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Lngua Inglesa V Profa. Ma.

Glauce Soares Casimiro

Tema 3 Changing Planet Present Perfect Tense:
Como se forma: presente do verbo to have + particpio passado do verbo principal.
I have studied.
You have worked.
She has talked a lot.
He has washed his car.
It has eaten its food.
We have cleaned the room.
They have climbed many mountains.
Afirmativa: They have studied.
Negativa: They have not studied.
Interrogativa: Have they studied?
Formas abrevidadas:
havent (have not) - hasnt (has not).
O particpio passado dos verbos regulares igual ao passado simples. Studied; played.
O particpio passado dos verbos irregulares no segue as regras.
O Presente Perfeito usado para expressar:
a) Aes que comearam no passado e continuam at o presente.
Ex.: I have lived here since 1990.
b) Aes que aconteceram num tempo indefinido no passado.
Ex.: I have studied English. (tempo indefinido)
I have studied English yesterday. (tempo exato)
c) Aes que aconteceram vrias vezes no passado:
Ex.: We have seen that film many times.
d) Aes que acabaram de acontecer:
Ex: He has just asked his teacher a question.
e) Unfinished time:
Ex.: I have visited my friends this week.
(since, for, just, already, yet, ever, never).
Past Perfect Tense:
Como se forma: Passado do verbo to have + particpio passado do verbo principal.
I had studied.
You had cleaned your room.
He had eaten his food.
She had gone to the zoo.
It had slept early.
We had written a book.
You had told us a story.
They had had a hard time.

Afirmativa: They had studied.

Negativa: They had not studied.
Interrogativa: had they studied?
Formas abreviadas: hadnt (had not)
O Passado Perfeito usado para expressar uma ao que aconteceu antes de outra ao no passado.
Ex.: When I arrived, the teacher had spoken for an hour.
Passive Voice:
Como se forma: verbo to be (no tempo adequado) + particpio passado do verbo principal.
Ex.: Jane writes a letter. (Active)
A letter is written by Jane. (Passive)
Jane wrote a letter. (Active)
A letter was written by Jane. (Passive)
Presente contnuo: is speaking (Active)
is being spoken (Passive)
Passado contnuo: was speaking (Active)
was being spoken (Passive)
Going to: is going to speak (Active)
is going to be spoken (Passive)
Futuro simples: will speak (Active)
will be spoken (Passive)
Futuro contnuo: will be speaking (Active)
will be being spoken (Passive)
Presente Simples: speaks (Activve)
is spoken (Passive)
Passado Simples: spoke (Active)
was spoken (Passive)
Presente Perfeito: has spoken (Active)
has been spoken (Passive)
Passado Perfeito: had spoken (Active)
had been spoken (Passive)
Condicional simples: would speak (Active)
would be spoken (Passive)
Condicional Perfeito:
would have spoken (Active)
Would have been spoken (Passive)
Can speak (Active)
Can be spoken (Passive)
They had opened the box.
The box had been opened by them.
We would invite her.
She would be invited.
I can carry that chair.

That chair can be carried by me.

Tema 4 Money
The Infinitive Form is a conjugation in English. It denotes de meaning of the verbs in their original
form. Basically, there are two infinitive forms:
Full Infinitive: It is the form of the verb with the particle to.
Examples: To be, to go, to do.
Bare infinitive: It is the form of the verb without the particle to.
Examples: Be, go, do.
Uses: The infinitive is used in English when we follow certain verbs in any tense, with another
I want to finish my Doctorate Thesis in two years time.
Jonathan intends to start a new career in acting.
Martha and Jess tried to get back together but it did not work.
The board of directors has decided to keep the company policy.
They will need to negotiate the contract terms if they want to close the deal.
Betsy had learned to read and write by the time she was six years old.
The kids promised to finish their homework before bedtime.
Form: Verb+ing
Examples: Being, going, doing
The gerund form of the verbs is another verb tense, which is used with other verbs. For example,
when used with the verb to be as its auxiliary, it forms the Continuous Tenses.
Present Continuous:
She is wiring some money to her son in the UK.
Past Continuous:
They were closing the deal when they decided to raise the investment.
Future Continuous:
The New York Stock Exchange will be closing earlier today due to market fluctuations.
Gerunds are also used as subjects of sentences used as nouns our substantive to describe activities.
Dieting has become an ordeal to people in todays world for everyone wants to be fit.
Overdrinking may lead to heart and other metabolic and neurologic problems.
Investing all this money in such unstable business is not a wise decision.
When a verb is preceded by a preposition, it must also be conjugated in the Gerund form.
I am tired of working so hard.

We are looking forward to seeing you again.

Paul has given up on wasting so much money in gambling. Good for him!
The Gerund form is also mandatory in such structures after verbs follow certain specific verbs in
English. Such verbs are: avoid, enjoy, stop (in the sense of ceasing), finish, consider, mind, suggest,
delay, consider, miss, risk, imagine, practice, deny, admit, and others.
Ill do the shopping after I have finished writing the essay.
He avoided spending all his savings in just one impulse buy.
Thomas is considering traveling to the Bahamas to open an offshore bank account.
The salesperson at the car agency suggested purchasing the brand new car instead of the used one.
We always enjoy spending our vacations abroad.
Infinitives or Gerunds:
In the same sense, certain verbs also allow that both an infinitive or a gerund follow them, and there
is no or very little difference in the meaning. Among such verbs are: like, prefer, hate, begin,
continue, love, start, intend, and bother.
I like dancing. / I like to dance.
I hate working out. / I hate to work out.
It has started raining. / It has started to rain.
She will continue playing. / She will continue to play.
We prefer drinking wine. / We prefer to drink wine.
Note: In the case of the verb Stop, the gerund form is used when the meaning is related to ceasing
the action;
James has stopped smoking. (He quit smoking; that is, he does not smoke anymore)
Vamos Praticar
01) Write the following sentences from the text into the Passive Voice:
a) A state wildlife specialist called this the worst mass bird crash anyone has ever seen.
b) Clean up groups scooped up the dead birds.
c) Clean up groups rescued the survivors.
d) Recent stormy conditions almost certainly perplexed the flock of eared grebes.
02) Complete the sentences using the past perfect tense:
a) When I arrived at the cinema, the film ________________ (start).
b) She ____________________ (live) in China before she went to Thailand.
c) After they ____________________ (eat) the shellfish, they began to feel sick.
d) If you ____________________ (listen) to me, you would have got the job.

03) Complete the sentences using the past perfect tense:

a) Julie didnt arrive until after I ____________________ (leave).
b) When we ____________________ (finish) dinner, we went out.
c) The garden was dead because it ____________________ (be) dry all summer.
d) He ____________________ (meet) her before somewhere.
e) We were late for the plane because we ____________________ (forgot) our passports.
04) Put the verb between parenthesis into the correct form (Infinitive or Gerund)
a)When I am tired I enjoy ___________ video games. (play)
b)It was a sunny day, so we decided ___________ (stroll around) in the park.
c)I am in no hurry, so I dont mind _________________. (wait)
d)Our neighbor threatened _________________ the police if the kids didnt stop the noise. (call)
05) Choose the correct for of the verb:
1. I dont fancy ______________ out for dinner tonight.
a. ( ) to go b. ( ) going
2. Sam avoided ______________ Mark about her plans.
a. ( ) to tell b. ( ) telling
3. I would like ______________ to the party with you, guys.
a.( ) to come b. ( ) coming
4. Sam enjoys ______________ a bath in the evening.
a. ( ) to have b. ( ) having
5. She kept ______________ during the show.
a. ( ) to talk b. ( ) talking
6. I am learning ______________ Russian.
a. ( ) to speak b. ( ) speaking
7. Do you mind ______________ me a hand?
a.( ) to give b. ( ) giving
Passive Voice Review
As you have seen previously, The Passive Voice, in contrast with the Active Voice, is a structure
used to inform, designate or denote much more the result of an action. It is very used in day-to-day
Forms: Active Voice:
Subject + Verb (Any Tense Conjugation) + Object + complement
Ex.: John built his house himself in 1978.
Passive Voice:
Subject + Verb to be + Past Participle of Principal Verb+by + Agent
(Any tense conjugation)
Ex.: Johns house was built by himself in 1978.

Active: People spend huge amounts of money in superfluous items.
Passive: Huge amounts of money are spent in superfluous items.
Notice that here the agent of the passive was omitted since we do not know who the people were
Active: Someone told me that it is easy to withdraw cash in American ATMs.
Passive: I was told that it is easy to withdraw cash in American ATMs.
Notice that here too the Subject in the active voice is omitted in the Passive because it is not
determined (by someone).
It could be used, but it is not necessary for the understanding of the sentence.
Passive Voice:
O objeto da voz ativa torna-se sujeito na voz passiva.
O sujeito torna-se agente da passiva.
O agente da passiva vem sempre precedido por by ou, ento, pode ser omitido.
Ex.: Jane is reading the book.
The book is being read by Jane.
Quando o verbo na voz ativa tiver dois objetos, qualquer um deles pode ser o sujeito da passiva.
Ex.: John told me a story.
A story was told to me (by John).
I was told a story (by John).
We followed the leader.
The leader was followed by us.
The children have lost your keys.
Your keys have been lost by the children.
That man built the new doghouse.
The new doghouse was built by that man.
Max had corrected all the tests.
All the tests had been corrected by Max.
Justice punishes crimes.
Crimes are punished by justice.
My brother spent all my money.
All my money was spent by my brother.
The girls would accept your invitation.
Your invitation would be accepted by the girls.