sloat

$ 2300.00
$ 2230.00
$ 2350.00
$ 800.00

Subtotal
Total Project Cost

$ 7680
$ 132.78

$ 7812.78

The final requirements detailed in Table 11 include labor calculated with respect
to the number of hours currently tallied by each team member, shown in Table 3.
A few new parts were added from the revised estimate. A prototyping board was
used to help implement a surface mount chip. Also, multiples of some
components were ordered in case of component failure during implementation.

2.7.2 Schedule of Tasks


The project schedule, just as the other resources previously discussed has been
estimated and revised. The schedule can be seen in the image below.
Figure 13: Project Schedule

Legend
Original Estimate
Revised Estimate
Actual Occurrence
This schedule displays the original estimated schedule (blue), the revised estimated
schedule (red), and the sequence of actual events (black). There are several
discrepancies which must be discussed.
First, the technology considerations milestone was extended from original estimates.
As the group researched a design for the end-product, it quickly realized that there
were more specific technologies within the general technology that was selected
earlier. It was necessary for the team to select from different transmission IC
technologies as well as different microcontrollers. These selections were occurring
throughout the early stages of the design, and therefore the schedule was changed to
reflect these actions.
The end-product design milestone was extended for a similar reason. After
implementation began, a few problems were identified with the original design and
revisions were necessary. A design revision task was added to the end-product design
milestone in order to represent the steps that occurred between implementation and

revising the original design (note the design revision task was broken out in schedule
in Figure 13).
More time than estimated was needed for implementation as well. Initially,
implementation was stalled by part delays; however that was a minor contributor.
With revisions occurring to the design some components could not be ordered until
their specifications were solidified. Another factor delaying implementation was that
the BH1415F transmitter IC was only available in a surface mount package. Without
any team members being able to successfully solder leads to the IC, it was necessary
to find another method to connect to this IC in order to build a prototype.
There are two more minor things to address. First, while the time frame stayed the
same, the prototype testing was delayed from estimates due to its dependence on
completion of the implementation milestone. Secondly, the demonstration milestone
may look a little deceiving. The tasks in the demonstration milestone did follow
original estimates. However, an additional task was added to the schedule in order to
recognize the in-class presentation performed, which the team considered a practice
run for the actual IRP presentation.
A deliverables schedule is also included. This can be seen in Figure 14 below.
Figure 14: Gantt chart of schedule of deliverables

This schedule has not changed since the onset of the project. The deliverables are
mandated through the senior design class schedule.

3 Closure Materials
3.1 Project Evaluation
The project was evaluated according to the successful completion of project milestones.
Each milestone was weighted on its relative importance. The relative importance and
evaluation criteria were determined in the project plan and are displayed in the
following figure.

Table 12: Milestone Relative Importance

Importance

Milestone
End-Product Problem Definition
Technology Considerations
End-Product Design
End-Product Implementation
End-Product Testing
End-Product Documentation
End-Product Demonstration
Total

Relative
High
High
High
Medium
High
Medium
Low

Percentage (%)
18
18
18
12
18
12
4
100

It was necessary for this table to be slightly changed from its original specifications. To
keep things simple, the senior design professors requested that the relative importance
be expressed in percentages that are multiples of 5. By simply rounding to the nearest
multiple of 5 the new values were selected. However, this rounding method resulted in
an overall percentage of 105%. Therefore a 5 percent deduction was applied to the EndProduct Testing milestone. The altered results can be seen in the Relative Importance
column in Table 13.
Table 13: Milestone Evaluation Criteria

Evaluation Result
Exceeded/Met
Partially Met
Did not Meet Standard

Numerical Score
90% +
1 - 89%
0%

The evaluation criteria consisted of 3 grading brackets. If the milestone was met or
exceeded the evaluation score was in the 90% and up range. Simply meeting the
milestone requirements resulted in a 90%. A score above 90% reflects exceeding the
minimum requirements. If the milestone was partially met, the score would range from
1% to 89% depending upon the degree of remaining work. An unrefined yet functional
outcome would be ranked in the higher portion of this bracket. The fewer milestone
requirements met the lower the resulting score. Lastly, if the milestone was in no way
met, or for some reason not attempted, no credit would be given.
The teams numerical evaluation of the project is as seen in the figure below.

Table 14: Project Evaluation


Milestones
Problem definition
Research
Technology selection
End-product design
Prototype implementation
End-product testing
End-product documentation
Project reviews
Project reporting
End-product demonstration
Total

Relative
Importance
15%
10%
10%
15%
10%
10%
10%
5%
10%
5%
100%

Evaluation
Score
100%
100%
100%
100%
70%
70%
95%
100%
100%
50%

Resultant Score
15
10
10
15
7
7
9.5
5
10
2.5
91%

The resultant score is a result of multiplying the relative importance by the decimal
equivalent of the evaluation score percentage. The possible range for scores is from
zero to 100. A passing score as put forth by the team in the project plan was 90. The
team evaluated this project to have a final score of 91%.

3.2 Commercialization
The team sees a strong possibility for commercialization of the device. The device
should be able to be produced at a marketable price. While it cost the team nearly $100
in parts to produce a prototype, over 40 dollars were spent replacement parts or
prototype specific devices. Taking into account lower prices for bulk ordering
components, and a mass production scheme the team estimates the cost to product to be
around $15.
Devices with similar capabilities that are already on the market have price tags ranging
from $20 to over $50 dollars. A market price of approximately $30 is recommended by
the project team. This leaves a profit margin of $15 for the manufacturer and vendor.
There is a large potential market for the device, ranging from teenagers to the
technically apt elderly. Also the market for the device is not limited to those with an
mp3 player or satellite radio. In theory, other audio sources with a 3.5mm audio output
could be used with this device. The device is also able to be used in automobiles and
households with the use of a simple power adapter, rather than confined to just the
home or auto.
With that said, the team realizes that successful commercialization of the device would
be difficult as server well established brands already have comparable devices on the
market. However, the team feels there may be a small niche market accessible through

proper marketing, and possibly enhancing the device with an innovative or unique
function.

3.3 Recommendations for Additional Work


Possible future work for the FM transmitter includes moving the project to
commercialization and adding increased functionality. In the process of designing the
project, the team came up with several unique functions that would increase
commercial ability but because of time and budget constraints, the team decided not to
implement these functions. Some of the possible functions the team thought of are:
including a Scan or Seek button that would automatically find an empty frequency
to broadcast on, capable of accepting multiple input sources, and HD radio output.

3.4 Lessons Learned


The following is a description of the lessons learned, what went well, what didnt go
well, technical knowledge gained, non-technical knowledge gained, and what the team
would do differently if it had to do the project over again.

3.4.1 What Went Well


The team worked well together. Communication between the team members was
great. The team also had great communication with our advisors. They were very
helpful and knowledgeable.

3.4.2 What Didnt Go Well


The team thought the project was easier than what it really was. The team didnt
realize the complexity of the technology. There were some complicated parts like the
phase lock loop and programming the PIC.

3.4.3 Technical Knowledge Gained


No one from the team had an emphasis in RF, so everyone had to learn how
frequency modulation and RF circuits worked. The team also had very little
experience programming microcontrollers, so the team gained knowledge in choosing
what language to program in, what type of compilers to use, and programming the
microcontroller. The team also found a unique way to use surface-mount chips in
prototyping.

3.4.4 Non-Technical Knowledge Gained


The team also learned many non-technical skills while completing the project. The
team learned the importance of using people they know for a quick reference. The

team also learned the importance of maintaining the schedule and to expect delays
and pad the schedule to compensate for unfortunate circumstances.

3.4.5 What Would the Team Do Differently?


If the team had to do the project over again, the team would have tried to have all the
parts ordered during the summer so it could focus on building and programming the
project during the semester.

3.5 Risk and Risk Management


This section will describe the anticipated potential risks, anticipated risks encountered,
unanticipated risks encountered, and resultant changes to risk management.

3.5.1 Anticipated Potential Risks

Loss of team member: If the loss of a team member occurs, the team will reassign tasks appropriately and re-schedule as necessary. The team will also
document anything done on the project well and see that it gets to the rest of
the team. This unforeseen event has a strong possibility of occurring and is
sometimes un-preventable so the team members will do their best to make it a
priority to be available for completion of the project.

Delay in getting parts: The team will have to buy parts needed to complete
the project. This has a strong possibility of a delay in receiving parts or parts
being on backorder. Preventive action includes attempting to order parts well
in advance. If received late, rescheduling will occur to compensate.

Part and device failure: As well as simulations are it is undeniable that


many components will undergo physical testing for efficiency and
functionality. The risk of part failure or device malfunction is quite apparent.
This would likely cause concerns with time and cost. All procedures will be
well documented and reviewed by team members prior to actually testing to
ensure limited probability of failure, and the team will consider purchasing
multiple quantities of rare parts and parts the team feels has a high probability
of failure.

Human injuries: There are many risks associated with testing antenna
broadcasting and the use of different energy sources. The same system of
elaborate documentation and approval that was used for part and device
failure will be used for hazard prevention as well as using safety devices.

3.5.2 Anticipated Risks Encountered

Loss of team member: In the fall semester, team member Jacob Sloat
studied abroad in Taiwan. The team successfully managed this risk by reassigning tasks. Because Jake left at the conclusion of the first semester, all of
the project design was completed and documented.

Delay in getting parts: The team experienced a delay in getting the parts.
The team successfully managed this risk by working on other parts of the
project.

3.5.3 Unanticipated Risks Encountered

Complexity of technology:
The team didnt realize the complexity of
the technology like the phase lock loop and programming the microcontroller.
The team successfully managed this risk by talking to experts and learning, on
the job, about this technology.

3.5.4 Resultant Changes to Risk Management


The only change the team did to the anticipated risk management was to use contacts
and talk to other people and other teams when it needed help or had questions.

3.6 Project Team Information


Following are the contact information for every person that is involve in this project.

3.6.1 Client
Iowa State University
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Senior Design
Address: 2215 Coover Hall, Ames, IA 50011
Website: www.ece.iastate.edu

3.6.2 Faculty Advisors


John W. Lamont
Office: 324 Town
Office Phone: 515-294-3600
Home Phone: 515-292-5541
Fax: 515-294-6760
Home Address: 1005 Idaho Ave Ames, IA 50014-3018
Email: jwlamont@iastate.edu

Ralph E. Patterson III


Office: 326 Town
Office Phone: 515-294-2428
Home Phone: 515-232-9933
Fax: 515-294-6760
Home Address: 1807 24th Street Ames, IA 50010-4430
Email: repiii@iastate.edu

3.6.3 Team Members


Tony Hunziker Team Leader
Major: Electrical Engineering
Phone: 515-238-0171
Address: 2919 Lincoln Way Ames, IA 50001
Email: huntz57@iastate.edu
Grant Blythe Communications Coordinator
Major: Electrical Engineering
Phone: 319-431-6032
Address: 111 Rockvalley Drive SW Ames, IA 50014
Email: gblythe@iastate.edu
Luke Erichsen
Major: Electrical Engineering
Phone: 515-450-0694
Address: 119 Stanton Ave Apt 708 Ames, IA 50014
Email: luke13@iastate.edu

3.7 Closing Summary


In summary, the designed FM transmitter takes in an audio input from a standard
headphone audio output and transmits it to an FM receiver. The transmitter is able to
transmit from 88MHz to 108MHz, and has 4 programmable preset frequencies. The
device requires a 12V input signal which may be acquired directly from an automobile
outlet, or from a standard 120V wall outlet with the proper adapter. The transmission
frequency is displayed on a LCD screen which is back-lit for better viewing.
The design implements all requirements and takes into consideration limitations
imposed by internal and external forces. Some of these forces include, client needs,
government regulations, and size constraints. The design uses capable, and robust
components which results in a sturdy and durable design.
The end-product produced not only performs the required functions, but also remains
easy to use. Testing showed the device performs these functions, and presented an
intuitive design. Upon analysis, this device proves, to be a competitive model when
compared to commercial market of FM transmitters.

3.8 References
1. Rohm Electronics BH1415F wireless audio link IC data sheet,
http://www.rohmelectronics.com/downloads/products/focus/audio_lsi/bh1
415f.pdf
2. Microchip PIC 16F877A data sheet,
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/39582b.pdf
3. Varitronix VIM-404-DP-FC-S-HV transflective LCD data sheet,
http://rocky.digikey.com/WebLib/Varitronix/Web%20Data/Typical%20VI
%20or%20VIM%20Spec.pdf
4. Micrel 555 clock data sheet,
http://www.micrel.com/_PDF/HBW/sy100el14v.pdf
5. C++ for programmers, third edition. By Leen Ammeraal. Wiley, 2000
6. Microelectronic Circuits, fourth edition. By Sedra and Smith. Oxford
university press, 1997.
7. Field and Wave Electromagnetics, 2nd. Edition. By David K. Cheng.
Prentice Hall, 1989
8. Fundamental of Digital Logic with Verilog design. By Stephen Brown,
Zvonko Vranesic. McGraw-Hill, 2002
9. Engineering Circuit Analysis, 6th. Edition. By William H. Hayt, Jack
Kemmerly, Steven M. Durbin. McGraw-Hill, 2002
10. EE/CprE 491 Senior Design Course Notes. By John Lamont.
11. EE/CprE 491 Senior Design Coursepack Supplement. By John Lamont.
12. Fundamentals of Engineering Economics. Chan S. Park. Prentice Hall,
2003
13. Fred Dos Electronics Page. www.freddospage.nl, 2006.