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You are on page 1of 6

Chapter 3, Exercise 1

(a)

m 1 (lnjH j + ln 1 )

m 0:115 (ln((100 101)=2) + ln 0:105 )

2

m 133:7

(b)

For the 1-D case (i.e. where rectangles = line segments), in the interval [0; 99] there are 100

concepts covering only a single instance, and

concepts covering more than a single

instance, yielding a total of 5050 concepts.

In d dimensions, there exists one hypothesis for each choice of a 1-D hypothesis in each

dimension, or 5050d concepts. So the number of examples necessary for a consistent learner

to output a hypothesis with error at most with probability 1 is

100(100 1)

2

m 1 (ln5050d + ln 1 )

or

m 1 (8:53d + ln 1 )

(c)

Initially, let a, b, c, and d be set to values such that the hypothesis covers no instances.

For the rst postive example, (x; y), seen, set a and b to x and c and d to y.

Thereafter, lower a and c and raise b and d as little as necessary to cover each positive

example seen. That is, for each successive positive example,

a = min(a; x)

1

b = max(b; x)

c = min(c; y)

d = max(d; y)

Claim: C is PAC-learnable by L

Proof:

L is a consistent learner. This can be seen by noticing that if L outputs an inconsistent

hypothesis, it must include a negative example because the hypothesis is specically

constructed to contain all positive examples. Furthermore, there then could not exist

any other hypothesis consistent with the examples because L chooses the smallest

rectangle possible to cover the postive examples. So, because the failure of L to output

a consistent hypothesis implies that there exists no such hypothesis, the existence of a

consistent hypothesis implies that L will output one.

Based on part B above, the number of examples necessary for a consistent learner such

as L to output a hypothesis H in C of error no more than with probability 1 is

polynomial in both 1= and 1=.

Because L only needs constant time per example, the time necessary for it to output

hypothesis H is also polynomial in the PAC parameters.

Therefore, C is PAC-learnable by L.

Chapter 4, Exercise 3

(a)

Depending on how ties are broken between attributes of equivalent information gain, one

possible learned tree is:

+-----+

| Sky |

+-----+

/ \

Sunny /

\ Rainy

/

\

Yes

No

(b)

The learned decision tree is on the most-general boundry of the version space. Specically,

it corresponds to the hypothesis <Sunny, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?>.

2

Entropy(S ) = 0:971

Entropy([3+; 1 ]) = 0:811

Entropy([2+; 1 ]) = 0:918

Entropy([2+; 2 ]) = Entropy([1+; 1 ]) = 1:0

Gain(S; Sky) = 0:971 (4=5)0:811 (1=5)0:00 = 0:321

Gain(S; AirTemp) = 0:971 (4=5)0:811 (1=5)0:00 = 0:321

Gain(S; Humidity) = 0:971 (3=5)0:918 (2=5)1:00 = 0:020

Gain(S; Wind) = 0:971 (4=5)0:811 (1=5)0:00 = 0:321

Gain(S; Water) = 0:971 (4=5)1:0 (1=5)0:00 = 0:171

Gain(S; Forecast) = 0:971 (3=5)0:918 (2=5)1:00 = 0:020

If ID3 ends up picking Sky again, the intermediate tree looks like:

+-----+

| Sky |

+-----+

/ \

Sunny /

\ Rainy

/

\

???

No

Second stage:

S 0 = S rainyexample

Entropy(S 0) = 0:811

Gain(S 0; AirTemp) = 0:811 (4=4)0:811 = 0:0

Gain(S 0; Humidity) = 0:811 (2=4)1:0 (2=4)0:0 = 0:311

Gain(S 0; Wind) = 0:811 (3=4)1:0 (1=4)1:0 = 0:811

Gain(S 0; Water) = 0:811 (3=4)0:918 (1=4)1:0 = 0:127

Gain(S 0; Forecast) = 0:811 (3=4)0:918 (1=4)1:0 = 0:127

and the resulting tree looks like:

3

+-----+

| Sky |

+-----+

/ \

Sunny /

\ Rainy

/

\

+------+

No

| Wind |

+------+

/ \

Strong /

\ Weak

/

\

Yes

No

(d)

After example 1:

G = Yes

S =

+-----+

| Sky |

+-----+

/ \

Sunny /

\ Rainy

/

\

+----------+

No

| Air-Temp |

+----------+

/ \

Warm /

\ Cold

/

\

+------+

No

| Wind |

+------+

/ \

Strong /

\ Weak

/

\

+-------+

No

| Water |

+-------+

/ \

Warm /

\ Cool

/

\

+----------+

No

| Forecast |

+----------+

/ \

Same /

\ Change

/

\

+----------+

No

| Humidity |

+----------+

/ \

Norm /

\ High

/

\

Yes

No

and all other trees representing the same concept.

After example 2:

G = Yes

S =

+-----+

| Sky |

+-----+

/ \

Sunny /

\ Rainy

/

\

+----------+

No

| Air-Temp |

+----------+

/ \

Warm /

\ Cold

/

\

+------+

No

| Wind |

+------+

/ \

Strong /

\ Weak

/

\

+-------+

No

| Water |

+-------+

/ \

Warm /

\ Cool

/

\

+----------+

No

| Forecast |

+----------+

/ \

Same /

\ Change

/

\

Yes

No

There are a lot of things that one could say about the diculties in applying Candidate

Elimination to a decision tree hypothesis space. However, probably the single most important

thing to note is that because of the fact that decision trees represent a complete hypothesis

space and because Candidate Elimination has no search bias, the algorithm will only end up

doing rote memorization, and will lack the ability to generalize to unseen examples.

6

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