Basic electrical system and network

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Basic electrical system and network

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 17

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Outline

Lecture 8

Topics

Number of

lectures

(approx)

Electrical Systems: Demand control, 2 (17, 19

power factor correction, load

Feb)

scheduling/shifting, Motor drivesmotor efficiency testing, energy

efficient motors, motor speed

control.

Electrical Systems

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Electrical Load

Direct Current

Alternating Current

Current

Voltage

Resistance

Ohm' Law

Frequency

Apparent power (kVA)

Reactive power

Active Power

4

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

(8/11/2000 source: WREB annual report-2001)

10260 MW

11000

Demand, MW

Load Factor = (Average Power)

Peak Power

System Load Factor

Capacity Factor (plant load factor)

=

Energy generated by a plant

Energy generated if operating at max capacity

9892 MW

10000

9000

8000

Evening

peak

morning

peak

7000

6000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Time hours

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Electricity Tariff

nameplate )ratings of equipment.

Contract Demand: electric power that the

consumer agreed upon with the utility

Average Demand

Load Factor - ratio of the average demand to

the maximum demand

Demand factor- ratio of maximum demand

to connected load

Power Factor (PF) is the ratio of active

power (kW) to the apparent power (kVA)

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2016

Agricultural Horsepower

Industrial Two part Energy, Demand

Commercial Block

Public Works

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Electricity Tariff-Components

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Energy Charges

Power factor penalty or bonus rates

Fuel cost adjustment charges

Electricity duty charges levied w.r.t units consumed

Meter rentals

Time Of Day (TOD)

Penalty for exceeding contract demand

Surcharge if metering is at LT side in some of the utilities

LT Domestic

Less than 30 kWh/m Rs 0.40/kWh +Rs 3 service

0-100 kWh/month

Rs 2.05/kWh

101-300 kWh/month Rs 3.90/kWh

301-500 kWh/month Rs 5.30/kWh

>500 kWh/month

Rs 6.20/kWh

Service connection: Rs 30/single ph, Rs 100/3-ph

Additional Fixed charge of Rs. 100 per 10 kW load

or part thereof above 10 kW load shall be payable.

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

LT Non-Domestic

Less than 20 kW

Rs 3.40/kWh +Rs 150 service

20-50 kW

Rs 5.50/kWh + Rs 150/kVA

>50 kW

Rs 7.50/kWh + Rs 150/kVA

LT Public Works

20-40 kW

Rs 1.75/kWh + Rs 50/kVA

LT Agriculture

Non-metered: Rs 2.41/kW

Metered: Rs 1.10/kWh + Rs 20/kW

11

10

HT Industrial

Demand charges Rs 150/kVA/month

Energy charge Rs 4.00-5.00/kWh

TOD Energy charge

2200 hrs 0600 hrs

(-0.85)

0600 hrs 0900 hrs

0

0900 hrs 1200 hrs

0.80

1200 hrs 1800 hrs

0

1800 hrs 2200 hrs

1.10

12

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

TOD Tariff

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

8

10260 MW

Demand, MW

11000

9892 MW

10000

9000

8000

7000

Evening

peak

morning

peak

-0.85

0.80

1.10

Base tariff

6000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Time hours

0

0

0.2

0.4

13

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

0.8

14

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

considerable portion of the electricity bill

Integrated load management to effectively

control the maximum demand

Generate load curve

Analyse load curve for various demands

Identification of critical and re-schedulable

loads for maximum demand and TOD tariff

15

0.6

Load factor

equipment operations

prepare an operation flow chart and a process chart

storage capacity

Shedding of Non-Essential Loads

Operation of Captive Generation

Maintain the desired Power factor of system

16

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Imaginary or j axis

e j cos j sin

Power Factor

V V

I I

Real Axis

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Basics of Power

2V cos(t ) 2 I cos(t )

2VI cos(t ) cos(t )

2 cos A cos B cos( A B ) cos( A B )

1

T

p ( t ) dt

VI cos( )

cos( )

P (t ) VI cos( ) VI cos( 2t )

Sinusoidally varying

w.r.t time

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Basics of Power

P (t ) v (t )i (t )

2016

19

Power factor

power factor angle

20

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Power terms

P VI cos

kW

= S1-S2

P Active Power

Q Reactive Power

2016

Q1

kVA

21

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

22

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Cost Benefits

Reduced kVA (Maximum demand) charges in

utility bill

Reduced distribution losses (kWh) within the

plant network

Better voltage at motor terminals and improved

performance of motors

A high power factor eliminates penalty charges

imposed and may be reduction in utility bill

Capacity deferred costs

Automatic PF Correction

Reduced line current ( and I2R losses)

Improved Voltage

Reduced Maximum Demand

Capacity for expansion

Reduction in tariff

23

S1

S Apparent Power

Q2

S2

kVAr

QVI sin

2

1

kVA

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

S VI

2016

24

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Location of Capacitors

Ia

locating them as close as possible to the load

The rating of the capacitor should not be greater

than the no-load magnetizing kVAr of the motor,

if connected directly (over voltage protection)

motor manufacturers specify maximum capacitor

ratings

A circuit breaker or switch will be required if a

capacitor is installed for many appliances

With high voltage breaker, capacitor bank to

feeder

Iab

Ica

Ib

Ibc

c

Ic

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

26

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Y connected load

Ia

P 3VL I L cos( )

Delta connected

Ib

b

I L 3I P

VL VP

Y connected

VL 3VP

IL IP

Ic

27

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Staggering of working hours of large

consumers

Staggering of holidays of large consumers

Specified energy and power quotas for major

consumers

Rostering of agricultural loads

Curtailment of demand - service interruptions

(load shedding)

Load Management

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Sample Industrial Load Profile (Mumbai)

control of directly switching off customer

loads

Interruptible Load Control (ILC)- Utility

provides advance notice to customers to

switch off loads

Time of Use (TOU) Tariffs price signal

provided customer decides response

31

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Process Scheduling

a specified time varying tariff develop a

general model applicable for different

industries

Flexibility in scheduling

Optimisation problem Min Annual operating

costs

Constraints Demand, Storage and equipment

Models developed for continuous and batch

processes (Illustrated for flour mill and mini steel

plant)

Viable for Industry

Cool Storage

Cogeneration

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Process Scheduling

STEEL PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM

charging, discharging, power demand

variation (load cycles)

Raw material constraints, Allocation

constraints, Storage constraints,

Sequential Constraints, maintenance

downtime

Alloy steel scrap mix

Ladle Arc

furnace

40 T Melting Arc

furnace

Open store

St Steel)

Alloy steel

scrap mix

Reheat furnace

Billet caster

Bloom mill

Open store

30 T MeltingArc furnace

Open store

Reheat furnace

Bar mill

ooo

ooo

Open store

Reheat

furnace

35

Bloom caster

VD or VOD

station

Wire products

for final finish

Wire mill

finish

36

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

60

Example

Structure

Results

Saving

Flour Mill

Continuous

Linear, IP

120 variables

46 constraints

Flat- 2 shift 1%

- 25%store 6.4%

TOU-3 shift 75%peak

reduction

Mini Steel

Plant

Batch

Linear, IP

432 variables

630

constraints

Flat

8%

TOU

10%

Diff loading 50% peak

reduction

Optimal with flat tariff

50

Load MW

40

30

20

10

0

2

10

12

14

16

18

20

22 24

Time hours

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

LM Options

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Cool Storage

Phase change material storage- operate

compressor during off-peak

Water pumping systems

Cogeneration Operating strategy

Power pooling with other industries

Evaluate Process Storage possibilities

39

38

during off-peak

Commercial case study (BSES MDC), Industrial case

study (German Remedies)

Part load characteristics compressor,pumps

Non- linear problem 96 variables, Quasi Newton

Method

MD reduces from 208 kVA to 129 kVA, 10%

reduction in peak co-incident demand, 6% bill saving

40

10

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

-under TOU tariff

kVA

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Industrial feeders

Express feeders

208 kVA

200

150

100

2016

Analysis of load profiles (before and after the

introduction of TOD tariff)

250

Hourly average demand (pf = 0.98)

129 kVA

50

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Time hours

2016

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

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Motors

Motor/Pump/Fan

Air Compressor

Air Conditioning/Refrig.

Melting

Electrical Heating

Lighting

Others

52 %

9%

5%

16 %

11 %

4%

4%

44

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2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Industries in Maharashtra

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

AC

Single phase

DC excited

slipring

3 phase

Induction

Synchronous

magnet

5-10 hp

10-15 hp

15-20 hp

20-50 hp

>50

hp

Total

Percent of

motor

connected

load

15.3

10.8

11.1

9.9

13.8

39.1

100.0

Connected

287.2

MW 1989-90

202.7

208.3

185.8

259.0

733.9

1877.0

000s units

1989-90

128.3

36.2

22.3

14.2

9.9

9.8

220.7

000s units

1992-93

157.2

44.3

29.3

17.4

12.1

12.0

272.3

46

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Induction Motors

DC

Permanent

Magnet

1-5 hp

45

Electric Motors

Wound Field

Range

Squirrel

cage

Wound

winding induces a current in the rotor

Induced rotor current produces a second

magnetic field, which tries to oppose the

stator magnetic field, and this causes the

rotor to rotate

By far the most common motor type used

in industry

rotor

47

48

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

DC motors are used in special applications

where high starting torque or where smooth

acceleration over a broad speed range is

required

AC power is fed to the stator of the synchronous

motor. The rotor is fed by DC from a separate

source.

The rotor magnetic field locks onto the stator

rotating magnetic field and rotates at the same

speed.

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Motor Characteristics

Synchronous Speed (SS) = 120 f/p

Slip (s) = 1 - (Rated speed/SS)

Power Factor: lagging due to induction

At part load, the active current reduces.

However, no reduction in the magnetizing

current (proportional to supply voltage)

Reduction in power factor

49

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

50

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Losses

Motor Efficiency

Ratio of mechanical output to electrical input

May be determined directly or indirectly through

intrinsic losses

Efficiency is a function of operating temperature,

type of motor, speed, rating, etc.

Squirrel cage motors are normally more efficient

than slip-ring motors

Higher-speed motors are normally more efficient

than lower-speed motors

51

2016

Variable

Constant

Core/Iron loss

Mechanical loss

loss

Friction

loss

Copper loss

Stator copper

loss

Windage

loss

Stray

load loss

Rotor copper

loss

52

13

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Problem

Motor Specifications

Rated power: 34 kW

Voltage: 415 Volt

Current: 57 Amps

Speed: 1475 rpm

Connection: Delta

Iron plus friction and windage loss:

Assume operating temperature of 120C

Stator resistance at 120C:

Voltage: 415 V

Current: 16.1 A

Frequency: 50 Hz

Rstator (30C): 0.264 /ph

No-load power: 1063.74 W

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Problem

53

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Motor Specifications

Rated power: 34 kW

Voltage: 415 Volt

Current: 57 Amps

Speed: 1475 rpm

Connection: Delta

Full load slip:

Rotor power input:

Assume stray loss of 0.5% of rated output

Motor input:

Efficiency:

and Power factor:

Voltage: 415 V

Current: 16.1 A

Frequency: 50 Hz

Rstator (30C): 0.264 /ph

No-load power: 1063.74 W

2016

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

induction motor

Losses

Core losses vary with the core material, core

geometry, and input voltage

Friction and windage losses are caused by

friction in the bearings of the motor,

aerodynamic losses associated with ventilation

fan, and other rotating parts

Copper losses are I2R losses

Stray losses arise from a variety of sources.

Typically, proportional to the square of the rotor

current

55

56

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2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

RPM, 220-V, Three Phase, 60 HZ induction motor

57

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2016

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Range

Typical

STD Motor

Rating hp Efficiency

(%)

EEM

Efficiency

(%)

Cost of

Standard

Motor

(Rs)

Cost of

EEM

(Rs)

1-5

3.0

79.7

86.8

7,500

9,750

5-10

7.5

84.4

88.6

13,300

17,290

10-15

12.5

87.3

91.0

24,100

31,330

15-20

17.5

88.4

92.0

28,500

37,050

20-50

35.0

90.6

92.0

56,200

73,060

>50

100.0

93.0

94.5

187,100

243,230

60

15

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

No Load Test

The motor is run at rated voltage and frequency without

any shaft load

Input power, current, frequency and voltage are noted

The no load P.F. is quite low and hence low PF wattmeters are required

From the input power, stator I2R losses under no load

are subtracted to give the sum of Friction and Windage

(F&W) and core losses

plot no-load input kW versus Voltage; the intercept is

Friction & Windage kW loss component

F&W and core losses = No load power (watts) - (No load

current)2 Stator resistance

tests

Equivalent Circuit Test No load test,

Locked Rotor test , Variable voltage

(IEEE Std 112-1984, JEC 37, IEC 34-2,

ISI 4889)

61

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

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Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Example

measured

The resistance must be corrected to the

operating temperature R1 235 t1

: t in C

R0 235 to

The rotor I2R losses are calculated

Rotor I2R losses = Slip (Stator Input

Stator I2R Losses Core Loss)

Stray Load Losses fixed at 0.5%

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2016

Motor Specifications:

Rated power, Voltage, Current, Speed,

Connection

Voltage V, Current I, Frequency F, Stator

phase resistance at 30C, No load power Pnl

Calculate:

Stator cu loss at 30, Iron and fw loss, stator

loss at 120, FL slip, rotor i/p [= Pr/(1-s)], total

i/p, FL efficiency, FL pf [=P/3 VI]

64

16

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Energy

Management

(EN 607/ EN 410)

Source:

BEE Manual

2016

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Motor Loading

Part load = measured i/p to nameplate i/p

Part load = i/p load current to i/p rated

current

Current varies approximately linearly with

load up 75% of full load.

Below the 75% load, pf degrades and the

relation is non-linear

2

sop Vop

With voltage correction:

part load

2016

sr Vr 65

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

66

Santanu Bandyopadhyay

References/Further Reading

Replace with EE motor of lower size

Add capacitors to improve pf

Replace V belt drive by flat belt

Put timer/controller to switch off during

idling

Two-speed motor/ variable speed

(application specific)

67

2016

S.Ashok, R.Banerjee,IEEE Trans on Power Systems, Nov 2001,

p879-884

S.Ashok, R.Banerjee,IEEE Trans on Power Systems, Vol 18, May

2003, p931-937

S.Ashok, R.Banerjee,Energy, 2003

Witte, Schmidt, Brown, Industrial Energy Management and

Utilisation, Hemisphere Publ,Washington,1988

WREB, Annual Report, 2001

O. I.Elgerd Electric Energy Systems Theory,TMH, 2001

Larson and Subbiah, Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol 1,

1994, p 36-38

J.C.Andreas, Energy Efficient Motors, Marcel Dekker, 1992, New

York

H.E.Jordan, Energy Efficient Motors & their application, 1983, Van

Nostrand

Nagrath, Kothari, Electric Machines, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 1996

BEE Guide Book (www.em-ea.org/gbook1.asp)

68

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