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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT I

TRAINING ORGANIZATION

: ROAD DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY

PERIOD OF TRAINING

: FROM : 20/10/2014 TO : 11/01/2015

FIELD OF SPECIALIZATION : CIVIL ENGINEERING

H.M.HASAN
E/11/146

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to convey my gratitude to the Industrial Training and Career Guidance Unit (ITCGU),
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, National Apprentice and Industrial Training
Authority (NAITA) and the Road Development Authority (RDA) for providing me the opportunity to
have industrial training experience in my field of study.
I am pleased to be trained in RDA (NWP)one of the largest functioning body in the road construction
and maintenance sector in Sri Lanka. I am grateful towards the Provincial Director (NWP) for
providing me the opportunity to be a part of the trainees in the Kurunegala region. Due to the ongoing
construction works in Kurunegala, I was able to get the best exposure I needed.
My thanks go to the Resident Engineer Mr B.G.Gunasiri for being the greatest support and guidance
during the period of my industrial training. I must also thank Field Engineer, Mr B.M.B.S.Bandara and
Mr L.P.L.Liyanapathirana, Mr N.W.A.D.Manjula and Material Engineer, Mr J.S.M.S.A.Jyasundara,
for their effort in the fields to guide me towards the proper technical experience. Finally I would like to
add all the technical officers and staff who helped me immensely to make my training a success.

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements

Contents

ii

List of Figures

iii

List of Tables

iv

List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 A Brief Account About the Training

1.2

A Description About The Establishment

1.3 Account On The Project


Chapter 2: RESOURCES OF THE CONTRACTOR

3
4

2.1 Quarry

2.2 ABC & Asphalt Plants

2.3 Workshop

2.4 Laboratory

2.5 Machinery

2.6 Human Resources


Chapter 3: CONSTRUCTION OF ROAD

12
13

3.1 Introduction

13

3.2 Preparation Of Sub Grade

14

3.3 Preparation Of Sub Base

14

3.4 ABC Layer

14

3.5 Application Of Prime Coat

17

3.6 Application Of Tack Coat

17

3.7 Pavement Of Asphalt Concrete

17

Chapter 4: CONSTRUCTION OF STRUCTURES

20

4.1 Culvert

20

4.2 Setting Out And Excavation

20

4.3 Construction Of Box Culvert

20

4.4 Formwork

21

4.5 Backfilling

21

Chapter 5: EARTH WORKS

22

5.1 Shoulder Construction

22

5.2 Embankment

22

Chapter 6: PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED

23

Chapter 7: CONCLUSION

24

ii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1

Organizational Structure

Figure 2.1

Quarry

Figure 2.2

ABC plant

Figure 2.3

Asphalt plant

Figure 2.4

Benkelman-Beam deflection test

Figure 2.5

Hydraulic concrete mixture

Figure 2.6

Backhoe

Figure 2.7

Motor Grader

Figure 2.8

Jumping Jack compactor

Figure 2.9

Pneumatic tire Roller

Figure 2.10

Road roller

Figure 2.11

Asphalt paver

10

Figure 2.12

Water bowser

10

Figure 2.13

Bitumen Emulsion Sprayer

11

Figure 2.14

Dump truck

11

Figure 2.15

Human Resources

12

Figure 3.1

Cross section of the road

13

Figure 3.2

Procedure of marking the centerline

15

Figure 3.3

Marking the height on the rod

15

Figure 3.4

Marking on centerline and side once in 10m

16

Figure 3.5

Edge cutting and ABC compacting

16

Figure 3.6

Boomer

17

Figure 3.7

Asphalt paving

19

Figure 4.1

Formworks of a Culvert

21

Figure 4.2

Backfilling

21

Figure 5.1

Shoulder compaction

22

iii

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Details of the cross section

13

iv

LIST OF ABRIVIATION
Abbreviation

Description

ABC

Aggregate Base Course

AKT

Ambepussa - Kurunegala - Trincomalle Road

DOC

Degree of Compaction

ITCGU

Industrial Training and Career Guidance Unit

NAITA

National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority

RDA

Road Development Authority

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 A Brief Account about the Training
This report holds detailed aspects of the industrial training I obtained in the Road Development
Authority for a period of 12 weeks commencing from 20th of October 2014 to 11th of January 2015
through the National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) and the Industrial
Training and Career Guidance Unit (ITCGU), Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya as a
six credit and non-GPA course followed in the Department of Civil Engineering, University of
Peradeniya.
1.2 A Description about the Establishment
The functions performed by the RDA consist mainly of the maintenance and development of the roads
and bridges in the National Highway Network and the planning, design and construction of new
highways, bridges and expressways to enhance the existing network.
Road transportation is the main mode of transportation in Sri Lanka. Therefore it is very important to
facilitate the country with a very efficient network of road. RDA has the responsibility to cater to the
current development works in the country as well as any future development projects.
1.2.1

Vision

To upgrade the National Highway Network to meet the expectations of all stakeholders and to make
the Road Development Authority an institution of multidisciplinary excellence in Highway
Engineering.
1.2.2

Mission

As the premier National Organization of the road sector, to provide an adequate and efficient network
National Highways, to ensure mobility and accessibility at an acceptable level of safety and comport,
in an environment friendly manner for the movement of people and goods for the socio-economic
development of the nation.

1.2.3

Organizational Structure

PROVINCIAL DIRECTOR

CHIEF

CHIEF

CHIEF

ADMINISTRATOR

ACCOUNT

ENGINEER

ENGINEER

ENGINEER

ASSISTANT

ASSISTAN

PROJECT

DESIGN

Executive

Design

Engineer (1)

Engineer

T
Clerical Staff

(1)
Design

Executive

Clerical
Staff

Engineer

Engineer (2)

(2)
Design

Executive
Engineer

Engineer

(3)

(3)

Resident

Resident

Resident

Engineer

Engineer (2)

Engineer (3)

(AKT)
Section (2)

Section (3)

Section (1)

Material

Supporting

Engineer

Engineer

Engineer

Engineer

Staff

/Technical
Officer

Worksite

Worksite

Worksite

Worksite

Supervisor

Supervisor

Supervisor

Supervisor

Trainee

Trainee

Trainee

Trainee

Figure 1.1 Organizational structure

1.3

Account on the Project

Name

:Ambepussa- Kurunegala -Trincomalle (AKT) Road Project

Road

:A006

Road section

:Ambepussa to Galewela (0+000KM to 75+110KM)


Project work carried out in tree sections,

ch. 0+000KM~25+000KM
ch. 25+000KM~50+000KM
ch. 50+000KM~75+110KM

Funding

:Local banks

Amount of the project

:Rs. 13 Billion

Contractor

:MAGA Engineering (PVT) Ltd.

Consultant

:RDA

Date of commencement

:26th of November 2013

Duration

:36 months

Section 1
Section 2
Section 3

Chapter 2: RESOURCES OF THE CONTRACTOR


In order to foster and promote development of the construction works in the project the contractor shall
have a collection of adequate resources. As a multinational company, MAGA PVT Ltd also has a set
of modern utensils such as:

Quarry

ABC and Asphalt plants

Workshop

Laboratory

Machinery

Human resources

2.1 Quarry
The material required for the preparation of ABC, asphalt concrete and other random works are
provided from the quarry. Rocks are blasted and prepare it in the quarry for the above purposes. The
quarry must be selected considering environmental factors because this may cause noise and dust,
hence effects the human livelihood and environment.

Figure 2.1 Quarry

2.2

ABC & Asphalt Plants

The ABC and Asphalt plants for this project are located in Thulhiriya , Galewela, Thorayaya,
Malsiripura, Polgahawela, Alawwa and some other places which is not more than 250m away from the
AKT road (75+110KM project has more plants to cover the distance efficiently). Asphalt mixture
should be taken to the project site as soon as possible because the pavement of asphalt should be done
at a specific temperature. Therefore the location of the plant is selected such that it is closer to the
project area and brings less cost for transport.

Fig. 2.2 ABC plant

Fig. 2.3 Asphalt plant

2.3

Workshop

All the maintenance work of the machines used for the construction is done in the workshop allocated
to the contractor. This is situated closer to the project offices in order to serve the project efficiently.
2.4

Laboratory

All the tests needed to be done to ensure a standard of work is conducted in the laboratory. This
location established closer to the project office of each section.
Mostly concrete cube test done for the concrete strength measurements, Slump test done
before put to the formwork in the site, Regularly AIV test conduct for the samples in the laboratory
and Rarely Benkelman-beam Deflection test done to find road deflection etc.

Fig. 2.4 Benkelman-Beam deflection test.

2.5

Machinery

The machinery needed to serve the project will be discussed in this section.
2.5.1 Concrete mixtures
On sight concrete mixed using Hydraulic concrete mixtures or normal concrete mixtures.

Fig. 2.5. Hydraulic concrete mixture

2.5.2 Backhoe
Backhoe is used for site clearances, provide shifted gravel for shoulder compaction and excavation
perposes etc.

Fig. 2.6 Backhoe

2.5.3 Motor Graders


Motor grader used to the grading process. That is ensuring a level base. This might be flat or a slope
base. Motor grader comprises of a long blade which facilitates flat surface. But mostly the motor
grader Drivers skill play a major role, He have the best salary over labors about Rs80000.00

Fig. 2.7 Motor Grader


2.5.4 Compactor
Compactors are used to reduce the size of soil layer in road construction. In the construction industry
there are three types of compactors mainly used for the above purpose.

Jumping Jack Compactor

Road Roller

2.5.4.1 Jumping Jack Compactor


The jumping jack compactor is used for backfilling narrow trenches in culvert, retaining walls and
drainage trenches. This comprises a smaller foot to serve the purpose.

Fig. 2.8 Jumping Jack compactor

2.5.4.2 Pneumatic tire Roller


Rollers comprising pneumatic tires are used for finishing asphalt pavement. The tonnage of the
Pneumatic tire Roller will differ according to the necessity.

Fig. 2.9 Pneumatic tire Roller

2.5.4.3 Road Rollers


Road rollers are used to compact sub base, ABC and asphalt concrete finishing. Road rollers might
have vibrating rollers as well.
There are three types of road rollers according to the type of roller used.

Fig. 2.10 Road roller

2.5.5 Asphalt Paver


Using asphalt paver, asphalt laid on roads. This also provides a minor compaction before the asphalt
layer is compacted using roller.

Fig. 2.11 Asphalt paver

2.5.6 Water Bowser


Water is poured on the sub base for a better compaction of ABC. The special purpose of usage of
sprinklers attached to bowsers is to facilitate application of water in an even manner.

Fig. 2.12 Water bowser

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2.5.7 Bitumen Emulsion Sprayer


Bitumen emulsifiers are used to pave bitumen according to a standard thickness on tack coats and
prime coats.

Fig. 2.13 Bitumen Emulsion Sprayer


2.5.8 Dump Trucks
Vehicles used for transportation of loose material needed for construction sub base such as gravel, dirt,
sand, ABC and Asphalt fall under dump trucks.

Fig. 2.14 Dump truck

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2.6 Human Resources

Road construction work is most commonly done by unskilled laborers. Workers can specialize in
certain types of work. Diligent and responsible workers are usually promoted to supervisory positions;
to train and supervise other workers.
The types of workers are distinguished using skill levels.
General workers These kinds of workers are necessary to perform general excavation with picks
and shovels and clean the sides of roads for better working environment.
Masonry workers For the building of structures such as culverts, retaining walls, etc.
Machine operators For a better efficient way of finishing up the project work, skillful machine
operators are needed with specific talents in operating the machineries used in the construction
Drivers For transportation purposes, drivers are necessary for a construction project.
Construction supervisors Supervision of the construction work is done by supervisors.
Office staff Staff working in the project office for the functioning of the project

Fig. 2.15 Human Resources

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Chapter 3: CONSTRUCTION OF ROAD


3.1 Introduction
First and foremost an initial survey is conducted by the surveyors of the RDA and the approved design of
the proposed road is handed over to the contractors. As the first step of the construction the site engineers
of the contractor company is started setting out the road. Site clearance is included in this step. Then the
establishment of sub base was done. On top of the established sub base ABC layer was laid subsequently
followed by asphalt layer. But the works carried out by deferent sections parallel.

Fig. 3.1 Cross section of the road


Table 3.1 Details of the cross section
Materials

Thickness/mm
Overlay

Winding

Wearing Course

40

40

Binder Course

60

60

450

900

Sub base type-1

250

Shoulder Material

Embankment type 1

ABC

The aspects of the elements involved in the construction process will be discussed in detail in this
chapter.

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3.2 Preparation of Sub Grade


The overall strength and performance of a pavement is depended not only upon its design but also on
the load-bearing capacity of the sub-grade soil. Thus, anything that can be done to increase the loadbearing capacity of the sub-grade soil will most likely improve the strength of the pavement. Also this
may grant thinner pavement structures which will be economical. The condition of the sub grade will
be specified in the design. This may vary from place to place. The proposed augmentation of an
existing old road is done to obtain the sub base. For this purpose the required amount of width (width
of the proposed road and width of shoulder compaction) is excavated from the sides of the existing old
road or from the failed portions of the existing road.
Then the sub grade is compacted well. If the excavated surface is below the required sub-grade level,
the sub-grade is improved by compacting soil by a roller. The limit for loose thickness of the soil layer
for compacted should be in between 200mm and 300mm. Checked that the percentage of field density
of the compacted soil to Maximum Dry Density (MDD) is greater than 95%.
3.3 Preparation of Sub Base
The sub base course is the layer found between the ABC and the sub-grade. The sub base basically
provides structural support for the road. Establishment of sub base is done after the proper
establishment of sub grade. The gravel is placed on top of the sub grade and spread evenly and
compacted. Until the degree of compaction of the sub base is reached to 98%, water is applied using
sprinklers and compacted using generally 8 ton vibrating rollers according to the design thickness of
the sub base its around 250mm little alterations are accepted.
3.4 ABC Layer
ABC is a mixture of graded crushed rock, quarry dust and chips. ABC layer is applied above sub base.
According to the design of the proposed road, the overlay layer of ABC was 300 mm or winding layer
of 200 mm.
Initially before ABC layer is applied the center line of the road is marked. In order to do this the distance
marked on any permanent landscape along the road to the center line which was marked by prior surveyors
will be used. For the distance less than 5m, a point belonging to the center line is marked using offset

measurement.
For greater than 5m, inclined measurement is done. Likewise several measurements taken on the
section which is ABC layered and eventually the center line is marked.

14

Fig. 3.2 Procedure of marking the centerline


Along the center line steel rods is placed in every 10m gap. In every steel rod the height of 300mm is
marked. This is done by placing the staff 300mm apart from the actual point which is leveled and
marked the design level at a tolerance of +15mm/-10mm by driving a steel rod. Since the width of the
road is 4.1m per lane, 2.5%of slope for each side is calculated and the relevant height is marked using
steel rods placed such that the rods at the side is perpendicular to the center line.
In order to achieve this, the leveling instrument should be leveled in the beginning. The required height
is marked on the rod by matching the staff reading with the leveling instrument reading by elevating
the staff. When the readings are matched the elevation of staff is marked as the required height on the
rod. The heights is marked using a red tape to facilitate easy visibility.

Fig. 3.3 Marking the height on the rod

15

10 m Markings

Centre line

Fig. 3.4 Marking on centerline and side once in 10m

The layering of ABC is done to meet the marked positions in the rod. Motor graders is used to make
the proper slope needed. After this, vibrating or steel roller of more than 8 tonnages was used for
compacting and it should be made sure that the degree of compaction is greater than 98% with the
sprinkling of water in a turn with compaction.

Fig. 3.5 Edge cutting and ABC compacting


For a minimum of 1 day no vehicular traffic was allowed on the ABC- compacted road for proper
quality of road allowing the road to dry as much as possible. After the ABC is dried sufficiently the
compaction test is conducted. For the test failures another turn of water sprinkling and compaction is
done until proper standards are met.

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3.5 Application of Prime Coat


Prime coating is used above ABC prior to surface dressing or surface course is laid. Prime coating is
generally used for enhancing the bonding of ABC which was compacted and dried. Prior to application
of the prime coat the ABC surface was brushed to remove all dust, loose particles and other
objectionable material. For aggregate bases such cleaning was continued until the entire surface show
a pattern of exposed large particles free from dust as far as possible.

Fig. 3.6 Boomer


After the liquid asphalt has penetrated the base course, the prime coated up to 5mm. Any vehicular
traffic is allowed on the road after a minimum of 7-8 hours. But in this road project the vehicles were
allowed after 1 day.
3.6 Application of Tack Coat
Before the pavement of binder course or wearing course, application of tack coat is done. This is to
ensure the proper bonding of the two layers. Prior to the application of tack coat, the surface is cleaned
similar to the application of prime coat. The thickness of the tack coat is also usually 5mm.
Bituminous Emulsions of any specified grade can be used for this. Cut Back Bitumen that is used at
the temperature ranging from 1050-1300. After the application of tack coat the pavement of asphalt
is done as soon as possible to get a proper bonding.
3.7 Pavement of Asphalt Concrete
3.7.2

Introduction

Asphalt concrete is a mixture of two basic components: aggregates (stone, gravel and sand) and liquid
asphalt. These are mixed at elevated temperatures. Asphalt is paved in the carriageway of the road.
Paving with asphalt concrete allows you to pave faster, more efficiently, more economically with
greater serviceability.

17

A smooth driveway is obtained by the asphalt concrete pavement. A major advantage for Asphalt
Concrete is the ability for staged construction. The asphalt base course is placed and used under traffic
during initial construction.
This is a flexible pavement which allows it to withstand occasional overloads without serious damage.
Blowups are reduced by the usage of asphalt because of the lack of repetitive joints. Also the usage of
asphalt is economical.
3.7.2 Types of Asphalt Concrete
There are two types of asphalt concrete used. They are used in the form of Binder course and Wearing
Course. The ingredients of bitumen, the aggregate size & passing percentages vary for every work.
3.7.2.1 Binder Course
This is paved on top of the ABC layer after the application of tack coat with a thickness of 60mm.After
the pavement of Binder Course compaction is done using steel rollers and then pneumatic rollers. After
the binder course is paved it should be made sure no vehicles pass along the road on top of the newly
paved Binder Course for six hours.
3.7.2.2 Wearing Course
This is paved on top of the Binder Course after a minimum of three days. The thickness of the Wearing
Course should be 40mm. prior to the pavement of the Wearing Course the Binder Course surface must
be well cleaned without dust and loose material.
3.7.3 Preparation for Pavement of Asphalt
A sharp inspection is done on the existing surface of the road. Factors such as the DOC, surface texture
and flexibility of the pavement are taken into consideration during the inspection. The existing surface
is trimmed to the designated tolerance which is slightly higher than the tolerance amount allowed for
the overlaying asphalt thickness.
As the general practice of road pavement, at this stage also cleaning the surface was done.
3.7.4 Pavement of Asphalt
At the time of paving the Asphalt mixture shall have a temperature above 130. Due to the
transportation time the temperature may fall. Therefore, the trucks which carries the asphalt mix has to
be well covered till the paving started.
Before the binder course pavement is done the ABC layer level was checked. Thereafter the
compacting height is determined based on the height of the asphalt layer. If the thickness is less than
75mm, the compaction is determined to be 20% of the thickness and if it is greater than 75mm, the
compaction is 25% of the thickness.
When the asphalt is being paved by the paver machine, in order to check whether the required height is
being paved, the required height is marked on a rod and the rod in pinned into the course and verified
randomly.

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The temperature of the Asphalt which is about to be paved in the road was measured. If the
temperature is detected to be less than 130, the following actions are taken. First the surface
temperature of Asphalt which is loaded in truck is measured and if it is less than 130, the Asphalt
mixture in the surface is removed using shovels and the temperature of the Asphalt inside is measured
and if it the temperature meets the conditions paving is continued. But if the inner temperature is also
less than 130 the mixture is rejected and sent to recycle. If recycling cannot be done, it will be
permanently rejected.
Therefore it is vital that the Asphalt mixture should have an elevated temperature at the time of loading
to the trucks leaving heat losses due to the transportation and waiting until paved. Hence ambient
conditions, the distance to the site and the waiting time to pave the Asphalt are considered to determine
the loading temperature.

Fig. 3.7 Asphalt paving

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Chapter 4: CONSTRUCTION OF STRUCTURES


4.1

Culvert

Culverts are structures of less than 6 meter span between faces of Abutment and generally have two
spans. A culvert must be large enough to carry the flow of water without any heading up at the
entrance. They are constructed to enable water flow from one side of water to the other. In this sector
Box/slap culvert and Hump pipe culvert were widened as an improvement for culverts. Generally
culvert includes screed, base, abutment, wing wall, capping beam, deck, and parapet wall and guard
stones.
4.2

Setting Out and Excavation

This is done in accordance with the design drawing. During setting out measurements should be taken
from the centerline. If this is not done culvert abutment and wing walls may skew to the road. Initially
center of culvert should be located. Then widening length should be marked. Head walls and wing
walls should not be skewed from the centerline. Excavation should be done up to screed bottom level.
Otherwise it may be very difficult to fix reinforcement and formworks and concrete. In order to
achieve this we have to excavate extra 0.5m away from actual setting out area as working space.
4.3

Construction of Box Culvert

The following procedure was followed in the construction of box culvert.


Setup safety arrangement.
Allow water to run through the half way of the clear span.
Excavate at the level of screed bottom and required dimension and dewater by water pumps.
Level excavated surface and formwork was done for both screed and base together.
Spread Polythene at bottom and screed concreting.
Base concreting (300mm) was performed by C30, some rubble were placed
Abutment and wing wall construction were done by random rubble masonry. In order to prevent
cracks on RR masonry place Through-Stone at 1m interval along wing wall.
Construct Capping Beam (C25 used) at the top of the abutment. Backfill layer by using gravel.
After four side constructions were finished up to capping beam, construct deck using reinforced
concrete C30.

C20 reinforced concrete is used to construct Parapet Wall and Guard Stone.
Formwork for all concreting structure was left to set for 24.
All compaction of the concrete placed in the forms was by poker.
Structure was plastered by cement mortar 1:3at an average thickness of 20mm.
Finally clean the area.

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4.4

Formwork

Is a structural support is to hold the concrete until it gets strong. For formworks of walls, vertical and
horizontal supports are given by pipes and the bolts. The braces are kept at horizontal and they are
supported at base concrete level by stakes firmly driven into the concrete. Cover blocks are used to
keep the sheets in correct position. Reinforcing steel is checked for its alignment before laying of
concrete. The forms are cleaned and oiled before and after each use. The formwork is cleaned and
washed with water before laying of concrete in it.

Fig.4.1 Formworks of a Culvert


4.5 Backfilling
Backfilling is done for culvert widening and retaining wall. After finishing the construction of wing
wall and abutment of culvert, the widened area is filled with gravel layer by layer to get the maximum
efficiency of the compaction.
Maximum thickness allowed for a single layer ranges from 200-300mm and the range of the
compaction is determined by the height of the layer. Every layer is tested to check the DOC then it is
allowed to fill the next layer. The compaction is done by using jumping jack compactor.

Fig.4.2 Backfilling

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Chapter 5: EARTH WORKS


5.1 Shoulder Construction
After paving the wearing course or before the leveling of ABC is done shoulder construction is
performed by placing and compacting shoulder material for width of 1m or 1.5m on either side of the
pavement. Material is unloaded and it is spread by using Motor Grader, the cross fall of 4% is obtained
by tilting the blade of the motor grader for required slope. For compacting Road rollers were used with
water. The DOC was measured for 95%.

Fig. 5.1 Shoulder compaction


5.2

Embankment

This includes the process of filling low existing level of ground up to the design level of a road. This
treatment is usually done when the level of the existing road is higher than the amount needed to be
widened. The layers are selected according to the height.
The embankment material is placed. The compaction is commenced at the edge and done towards the
center. Each successive layer is placed only after the DOC of the previous layer has been tested and it
was found to be greater than 95%. In order to widen the existing embankment the top soil of the
sloping faces is removed and scarified. Some bench was formed on the surface to give adequate
bonding between old and new embankments.

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Chapter 6: PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED


During the road project there were several problems encountered. The traffic control was hard.
When the edge cutting was done the leveling were damaged due to the rain during the night.
The center line had to be marked due to traffic.
If the ABC exceeded at the middle, little bit remove them by motor grader or labor and compact them
with 1 ton roller. Also the excavation was difficult due to the underling water supply and telephone
pipe networks. Care was taken while making excavation.
Due to accidents some people dead and some are injured during construction of the road.

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Chapter 7: CONCLUSION
During my training period of 12 weeks I was able to gather a good experience in highway engineering
and it helped me to understand what is happening on the site apart from the theoretical aspects.
In the site, I gained practical, technical knowledge and experience regarding situations of the working
site and how to overcome the difficulties and also got supervision and communication skills within the
site. The industrial training is important and valuable experience as an apprentice in the field of Civil
Engineering.
The engineers in the site induced and guided me to go with the process in progress. The management
of conflicts occurred between staff and labors or in between them, arrangement of facilities to support
the work proposed, adjustment for the scarce resources and labors, taking decisions depends on the
forth coming problems and avoidance of unnecessary work to reduce the cost. Not only that, by
exposing to the field I was being got to know the people from various organizations, and this
environment helped me to express my interest, intensions and suggestion Finally confident to state that
the training I got is more than I really expected to get and I hope that the future undergraduates coming
for the internship will find their training even more beneficial to their future career.

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