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# 12/24/2015

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Processdesign

## F/M and F/V

Organic loading rate is an important design and controlling parameter in biological wastewater treatment process. It is
measured by the amount of food provided to a unit amount of biomass (or reactor volume) for a unit period of time. Food-tomicroorganisms (F/M) ratio is based on the amount of biomass while Food-to-volume (F/V) ratio is based on reactor volume.

The F/M and the F/V are calculated using the following equations.

-----------------------------------(1)

Historical Lesson
Flux & membrane area
-----------------------------------(2)

Pretreatment

where
OUR/SOUR

## = food-to-microorganism ratio (g BOD/g MVLSS/day)

HRT/SRT

=food-to-volumeratio(gBOD/gMLVSS/day)
Biosolids yield
Oxygen demand
= influent flow rate (m3/day)
Specific Air Demand
= influent BOD (mg/L)
Design - IWA model
= MLSS in aeration tank (mg/L)
CSTR vs Plug Flow
Blower system
= tank volume (m3)
Air scouring system

## Peak flow handling

Four different F/M ratio exist depending on the unit used for food and microorganisms.
Energy optimization

OTE

Theory
Factors affecting OTE
- Pore size and air flow
- Diffuser fouling
- MLSS and viscosity
- SRT and F/M
- Foaming
- Others
OTE measurement
absorption method
desorption method

## Those four are inter-convertible using

the ratio of COD/BOD and MLVSS/MLSS as shown in Table 1, where COD/BOD and MLVSS/MLSS were assumed at 2.0
and 0.8, respectively, for municipal wastewater.

Typically MBR runs at lower F/M ratio than conventional activated sludge (CAS) process in order to mitigate membrane
fouling and maintain high oxygen transfer efficiency. The preferred F/M ratio range in MBR is approximately a third to a half
of that in CAS, i.e. 0.05-0.15 g BOD/g MVLSS/day or 0.1-0.3 g COD/g MLVSS/day in municipal MBR.

It is noticeable that nitrogen is not taken into consideration when F/M and F/V are calculated, but it contributes to the oxygen
demand significantly. One example for municipal wastewater here shows the oxygen demand for COD removal approximately
equals to that for nitrogen oxidation (nitrification) before considering the oxygen recovery (or credit) from denitrification.

Table. 1. Comparison of preferred ranges of operating parameters in MBR and CAS
Design
Unit
MBR
CAS
Parameter

g BOD/g MLSS/day
0.04-0.12
0.16-0.24
Membrane
g COD/g MLSS/day
0.08-0.24
0.32-0.48

Longevity
1),
2)
g
BOD/g
MLVSS/day
0.2-0.3
F/M
0.05-0.15
-Manufacturer'sdata
3)
g COD/g MLVSS/day
0.4-0.6
0.1-0.30
-Thirdparty'sdata
g BOD/L/day
0.5-1.5
0.6-0.9
-Influencingfactors
F/V
g COD/L/day
1.0-3.0
1.2-1.8

1)
Traceorganics
MLSS
g/L
2-4
8-12
-Removalmechanism
MLVSS
g/L
6-10
1.7-3.4
-Removalefficiency
SRT
days
10-30
5-10
-ComparisonwithCAS
4)
mg
O
/g
MVLSS/hr
SOUR
6-12
2
2-5

mg
O
/L/hr
OUR
15-50
20-40
Oilywastewater
2
-Pretreatment
DO
mg/L
1-2
1-2
-Producedwater
1) Judd, 2006
-Refinerywastewater
2) Brepols, 2010

3) Converted from the BOD based F/M assuming COD/BOD=2.0 for municipal wastewater
Practicalissues
4) Ng,2006

Reference