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P. BAG 2010
APRIL 2010

Unit One
Research presentation

Unit Two
Chapter one


Unit Three
Chapter two


Unit Four
Chapter three


Unit Five
Chapter four


Unit Six
Chapter five




[Preliminary pages]


The purpose of this section is to highlight the specifications in the presentation of the
research project in order to achieve uniformity and consistency. The section covers the
following aspects:


The Preliminary (front ) Pages

The Research Report Text
Text Formatting
Back pages material
The Preliminary Pages

In the preliminary pages of the research project you present the following materials:

The Title page

The Approved Form
The Release Form
The Abstract
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures

The preliminary pages that precede the introduction should be numbered in lower case
Roman numerals i.e. i, ii, iii, iv etc while the body of the research is numbered in
Arabic numerals i.e. 1,2,3 etc.

1.1.1 The Title Page

The title page must be arranged as follows:

Institution granting degree.

Title of the research project:- the title of the research project must be brief
and should have 15 words or less.
The title of the research project is in capital letters (well centered): indicate
your full name starting with first name then middle name(s) and lastly
surname. The following statement should be written under your name, well
centered and systematically arranged:


submission at the bottom (well-centered).

The Release Form

This is a form that grants the university permission to produce copies for the project and
also reserves the authors publication rights.

The Signed Approval Form

This serves as an official acknowledgement and acceptance of the research project as

satisfactory. It is signed by the supervisor and the Chairman of the Department.

Dedication (Optional)

This serves as tribute or recognition to a specific individual or individuals.

1.1.5. The Abstract
The abstract should follow the title page and begin on a new page. It should be concise
but comprehensive (between 250 300 words). The abstract is used by potential readers
to determine at a glance, the contents of the project. The abstract should contain:

A clear statement of the problem under investigation and the purpose of the
A description of the methods used in the study i.e. the design, the sample size and
the sample composition;
An indication of where and how the data was obtained;
A description of the data analysis technique;
A summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations.



In this section you acknowledge the person or persons to whom you are indebted for the
guidance and assistance in making your study successful. Present this section on a
separate page.

Table of Contents

Table of contents should be sufficiently informative with page numbers of all sections
and chapters indicated. The preliminaries are typed in lower case. These are typed as
Title Page
Release Form
Approval Form
Table of Contents
List of Table
List of Figures
List of Appendices


After the preliminaries you then list Chapter and Chapter headings and subheading giving
the page(s) where these are located in your research project.
For typing you should ensure that:

Chapter numbers and preliminaries page numbers are typed in Roman numerals;
Chapter titles and Chapter numbers are typed in UPPER CASE;
Sub-headings of each chapter are typed in lower case and single spaced;
Margins are 3.8cm on the left and 2.5cm at the right, top and bottom sides
Numbering of the pages should be at the centre bottom,
References and Appendices are presented in Arabic numerals and are typed in upper
Spelling should follow that of the UK. English Dictionary use the Spell
Grammar checker facility in the MS-Word.
Ensure that typescripts are legible, and that the fonts as well as format are consistent




List of Tables
Type each table on a separate sheet in case it covers half a page or more;
Number them consecutively using Arabic numbers e.g. Table 4.1, Table 4.2 etc in
the same order they are referred to in the text. Type them at the top of the table;
Type adequate and self-explanatory headings above tables;
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the heading and of column
headings in the table except where otherwise necessary;
Place acknowledgements of the source below the tables e.g. Source: Mapiye and
Maunga (2006), where applicable;
Give references for tables in full only in the references list at the end of the research
project and not as footnotes to the text.
List of Figures
Provide these on separate sheets in case they cover half page or more;
Number the figures sequentially in Arabic numbers (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure
3 etc) and refer to them in the text in order of appearance. Type captions below
Capitalize only the first letter of captions except where otherwise necessary.
The Research Project Text
This refers to Chapters 1-5 since these constitute your main report.


Text Formatting
This subsection concentrates on the presentation specifications of the research or
main body. It covers the following subheadings:

General Typing Rules
Text spacing
Hyphenated words
Book titles
Pagination Margins

All pages should have top, bottom, left and right hand margins with the following
3.8cm on the left margin to allow binding;
2.5cm at the top and bottom;
2.5cm on the right hand. Typing Rules

A4 pager is to be used;
Typing should be done on one side of the page only;
Line spacing should be 1.5;
All Chapters should be numbered in Roman numerals, centred and typed
in capital letters;
All chapter titles should be centered, in capitals and two spaces below
chapter number;
For all subheadings, use a combination of capitals and lower case; Subheading should be highlighted (bold) and flushed against the left margin
(do not underline them).

2 Spaces
3 Spaces

If subheadings are more than 1 line, they should be single spaced.

Each chapter begins on a separate new page.

1.2.3 Text Spacing

Begin 3 spaces below the last line of the chapter title (as shown above). A minimum of 2
lines must be used to divide paragraphs or when beginning a new sub-division.
1.2.4 Font Type and size
Times New Roman should be used for font type and a font size 12pt throughout the
research report.


Long quotations should:

Be indented;
Be single spaced;
Be in Block typed form i.e. 4 spaces from left margin;


To be enclosed in quotation marks.

Begin 3 spaces below general text.
Quotations less than 3 lines are enclosed in quotation marks and typed
within the general text.

Hyphenated words

These should be kept to a minimum of three per page.

Protruding words into right hand margins should be avoided. Avoid hyphenating last
word on the page.

Bold Titles

Titles of books and periodicals should be underlined if used in text.


Page Numbering

The following specifications should be noted:

All the preliminaries are numbered in the lower case of the Roman
numerals, centered at the bottom of the page;
Arabic numbering begins on Chapter one and continues up to the end of
Numbering should be positioned at the bottom centre of each page; and
Arabic numbering should be positioned at the bottom centre of each page.

Back Page Materials

This section refers to references and appendices.


References should come immediately after last chapter of the research project i.e.
Chapter v;
Should reflect works consulted and appearing in the text;
Cite references in alphabetical order of authors and in order of year of publication,
start with papers by the same author being arranged in the order of (1) single
author (2) two authors alphabetically according to the name of second author and
(3) several authors chronologically with 2006a and 2006b etc for papers published
in the same year.
References by one author take precedence over references by the same plus
additional authors irrespective of the year of publication.
Avoid using Anon or Anonymous where possible. Where no name of the author is
given, use the name of the sponsoring or issuing organization, ministry and
department etc if it can be identified.

The following guidelines and examples are designed to show the main elements that
should be cited and the order in which they should appear in references for the main
classes of publications most likely to need inclusion in the list of references.

Authors surname and the initials for forenames;

Year of publication followed by a period / full stop;
Title of published paper;
Name of Journal: spelt in full;
Volume and / or issue number in the brackets;
First and last page numbers (in full) for journals papers.

For example,
Chitura, T., Dube, T., and Chari, F., 2007. Service quality and customer satisfaction: A
case of the mobile telecommunication industry in Gweru, Zimbabwe: Southern African
Journal of Education, Science and Technology, Volume 2 (2): 80 -88.

Authors or editors surnames and initials, names of the sponsoring or

issuing organization or corporate body in the absence of a named individual
or editor ;
Year of publication, followed by a period/full stop;
Title of the book ( to be underlined or in italics);
Name of publisher and town, in that order;
Page number.

For example,
Mzumara, M., 2006. The Theory of Money and Banking in Modern Times (Edition, if not
the first), Mustang, Tate, pp 50 ff.
Proceedings of conferences / workshops/ monographs.

Authors surnames(s) and initials;

Year of publication, followed by: In
Title of proceedings or workshop
Date of Conference: Town, Country; Volume (if any), Page numbers.

For example,

Ogunniyi, M., B., 2005. Relative Effects of a History, Philosophy and Sociology of
Science Course on Teachers Understanding of the Name of Science and Industrial
Practice; In Proceedings of the knowledge Production and Higher Education in the 21 st
Century Conference. 31 August 2 September, 2005. Bergen, Germany pp 45 -50.

Authors surname and initials;

Year of submission followed by a full stop;
Title of thesis;
State whether its an Msc, MPhil, PhD or D Phil thesis;
Name of the host institution or Country.

For example,
Salawu, M., B., 1997. The Nutritive Value of the leguminous browse Calliandra
Calothyrsus and the role of condensed tannins in ruminant feeds. PhD Thesis, University
of Aberdeen. United Kingdom.

Author(s) or organizations name;

Year of publication;
Title of the report;
Name of publisher (if available), Town, Country and page numbers of the
article (any which is available).

For example,
Mupangwa, J., F., Vhurumuka, E., and Denhere, S., 2000. Assessment of the Impact of
Cyclone Eline on the Food Agriculture and Natural Resource Sector in Zimbabwe.
UNDP/WFP. USAID / FEWSNET and GOZ, Harare, Zimbabwe
Department of Research and Specialist Services (DRSS), 2000. Livestock and Pasture
Research in Zimbabwe, Annual report. Government Printers, Harare Zimbabwe pp 12-15.
Citing From Electronic Sources

Authors or organisations name;

Year of publication;
Title of the article;
Internet Address;
Date of the Website.

For example,
Rule, L.,C., and Lassila, K., E., 2003. Innovative Teaching Approaches to Improve
Science Education. Retrieved from
on 12/06/04.




Being an extension of the research document, these should be page numbered normally.
They include copies of research instruments used and other documents deemed necessary
for inclusion but must be kept to a minimum. In addition to being numbered sequentially,
each appendix must be provided/given a title.


You must submit 2 loose bound copies for marking. After making necessary corrections
(as suggested by markers), you should then submit one executive bound copy of the
dissertation. You should also submit an electronic copy of your dissertation to your
respective department. The Spine

Name of Student
Year The Colour

Navy blue with inscriptions on both spine and cover.

Dissertation length

The length of the dissertation should be around 12000 words inclusive of the Appendices.



This section of the research guidelines makes an effort to describe and explain step by
step how to write Chapter One of your research project. You should note that Chapter
One is entitled Introduction in order to emphasise its relative function, e.g.
Chapter One

The Chapter is broken down into the following subheadings:

Background to the Study;

Statement of the problem;
Purpose of the Study;
Research question(s);
Statement of the hypothesis
Significance of the study;
Delimitations of the study;
Definition of terms; and

Background to the Study

The purpose is to provide context to the proposed study. It should describe the situation in
which the problem is encountered. The background places the research study into some
intelligible context, touching broadly on some of the issues related to it. Generally, you
will rely on some information, which led you to get to the source of the particular
research problem. For example, you might want to touch on the commercial, social,
geographical, educational or political context of the problem, or the various dimensions
in which it manifests itself.
The researcher should identify the gap that must be filled by the present study. Where the
background to the study depends on the literature, this must be cited.


Statement of the Problem

This sub-section contains a brief and clear statement of the problem to be solved.
Research is usually motivated by the need to handle a problem. Problem statement should
thus follow from the background, specifying what is to be studied and the problem. It is
important to demonstrate that the problem is critical and warrants a study. One could also
discuss the potential consequences if the problem is not addressed. Some of the
characteristics of a good research problem statement are that it should be:
Researchable, i.e. it should be possible to investigate it empirically. It should be
answered through the collection and analysis of (scientific) data;
Precise, i.e. that it should be written in clear unambiguous language;
Resolved through research the researcher should make sure that the problem
chosen offers definite sources of information which when collected, can answer the
key questions sufficiently;
Carefully fit into the broader context of current theory and relevant research;
Clearly and logically related to its sub-problems/research questions or hypothesis.
Purpose of the Study/Objectives of the study
It clarifies the aims or objectives of the study, what the study seeks to accomplish.
Objectives are a formal expression of the researchers intentions. Thus objectives have to
be clear and SMART. You may want to explore, to explain or to infer or in some cases
you may want to replicate what is already known, hence you must make it clear. The
terms are further explained as follows:
To explore is just to find out more about an area which few or no people have
ventured into. Exploratory studies are done in areas which are little understood and
where the relationship among variables is unknown or only a little is known
To describe that is to reveal patterns and trends of situations, or events, objects,
phenomena or behavior. By describing them the hope is that they will be
understood better, and so answer the question why.
To explain is to reveal the linkages among the elements constitution situations,
even and phenomena. It also attempts to answer the question why.
Research Question
Research questions are developed from the research problem. Good research questions
ought to be amenable to some more/less definitive answers. However, while the question
must lend itself to some answer, it must not be totally answered by a simple Yes or
No. It must require you to collect and process research evidence as part of the answer.
Research questions must specify variables. When research questions are addressed
individually, they yield responses which can be reconstituted to make up a complete
answer to the main research question. The research questions must be precise.




Statement of Hypothesis
Hypotheses are tentative answers or intelligent or probable answers| to the research
questions. A researcher who is not confident of statistical testing of hypothesis is advised
not to state hypothesis but research question instead. Hypothesis can be written in null or
alternate (directional) form i.e. Ho and H1. Hypothesis should be simple and concise; it
guides the whole dissertation and is often used as a reference point in the subsequent
chapters such that the researcher stays within the context of the research

Significance of the Study

In this section you should point out how the solution to the problem or the answer to the
research question can influence theory or practice. The research must show why it is
worth the time, effort and expense involved in carrying out the research. You must point
out and explain the practical benefits that the study is likely to provide. You should
consider who would benefit from the study and the specific ways these benefits would be
Assumptions are statements of what the research believes to be the fact but these cannot
be verified. You should remember that assumptions are not the object of the research but
strengthen the basis of your research. These assumptions, like the significance of the
study have practical and theoretical implications. Without these assumptions, your
research cannot be carried out. For you to be able to carry out the study you should hold
certain facts about the study as given. These are the assumptions that your study makes
which would influence your research findings.
Delimitations of the study
Delimitations refer to the boundaries of the study. These enable you to point out clearly
what is included in the study. A description of both conceptual and practical (Physical)
boundaries is needed. Delimitations answer the questions:

What are the concerns of this study?

What are not its concerns?
How far does it go into the treatment of the given issues and where does it
How wide is the field from which it sources its data?

In short, delimitations point out what is included in the study such as the populations or
sample size and the variables, etc


Limitations are those conditions beyond the control of the researcher that may place
restrictions on the conclusions and their application to other situations. It is not enough
just to state these limitations (weakness or constraints) without suggesting the
compensatory factors adopted to ensure that the research remains valid and reliable.
Limitations are weaknesses that are inherent in the research, which the researcher is given
credit for pointing out and serve to alert the reader/user of the research about what to take
note of when interpreting and generalizing the findings and conclusions of the study.
These limitations should be comprehensive hence you need to sufficiently clarify them to
the reader.
Definition of terms
You should identify all terms that need to be defined in order to avoid any
misinterpretations. These definitions help you to establish the frame of reference with
which you as the researcher approach the problem. The variables to be considered should
be defined in operational terms, that is, they should either be observable or measurable so
that they can be manipulated scientifically. These terms should be employed consistently
throughout the research project. Dictionary meanings do not serve adequately in defining
terms of a research project.
You should highlight the consistent parts of chapter one and the emerging issues. As
statement linking this chapter two maybe provided. In most research projects, you may
find that this section provides an opportunity to summarise how the rest of the research
has to be organized. Thus you need to briefly describe the focus and content of the
subsequent chapters of the research report.



This unit focuses on chapter two of your research project and it is written as follows:
You must introduce the readers to the chapter on what it covers.
Purpose of Literature Review
Literature review refers to the works that the researcher read to understand the topic and
research issues. Literature review should show these two types of literature i.e.
Theoretical Literature
The theoretical literature indicates variables and relationships relevant to the proposed
study. Theories have three key functions: to explain observed facts, predict outcomes of
relationships and to summarize knowledge. Where theory is not available the researcher
can present arguments or sequence of events leading to the stated problem.
Empirical Literature
Refers to the past studies that are similar to the present study. It involves more than just
enumeration or summary of previous studies but should also show how these studies
relate or differ with the current study, thus establishing the knowledge gap. The gap may
be in terms of differences in approaches, theoretical start points. There might also be
untested theories, inadequate evidence or apparent contradictions or inconclusive
evidence or just unsatisfactory methods.
Knowledge of related research enables you to define the frontiers of the research fields:
For example:
Rambanepasi (1989), Green (1993) and Mupfurutsa (1999) discovered this much about
the research problem under investigation, the investigators Pandadyira and Hwinayi
(2000) added this much to our knowledge. This research proposes to go beyond
Pandadyira and Hwinayis work in the following manner
The review of related theory and research enables you to place your quotations in
perspective. You should review related literature for the purpose of finding a link
between your study and the accumulated body of knowledge in your field of interest.


Studies with no link to the existing body of knowledge seldom make significant
contributions to the field. Such studies tend to produce isolated bits of information that
are of limited usefulness.
Reviewing related literature helps you to limit your problem or research questions and
clarify and define the concepts of the study. A careful review of the literature can help
researchers to revise their initial questions so that it can be investigated. It also helps in
clarifying the concepts involved in the study and in translating these concepts into
operational definitions.
Successful literature review often helps in the formation of hypothesis regarding the
relationships between variables in ones study. Studies in which hypothesis are tested are
usually useful than those without hypothesis or research questions.
A critical review of related literature often leads to an insight into the reasons for
contradictory results in an area. In research contradictory findings or inconsistencies may
be caused by the research design used for resolving the problem or the type of
instruments employed or the methodologies and analysis made. A comparison of the
procedures of these studies may explain the inconsistent findings.
Thoroughly studying related research helps you learn which methodologies have proved
useful and which seem less promising. Searching related literature avoids unintentional
replication of previous studies.
You should not carry out an investigation where a very similar study was done before. If
you deliberately want to replicate a previous study you should state the reason for the
replication. You might want to investigate a different aspect of the problem. For
example, a study might have been carried out to establish the major causes of high
business failure in a certain industry. You may replicate the study by focusing on small to
medium firms in a different industry.
The study of related literature places you in a better position to interpret the significance
of your own results. Becoming familiar with theory in the field and with previous
research prepares you for linking the findings of your own research with the body of
knowledge in the field.
When you reach this stage of reviewing related literature you should consult empirical
studies that have been done in the area of study. Some sources of literature review are
given below:
Sources of Literature

Summaries of thesis and dissertations

Primary documents e.g. circulars and reports

Electronic sources (online journals, articles etc)


a) Citing References in the Text

This section shows how literature sources should be referenced within the text: for
i) Cite references by author followed by year of publication with a comma e.g. (Ajusa,
Seen in the modern context (Conrad, 1995), it is generally accepted that there are three
ways to improve the standard of living. During the decade particular attention has been
paid to the study of perception for example (Sibanda, 1993; Wood, 1993 and Abler et al.,
ii) For two authors cite them both e.g. (Khumalo and Dhlomo, 2005) and for more than
two authors cite the first mentioned author followed by et al. e.g. (Mlambo et al, 2004).
Citations in the text should take the following forms:
have been reported by Mazuru et al, (2007:21)
Gadzirayi and Mutandwa (2000:86) found that
other results (Katsuro and Runyowa, 2005; Mutandwa, 2006) have
indicated that
Ngarivhume and Shateyi (2001:214, 2003:184) found that
[papers published by the same author in two different years]
Tandi (2005a,b)or Mayazi and Mayazi (20006a,b)
(two papers published by the same author in the same year)
To refer to personal communications relating to unpublished material, personal
communication etc use the form (Runyowa L, 2006 personal communication) but do
not place such citations in list of references.
Secondary citations can take the form: Nyaumwe (2002) cited in Brown et al
Some General Hints on Literature
You should begin with the most recent publication and work back to earlier
Use primary sources as far as possible
Write the bibliographical data of a source on a card (just one source per card)
You should first read the summarized sections of a report to determine whether it
is relevant to the research. Skim through the source to find the relevant sections
and begin with summaries and quotations of relevant material (indicate quotations
and their pages clearly).
Very important sentences or paragraphs should not be summarized but quoted


All notes you have collected eventually have to be read through again before
being incorporated in a well thought out, well integrated and systematic report
(interact with your literature and dont just regurgitate of literature)

NB: For your literature review to be relevant, it must focus on:

The theory from which the research topic is derived

Stated hypotheses or research questions
Stated problem and sub-problems
Identifying the gap in research that is filled by the current research

Policy on Academic Dishonesty and Cheating

All materials, which are not yours, must be reviewed and referred. Failure to do so
results into academic dishonesty. Academic dishonesty and cheating is a serious offence.
Your should not present work and materials that are not original and documented by
accepted standards.



In this chapter a clear and concise description of how the study was carried out is given.
This is a vivid description of all the activities and procedures undertaken during the
course of the research. (Literature review should have assisted you in deciding on the
suitable methodology for the study). The report on this chapter is generally written in the
past tense.
The various aspects of this chapter are as follows:

Research design
Subjects(Population and Sampling)
Research Instruments
Data Collection Procedures

This section spells out in brief the main concerns and focus of the chapter ie what the
chapter is all about. These concerns are the research design research instruments, data
collection procedures, data presentation and analysis procedure and the chapter summary.
The term design and plan mean the same thing in research as both refer to a
description of the format and theoretical structure under which the study will be carried
out. This also includes the discussion of steps to be taken in order to safeguard the
validity or authenticity of the findings. The main concerns of this section are:

To identify the design, e.g. descriptive survey, experimental design, correlation

research design, historical research design and case study approach.
To describe the theoretical framework of the design so as to highlight its benefits
and limitations as used in the research.


To justify the choice of the design vis a vis the context in which the study will be

These are research participants you intend to use in the study. You should describe the
target population and sample to be used in the study. This entails thorough discussion of
the sampling procedures employed and their justification.
Research instruments are tools you would use for collecting data to find solutions to the
problem under investigation for example questionnaires, interviews schedules and
observation guides. Research instruments used should be clearly described so as to bring
out their strengths and weaknesses as a way of justifying their selection and suitability to
the research. NB: - the development of these instruments must be based on the research
questions and objectives. Measures taken to control the weaknesses identified should be
spelt out so as to ensure the validity and reliability of these instruments and data to be
These are steps taken in administering instruments and collection of data from subjects
Such steps include:
Making appointments with research subjects through telephones, letters, emails
Distribution and administration of instruments on the sample for example, by
hand by mail or through research assistants.
Retrieval of instruments.
These steps should be clear, orderly and justified. They are a deliberate and well thought
out strategy meant to enhance timely collection of data.
The section gives / provides the overall products used to organize, describe and analyse
collected data. The process entails suggesting the manner in which findings are to be:

Presented according to logical themes, use of tables and graphs.

Described or discussed to reveal their meaning.

You should justify the choice of the presentation and analysis procedures.


It gives a brief description of the emerging issues and concerns treated within the chapter.

For those students who would prefer to use economic models and the testing of the
hypothesis for your research methodology please refer to the Appendix.



Data presentation process will involve scanning and sifting the collected data, organizing
it and summarizing it. Effective data presentation requires tables, figures/text. It is
expected that your discussion and interpretation of findings will remain equally focused
through ensuring that all the results of the sub-problems / sub-questions / hypotheses are
discussed. The chapter is presented as follows:-


Introduction (Chapter)
The introduction for the chapter should describe briefly how the chapter unfolds.
Data Presentation Process
Having collected data from the field, it is expected that the researcher at this stage of the
research process will:
Scan and sift data you should read the data to ensure it is complete, accurate,
consistent and relevant. You should watch for trends, which may emerge in the scanned
data. Such trends could assist you to organize data into meaningful chunks. The answers
to each sub-problems / sub-questions should contribute to the answering of the main
research question.
Organising data you should make sense of data by rearranging it into a manageable
form. You may compare responses from various respondents, you can categorise the
responses. You need to identify patterns of responses to a question / theme. It calls for
use of descriptive statistics like the mean or other inferences.
Summarise the Data you should utilize different ways of summarizing large amounts
of data. You may resort to use of tables, graphs, and statistical summaries.
In answering the sub-problems / sub-questions- you should take each sub-problem /
sub-questions separately and select data related to it. Please use the thematic approach i.e.
themes derived from research questions.

Presenting the Data

Data presentation is effectively done using tables, figures and text. It should be
structured around sub-themes. Variables to be discussed under background of the
subjects usually include socio-demographic data such as age, sex, marital status,
academic and professional qualifications (if necessary).
After presenting data on the background of the subjects, the researcher should move on to
data presentation focusing on specific sub-problems / questions of the study.
Themes/ Sub-heading in this section should emerge from sub-problems / sub-questions.
NB: As much as possible you should avoid using direct questions as sub-headings.
Use of Tables and Figures
Results reported verbally are usually enhanced by tables and figures. Tables are used to
show rows and columns of numerical data. Figures are used to make a graphical or
pictorial presentation of data. When using tables and figures you must observe the
In tables, the title is placed at the top and in figures it should be placed below the
For uniformity, Arabic numerals should be used to number tables and figures.
A table or figure follows as closely as possible the first reference to it in the
After studying each table or figure the researcher should write a paragraph or two
explaining what it contains and drawing the readers attention to note-worthy
However, there is need to avoid discussing every entry in the table or figure. This style
of presentation is boring and defeats the purposes of using tables and figures.
Discussion / Interpretation
The discussion of findings should focus on the results.
The discussion should tie together findings in relation to theory and review of
If results support or contradict previous research findings on the topic, this should
be stated.
If results differ from previous finding, an explanation why this occurred should be
If the study was set up to test hypothesis, the discussion section must report the
outcome of each hypothesis. The statistical test must also be appropriate.
Ensure that all the results of the sub-problem / question are discussed.
In terms of language be definite about the data and statistics but be tentative about
interpretations and conclusions as shown by the following statements:


It would appear that most managers in the study were against gender
Results seem to suggest that training positively influences worker performance.
On the other hand, one should be more definite when reporting data and statistics
as shown by these statements.
The mean and standard deviation were 10 and 2.5 respectively.
The co-efficient of correlation was 0.8.
The writing style should be precise, simple and direct.

The summary should highlight the major findings of the study.



These are the summary, the research conclusions and the recommendations. After
reading through this final chapter, the reader becomes informed of the research problem
tackled, the research methodology and its limitations, major findings of the study and
their implications for practice. It takes the following format



You should briefly summarise the major findings of the research and these are based on
the data presented in chapter four.
These are summed up answers to sub-problems stated in chapter one. They, however,
should be drawn from the data reported in chapter 4. Hence they are termed research
based conclusions. For example the conclusion of the research study on major causes of
staff turnover in the hotel industry can be highlighted as:

The study found out that although both sexes of workers are involved, males tend
to be more affected than females. The reason given is that males tend to be more
intolerant to what they view as authoritarian leadership styles that their female
A close association between high staff turnover and poor workers results on the
part of employees was also established. The poor results could be attributed to
insufficient training and long working hours.
While problem of staff turnover was quite prevalent, it was also observed that
nothing was being done by head offices to address this issue.


In the recommendations section the researcher examines his findings in the light of
suggested applications. The recommendations could read as follows:
In the light of the above conclusions, it is recommended that head offices should launch
in-service workshops for workers with a focus on leadership styles so that they become
more flexible in their leadership.
While workers have very genuine reasons to move out, it is recommended that head
office makes an effort to retain workers. This can be achieved by
This study recommends that further research be conducted on .in order to
NB: This concluding chapter does not therefore focus on individual chapters but
summarizes the study as a whole.


[This section is meant for those students who would want to use secondary data and
economic models]

Methodology of the study

This section should be given adequate attention, perhaps more than any other part
because it is the one that tells us how you conducted your research.
Refers to the methods of collecting and analyzing data, describes the data types, data
sources and data collection techniques for primary research and most importantly data
analysis techniques. The methodology should be explicit of what is to be done and
how it is going to be done making it clear how the objectives are achieved. Thus, it is
not sufficient to just collect data and report results without telling us how the data is
going to be manipulated such that the objectives can be achieved.
Data analysis: econometric methodology1
As science most economic projects should include a testable econometric
methodology, thus you have to specify your econometric model i.e. static or
dynamic, linear or non-linear, structural or reduced form.
You should present the features and assumptions of the model and show how
the model relates to the theoretical model and previous studies. You should
also present specification of the parsimonious model to be estimated i.e. the
relationship between dependant and independent variables.
One should be able to justify the variables that are included in the
parsimonious model and proxies might have been used.
All concepts should be operationalised on the included variables e.g. to
identify factors that determine child mortality, indicate how child mortality is
to be measured.

This section is optional to all but economic students


Discuss the method of estimation e.g. OLS, GLS, GMM, MLE, Two-Stage
least squares. The appropriate estimator may depend on the nature of the
variables and the relationship being studied e.g. if the dependant variable is
categorical, probit or logit estimators may be used.
It is also important to discuss potential econometric problems that might be encountered
and indicate how they may be resolved.