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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Outline
Lecture 8
Topics

Number of
lectures
(approx)
Electrical Systems: Demand control, 2 (17, 19
power factor correction, load
Feb)
scheduling/shifting, Motor drivesmotor efficiency testing, energy
efficient motors, motor speed
control.

Electrical Systems

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Electrical Energy Terms

Electrical Load

Direct Current
Alternating Current
Current
Voltage
Resistance
Ohm' Law
Frequency
Apparent power (kVA)
Reactive power
Active Power
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Analysis of System Load Curve

Load curve of a typical day MSEB


(8/11/2000 source: WREB annual report-2001)
10260 MW

11000
Demand, MW

A load curve defines power vs time


Load Factor = (Average Power)
Peak Power
System Load Factor
Capacity Factor (plant load factor)
=
Energy generated by a plant
Energy generated if operating at max capacity

9892 MW

10000
9000
8000

Evening
peak

morning
peak

7000
6000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Time hours

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

Loads and Demands

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Electricity Tariff

Connected Load - sum of the continuous (or


nameplate )ratings of equipment.
Contract Demand: electric power that the
consumer agreed upon with the utility
Average Demand
Load Factor - ratio of the average demand to
the maximum demand
Demand factor- ratio of maximum demand
to connected load
Power Factor (PF) is the ratio of active
power (kW) to the apparent power (kVA)
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

2016

Residential - Block - Energy charge


Agricultural Horsepower
Industrial Two part Energy, Demand
Commercial Block
Public Works

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

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Electricity Tariff-Components

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Example (MSEB LT tariff-1/6/08)

Maximum demand Charges


Energy Charges
Power factor penalty or bonus rates
Fuel cost adjustment charges
Electricity duty charges levied w.r.t units consumed
Meter rentals
Time Of Day (TOD)
Penalty for exceeding contract demand
Surcharge if metering is at LT side in some of the utilities

LT Domestic
Less than 30 kWh/m Rs 0.40/kWh +Rs 3 service
0-100 kWh/month
Rs 2.05/kWh
101-300 kWh/month Rs 3.90/kWh
301-500 kWh/month Rs 5.30/kWh
>500 kWh/month
Rs 6.20/kWh
Service connection: Rs 30/single ph, Rs 100/3-ph
Additional Fixed charge of Rs. 100 per 10 kW load
or part thereof above 10 kW load shall be payable.

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

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Example (MSEB LT tariff-1/6/08)

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

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Example (MSEB HT Tariff-1/6/08)

LT Non-Domestic
Less than 20 kW
Rs 3.40/kWh +Rs 150 service
20-50 kW
Rs 5.50/kWh + Rs 150/kVA
>50 kW
Rs 7.50/kWh + Rs 150/kVA
LT Public Works
20-40 kW
Rs 1.75/kWh + Rs 50/kVA
LT Agriculture
Non-metered: Rs 2.41/kW
Metered: Rs 1.10/kWh + Rs 20/kW
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

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HT Industrial
Demand charges Rs 150/kVA/month
Energy charge Rs 4.00-5.00/kWh
TOD Energy charge
2200 hrs 0600 hrs
(-0.85)
0600 hrs 0900 hrs
0
0900 hrs 1200 hrs
0.80
1200 hrs 1800 hrs
0
1800 hrs 2200 hrs
1.10
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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

Load curve of a typical day MSEB


TOD Tariff

2016

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Impact of Load Factor on Price


8

10260 MW

Demand, MW

11000

9892 MW

10000

9000
8000
7000

Evening
peak

morning
peak

-0.85

0.80

1.10

Base tariff

6000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Time hours
0
0

0.2

0.4

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Maximum Demand Control

0.8

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Maximum Demand Control

Typically, demand charges constitute a


considerable portion of the electricity bill
Integrated load management to effectively
control the maximum demand
Generate load curve
Analyse load curve for various demands
Identification of critical and re-schedulable
loads for maximum demand and TOD tariff
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

0.6
Load factor

Rescheduling of large electric loads and


equipment operations
prepare an operation flow chart and a process chart

Reduce the maximum demand by building up


storage capacity
Shedding of Non-Essential Loads
Operation of Captive Generation
Maintain the desired Power factor of system

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

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Representation in Phasor diagram


Imaginary or j axis

e j cos j sin

Power Factor

V V

I I

Real Axis
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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

Basics of Power

2V cos(t ) 2 I cos(t )
2VI cos(t ) cos(t )
2 cos A cos B cos( A B ) cos( A B )

Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

1
T

p ( t ) dt

VI cos( )
cos( )

P (t ) VI cos( ) VI cos( 2t )
Sinusoidally varying
w.r.t time

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Basics of Power

P (t ) v (t )i (t )

Constant w.r.t time

2016


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Power factor

Phase angle difference between V and I


power factor angle

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

Power terms

P VI cos

kW

P(tan(1) tan( 2))kVar

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

= S1-S2

P Active Power
Q Reactive Power

2016

Q1

kVA

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Power Factor Correction

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Cost Benefits
Reduced kVA (Maximum demand) charges in
utility bill
Reduced distribution losses (kWh) within the
plant network
Better voltage at motor terminals and improved
performance of motors
A high power factor eliminates penalty charges
imposed and may be reduction in utility bill
Capacity deferred costs

Static Capacitors (Fixed/ Switchable)


Automatic PF Correction
Reduced line current ( and I2R losses)
Improved Voltage
Reduced Maximum Demand
Capacity for expansion
Reduction in tariff
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

S1

Maximum Demand Saving

S Apparent Power

Q2
S2

kVAr

QVI sin

2
1

Capacitor rating =Q1-Q2

kVA

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Power factor correction

S VI

2016

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Delta connected load

Location of Capacitors

Ia

Maximum benefit of capacitors is derived by


locating them as close as possible to the load
The rating of the capacitor should not be greater
than the no-load magnetizing kVAr of the motor,
if connected directly (over voltage protection)
motor manufacturers specify maximum capacitor
ratings
A circuit breaker or switch will be required if a
capacitor is installed for many appliances
With high voltage breaker, capacitor bank to
feeder

Iab

Ica
Ib

Ibc
c

Ic

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Y connected load
Ia

Power in 3-phase circuits

P 3VL I L cos( )
Delta connected

Ib
b

I L 3I P

VL VP

Y connected

VL 3VP

IL IP

Ic
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Common LM Options (SEB)


Staggering of working hours of large
consumers
Staggering of holidays of large consumers
Specified energy and power quotas for major
consumers
Rostering of agricultural loads
Curtailment of demand - service interruptions
(load shedding)

Load Management

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Load Management Options


Sample Industrial Load Profile (Mumbai)

Direct Load Control (DLC) Utility has


control of directly switching off customer
loads
Interruptible Load Control (ILC)- Utility
provides advance notice to customers to
switch off loads
Time of Use (TOU) Tariffs price signal
provided customer decides response
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

ILM Research Objective

Process Scheduling

Determine optimal response of industry for


a specified time varying tariff develop a
general model applicable for different
industries

Variable electricity cost normally not included


Flexibility in scheduling
Optimisation problem Min Annual operating
costs
Constraints Demand, Storage and equipment
Models developed for continuous and batch
processes (Illustrated for flour mill and mini steel
plant)
Viable for Industry

Process Scheduling- Continuous/ Batch


Cool Storage
Cogeneration

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Process Scheduling
STEEL PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM

Batch processes- batch time, quantity,


charging, discharging, power demand
variation (load cycles)
Raw material constraints, Allocation
constraints, Storage constraints,
Sequential Constraints, maintenance
downtime

St. steel Scrap mix or


Alloy steel scrap mix

Ladle Arc
furnace

40 T Melting Arc
furnace

Open store

Convertor (only for


St Steel)

Alloy steel
scrap mix

Reheat furnace

Billet caster
Bloom mill

Open store
30 T MeltingArc furnace
Open store
Reheat furnace

Bar mill

ooo
ooo

Open store
Reheat
furnace

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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

Bloom caster

VD or VOD
station

Wire products
for final finish

Wire mill

Rods, Bars for final


finish

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

2016

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2016

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Process Scheduling Summary

Steel Plant Optimal Response to TOU tariff

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

Example

Structure

Results

Saving

Flour Mill
Continuous

Linear, IP
120 variables
46 constraints

Flat- 2 shift 1%
- 25%store 6.4%
TOU-3 shift 75%peak
reduction

Mini Steel
Plant
Batch

Linear, IP
432 variables
630
constraints

Flat
8%
TOU
10%
Diff loading 50% peak
reduction

Optimal with TOU tariff


Optimal with flat tariff

50
Load MW

40
30
20
10
0
2

10

12

14

16

18

20

22 24

Time hours
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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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LM Options

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Cool Storage

Cool Storage Chilled water , Ice,


Phase change material storage- operate
compressor during off-peak
Water pumping systems
Cogeneration Operating strategy
Power pooling with other industries
Evaluate Process Storage possibilities
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

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Cool Storage Chilled water operate compressor


during off-peak
Commercial case study (BSES MDC), Industrial case
study (German Remedies)
Part load characteristics compressor,pumps
Non- linear problem 96 variables, Quasi Newton
Method
MD reduces from 208 kVA to 129 kVA, 10%
reduction in peak co-incident demand, 6% bill saving

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Cool Storage of Commercial Complex


-under TOU tariff

Load following (without storage)

kVA

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Analysis of Utilitys Load Profiles

Total substation (system)


Industrial feeders
Express feeders

208 kVA

200
150
100

2016

Utility :Taloja EHV (100kV/22kV) substation


Analysis of load profiles (before and after the
introduction of TOD tariff)

with optimal cool storage

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

191 log sheets are available


Hourly average demand (pf = 0.98)

129 kVA

50
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Time hours

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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End Use (HT Industry)

Motors

Motor/Pump/Fan
Air Compressor
Air Conditioning/Refrig.
Melting
Electrical Heating
Lighting
Others

52 %
9%
5%
16 %
11 %
4%
4%
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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No of Motors in each Category for HT


Industries in Maharashtra

Source: Larson and Subbiah : ESD

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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AC

Single phase

DC excited
slipring

Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

3 phase

Induction

Synchronous

Non excited Permanent


magnet

5-10 hp

10-15 hp

15-20 hp

20-50 hp

>50
hp

Total

Percent of
motor
connected
load

15.3

10.8

11.1

9.9

13.8

39.1

100.0

Connected
287.2
MW 1989-90

202.7

208.3

185.8

259.0

733.9

1877.0

000s units
1989-90

128.3

36.2

22.3

14.2

9.9

9.8

220.7

000s units
1992-93

157.2

44.3

29.3

17.4

12.1

12.0

272.3
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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Induction Motors

DC

Permanent
Magnet

1-5 hp

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Electric Motors

Wound Field

Range

Squirrel
cage

Wound

Induced magnetic field of the stator


winding induces a current in the rotor
Induced rotor current produces a second
magnetic field, which tries to oppose the
stator magnetic field, and this causes the
rotor to rotate
By far the most common motor type used
in industry

rotor
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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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DC and Synchronous Motors


DC motors are used in special applications
where high starting torque or where smooth
acceleration over a broad speed range is
required
AC power is fed to the stator of the synchronous
motor. The rotor is fed by DC from a separate
source.
The rotor magnetic field locks onto the stator
rotating magnetic field and rotates at the same
speed.

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Motor Characteristics
Synchronous Speed (SS) = 120 f/p
Slip (s) = 1 - (Rated speed/SS)
Power Factor: lagging due to induction
At part load, the active current reduces.
However, no reduction in the magnetizing
current (proportional to supply voltage)
Reduction in power factor

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Losses

Motor Efficiency
Ratio of mechanical output to electrical input
May be determined directly or indirectly through
intrinsic losses
Efficiency is a function of operating temperature,
type of motor, speed, rating, etc.
Squirrel cage motors are normally more efficient
than slip-ring motors
Higher-speed motors are normally more efficient
than lower-speed motors
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

2016

Variable

Constant

Core/Iron loss

Mechanical loss

Hysteresis Eddy current


loss

Friction
loss

Copper loss

Stator copper
loss

Windage
loss

Stray
load loss
Rotor copper
loss

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

Problem

Motor Specifications
Rated power: 34 kW
Voltage: 415 Volt
Current: 57 Amps
Speed: 1475 rpm
Connection: Delta

Stator copper loss at no-load:


Iron plus friction and windage loss:
Assume operating temperature of 120C
Stator resistance at 120C:

No load test Data


Voltage: 415 V
Current: 16.1 A
Frequency: 50 Hz
Rstator (30C): 0.264 /ph
No-load power: 1063.74 W

2016

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Problem

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Motor Specifications
Rated power: 34 kW
Voltage: 415 Volt
Current: 57 Amps
Speed: 1475 rpm
Connection: Delta

Stator copper loss at full-load:


Full load slip:
Rotor power input:
Assume stray loss of 0.5% of rated output
Motor input:
Efficiency:
and Power factor:

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

No load test Data


Voltage: 415 V
Current: 16.1 A
Frequency: 50 Hz
Rstator (30C): 0.264 /ph
No-load power: 1063.74 W

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Typical Load Vs Loss curve for design B, 50-HP, 1800 RPM


induction motor

Losses
Core losses vary with the core material, core
geometry, and input voltage
Friction and windage losses are caused by
friction in the bearings of the motor,
aerodynamic losses associated with ventilation
fan, and other rotating parts
Copper losses are I2R losses
Stray losses arise from a variety of sources.
Typically, proportional to the square of the rotor
current
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Typical performance curves for design B, 10-HP, 1800


RPM, 220-V, Three Phase, 60 HZ induction motor

Source: Larson and Subbiah : ESD

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTORS

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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Technology Characteristics of Motors


Range

Typical
STD Motor
Rating hp Efficiency
(%)

EEM
Efficiency
(%)

Cost of
Standard
Motor
(Rs)

Cost of
EEM
(Rs)

1-5

3.0

79.7

86.8

7,500

9,750

5-10

7.5

84.4

88.6

13,300

17,290

10-15

12.5

87.3

91.0

24,100

31,330

15-20

17.5

88.4

92.0

28,500

37,050

20-50

35.0

90.6

92.0

56,200

73,060

>50

100.0

93.0

94.5

187,100

243,230

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Efficiency Testing Methods

Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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No Load Test
The motor is run at rated voltage and frequency without
any shaft load
Input power, current, frequency and voltage are noted
The no load P.F. is quite low and hence low PF wattmeters are required
From the input power, stator I2R losses under no load
are subtracted to give the sum of Friction and Windage
(F&W) and core losses
plot no-load input kW versus Voltage; the intercept is
Friction & Windage kW loss component
F&W and core losses = No load power (watts) - (No load
current)2 Stator resistance

Load Test No load test and six load


tests
Equivalent Circuit Test No load test,
Locked Rotor test , Variable voltage
(IEEE Std 112-1984, JEC 37, IEC 34-2,
ISI 4889)
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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

Stator and Rotor I2R Losses

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Example

The stator winding resistance is directly


measured
The resistance must be corrected to the
operating temperature R1 235 t1

: t in C
R0 235 to
The rotor I2R losses are calculated
Rotor I2R losses = Slip (Stator Input
Stator I2R Losses Core Loss)
Stray Load Losses fixed at 0.5%
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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

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Motor Specifications:
Rated power, Voltage, Current, Speed,
Connection

No load test Data:


Voltage V, Current I, Frequency F, Stator
phase resistance at 30C, No load power Pnl

Calculate:
Stator cu loss at 30, Iron and fw loss, stator
loss at 120, FL slip, rotor i/p [= Pr/(1-s)], total
i/p, FL efficiency, FL pf [=P/3 VI]
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Energy Management (EN 607/ EN 410)

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Energy
Management
(EN 607/ EN 410)
Source:
BEE Manual

2016

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Motor Loading
Part load = measured i/p to nameplate i/p
Part load = i/p load current to i/p rated
current
Current varies approximately linearly with
load up 75% of full load.
Below the 75% load, pf degrades and the
relation is non-linear

Part load = actual slip to rated slip


2
sop Vop
With voltage correction:
part load

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References/Further Reading

ECOs for motors

Replace with std motor of lower size


Replace with EE motor of lower size
Add capacitors to improve pf
Replace V belt drive by flat belt
Put timer/controller to switch off during
idling
Two-speed motor/ variable speed
(application specific)

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Energy Management (EN 410/607) Notes

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MSEB Tariffs, MSEB, Mumbai


S.Ashok, R.Banerjee,IEEE Trans on Power Systems, Nov 2001,
p879-884
S.Ashok, R.Banerjee,IEEE Trans on Power Systems, Vol 18, May
2003, p931-937
S.Ashok, R.Banerjee,Energy, 2003
Witte, Schmidt, Brown, Industrial Energy Management and
Utilisation, Hemisphere Publ,Washington,1988
WREB, Annual Report, 2001
O. I.Elgerd Electric Energy Systems Theory,TMH, 2001
Larson and Subbiah, Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol 1,
1994, p 36-38
J.C.Andreas, Energy Efficient Motors, Marcel Dekker, 1992, New
York
H.E.Jordan, Energy Efficient Motors & their application, 1983, Van
Nostrand
Nagrath, Kothari, Electric Machines, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 1996
BEE Guide Book (www.em-ea.org/gbook1.asp)

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