Reprinted: 05122000
Website: www.shipmotions.nl
Report 968, March 1993,
Delft University of Technology,
Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory,
Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft,
The Netherlands.
Hydromechanic Coefficients for Calculating
Time Domain Motions of Cutter Suction Dredges
by Cummins Equations
J.M.J. Journe
Delft University of Technology
Abstract
Software package DREDMO of the Delft Hydraulics predicts the behaviour of seagoing
cutter dredges in nearshore conditions, which behaviour can be important with respect to the
construction of the dredge and the assessment of downtime. The motion behaviour of the
seagoing dredge has been described by nonlinear Cummins Equations, which have to be
solved in the time domain.
The required input data on hydromechanic coefficients, retardation functions and frequency
domain wave load series can be derived with a newly developed preprocessing program
SEWAYD. This program, based on the frequency domain ship motions program SEAWAY,
creates the hydromechanic input data file for DREDMO with a minimum risk on human input
errors and makes DREDMO much more accessible for lessspecialist users.
This report describes the underlying hydromechanic theory of the new SEAWAYD and
DREDMO releases. Also, comparisons with frequency domain results have been given.
Introduction
the Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory
(both are laboratories of the Delft
University of Technology) developed the
computer code DREDMO [13] in the early
80s. The behaviour of the seagoing
dredge has been described by nonlinear
socalled Cummins Equations, which have
to be solved in the time domain. These
equations
require
hydromechanic
The prediction of the behaviour of cutter
dredges in nearshore conditions can be
important with respect to the construction
of the dredge and the assessment of
downtime. To be able to make downtime
predictions, the Delft Hydraulics together
with the Laboratory of Soil Movement and
coefficients, retardation functions and
wave load series as input, together with
geometric and operational data of the ship
and the operational working method.
The required input data hydromechanic
coefficients, retardation functions and
frequency domain wave loads  have to be
derived from model experiments or from
calculated data by a suitable ship motion
computer program. However, the creation
of this hydromechanic input data file
appeared to be very much time consuming.
Besides this, DREDMO and its pre and
postprocessing programs were running on
main frames, and specialists were required
to operate the software.
In 1990, the author used relevant parts of
SEAWAY to create a preprocessing
program for DREDMO. The Laboratory of
Soil Movement had defined the formats of
the hydromechanic input data of
DREDMO. This preprocessing program is
called SEAWAYD and makes DREDMO
more accessible for lessspecialist users.
In 1991, the Laboratory of Soil Movement
had completed their work on DREDMO
with the delivery of PC pre and postprocessing programs and a userinterface,
which minimises the risk on human input
errors; see [13].
In 1992, an input control program
SEAWAYH, to check the input data of
the offsets of the under water geometry of
the ship, have been added to the
DREDMO software package.
In 1984, Delft Hydraulics decided to
develop a PC version of DREDMO, to
promote the use of their commercial
package.
In the late 80s the author had developed
computer code SEAWAY [6,8], a
frequency domain ship motions program
based on the strip theory, for calculating
the waveinduced motions and resulting
mechanic loads of monohull ships moving
forward with six degrees of freedom in a
seaway.
The potential coefficients and wave loads
are calculated for infinite and finite water
depths. Added resistance, shearing forces
and bending and torsion moments can be
calculated too. Linear(ised) springs and
free surface antirolling tanks, bilge keels
and other antirolling devices can be
included. Several wave spectra definitions
can been used.
Since 1993, DREDMO calculations can be
carried out too for ships with local
symmetric twinhull sections  as for
instance appear at cutter suction dredges provided that interaction effects between
individual sections are not accounted for.
Special attention has been paid to
longitudinal jumps in the cross sections,
fully submerged cross sections and
(non)linear
viscous
roll
damping
coefficients. Improved definitions of the
hydrodynamic potential masses at an
infinite frequency and the wave loads have
been added. Finally, many numerical
routines have been improved.
All striptheory algorithms are described in
[9]. A user manual of SEAWAYD, with
an example of the input and the output
files, has been given in [11].
This report contains a survey of the
hydromechanic part of the underlying
theory of DREDMO and SEAWAYD and
a validation of the calculated results.
A separately developed stripped version
of DREDMO, called SEAWAYT, has
been used here to verify all algorithms in
the time domain.
Computed data have been validated with
results of other computer programs and
experimental data. Based on these
validation studies  and experiences,
obtained during an intensive use of the
program by the author, students and over
30 institutes and industrial users  it is
expected that this program is free of
significant errors.
Equations of Motion
The coordinate systems are defined in
Figure 1.
Frequency Domain Calculations
Based on Newtons second law of
dynamics, the equations of motion of a
floating object in a seaway are given by:
6
M
j =1
i, j
&x& j = Fi
for i = 1, 2, 6
in which:
M i, j
Figure 1
Coordinate System and
Definitions
&x& j
6x6 matrix of solid mass and
inertia of the body
acceleration of the body in
direction j
sum of forces or moments acting in
direction i
Three righthanded coordinate systems
have been defined:
Fi
1. G( xb , y b , zb ) connected to the ship,
with G at the ships centre of gravity,
x b in the ships centre line in the
forward direction, y b in the ships port
side direction and z b in the upward
direction
When defining a linear system with simple
harmonic wave exciting forces and
moments, defined by:
Fwi ( , t ) = Fwa i ( ) cos t + wi ( )
The resulting simple harmonic displacements, velocities and accelerations are:
2. S ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 ) fixed in space, with S in
the still water surface, x 0 in the
direction of the wave propagation and
z 0 in the upward direction.
x j ( , t ) = x aj ( ) cos(t )
x& j ( , t ) = x aj ( ) sin (t )
&x& j ( , t ) = 2 x aj ( ) cos (t )
3. O ( x , y , z ) or O( x1 , x 2 , x 3 ) moving
with the ships speed, with O above or
below the average position of the
ships centre of gravity, x or x1
parallel to still water surface, y or x 2
parallel to still water surface and z or
x3 in the upward direction. The
angular motions of the body about the
body axes are denoted by: , and
or x 4 , x5 and x 6 .
The hydromechanic forces and moments
Fi , acting on the free floating object in
waves, consist of:
linear hydrodynamic reaction forces
and moments expressed in terms with
the hydrodynamic mass and damping
coefficients:
a i, j ( ) &x& j ( , t ) bi, j ( ) x& j ( , t )
linear hydrostatic restoring forces and
moments expressed in a term with a
spring coefficient:
c i, j x j ( , t )
With this, the linear equations of motion
become:
{M
by experimental results or by empirical
formulas.
The strip theory is based upon linearity.
This means that the ship motions are
supposed to be small, relative to the crosssectional dimensions of the ship. Only
hydrodynamic effects of the hull below the
still water level are accounted for. So
when parts of the ship go out of or into the
water or when green water is shipped,
inaccuracies can be expected. Also, the
strip theory does not distinguish between
alternative above water hull forms.
Nevertheless these limitations for zero
forward speed, generally the strip theory
appears to be a successful and practical
theory for the calculation of the wave
induced motions of a ship.
&x& j } =
i, j
j =1
{ a
6
i,j
( ) &x& j ( , t ) bi , j ( ) x& j ( , t )
j =1
c i, j x j ( , t )}+ Fwa i ( ) cos t + wi ( )
for i = 1, 2, 6
So:
(M
+ b
6
j =1
+ ai , j ( ) ) &x& j ( , t )
=
&
i , j ( ) x j ( , t ) + c i , j x j ( , t )
i,j
= Fwa i ( ) cos t + wi ( )
for i = 1, 2, 6
For the determination of the twodimensional potential coefficients for
sway, heave and roll motions of not fully
submerged shiplike cross sections, the socalled 2Parameter Lewis Transformation
can map crosssections conformally to the
unit circle. Also the NParameter CloseFit
Conformal Mapping Method can be used
for this.
The hydromechanic coefficients a i, j ( ) ,
bi, j ( ) and c i, j and the wave load com
ponents Fwa i ( ) can be calculated with
existing 2D or 3D techniques.
For this, strip theory programs  like for
instance the program SEAWAY [3]  can
be used. According to the strip theory, the
total hydromechanic coefficients and wave
loads of the ship can be found easily by
integrating the crosssectional values over
the ship length.
The advantage of conformal mapping is
that the velocity potential of the fluid
around an arbitrary shape of a cross
section in a complex plane can be derived
from the more convenient circular cross
section in another complex plane. In this
manner hydrodynamic problems can be
solved directly with the coefficients of the
mapping function, as reported by Tasai
[15,16].
The advantage of making use of the 2Parameter Lewis Conformal Mapping
Method is that the frequencydepending
potential coefficients are a function of the
breadth, the draught and the area of the
cross section, only.
The strip theory is a slender body theory,
so one should expect less accurate
predictions for ships with low length to
breadth ratios. However, experiments have
shown that the strip theory appears to be
remarkably effective for predicting the
motions of ships with length to breadth
ratios down to about 3.0 or sometimes
even lower.
The strip theory is based upon the potential
flow theory. This holds that viscous effects
are neglected, which can deliver serious
problems when predicting roll motions at
resonance frequencies. In practice, viscous
roll damping effects can be accounted for
Another method is the Frank Method [2],
also suitable for fully submerged cross
sections. This method determines the
velocity potential of a floating or a
mi , j ( )
submerged oscillating cylinder of infinite
length by the integral equation method
utilising the Greens function, which
represents a pulsating source below the
free surface.
To avoid socalled irregular frequencies
in the operational frequency range of not
fully submerged cross sections, each Frank
section will be closed automatically at the
free surface with a few extra points. This
results into a shift of these irregular
frequencies towards a higher frequency
region.
'
n i, j ( )
'
Fwi ( )
'
FK wi ( )
'
*
&&wi ( )
*
& wi ( )
The twodimensional pitch and yaw
coefficients follow from the heave and
sway moments, respectively.
yw
xb
Finally, a method based on work published
by Kaplan and Jacobs [12] and a
longitudinal strip method has been used
for the determination of the twodimensional potential coefficients for the
surge motion.
OG
BG
At
the
following
sections,
the
hydromechanic coefficients and the wave
loads for zero forward speed are given as
they can be derived from the twodimensional values, defined in a coordinate system with the origin O in the
waterline.
k xx
k yy
k zz
The symbols, used here, are:
M i, j
'
solid mass and inertia
coefficients of the body
sectional hydrodynamic
mass coefficient
sectional hydrodynamic
damping coefficient
sectional wave exciting
force or moment
sectional FroudeKrylov
force or moment
equivalent orbital
acceleration
equivalent orbital velocity
sectional half breadth of
waterline
longitudinal distance of
crosssection to centre of
gravity, positive forwards
vertical distance of
waterline to centre of
gravity, positive upwards
vertical distance of centre
of buoyancy to centre of
gravity, positive upwards
volume of displacement
radius of gyration in air for
roll
radius of gyration in air for
pitch
radius of gyration in air for
yaw
density of water
acceleration of gravity
The solid mass coefficients are given by:
The potential mass coefficients are given
by:
M 1,1 = M =
b1,1 = n1,1' dxb
M 2 ,2 = M =
M 3, 3 = M =
b1, 5 = BG b1,1
M 4 , 4 = I xx = k xx 2
b2, 2 = n 2, 2 ' dxb
M 5, 5 = I yy = k yy
2
b2, 4 = n 2, 4 dxb + OG b2, 2
'
M 6, 6 = I zz = k zz
The remaining solid mass coefficients are
zero.
2
b2, 6 = n 2, 2 ' xb dxb
L
b3,3 = n3, 3' dxb
The potential mass coefficients are given
by:
b3, 5 = n 3, 3 xb dx b
'
a1,1 = m1,1' dx b
b4, 4 = n 4, 4 ' dxb + OG n 4, 2 ' dxb
a1,5 = BG a1,1
+ OG b2 , 4
a 2, 2 = m2, 2 ' dxb
b4, 6 = n 4, 2 ' xb dxb + OG b2.6
a 2, 4 = m2, 4 dxb + OG a2, 2
'
b5, 5 = n3, 3 xb dxb BG b1, 5
'
a2, 6 = m2, 2 xb dxb
'
b6, 6 = n 2, 2 ' xb 2 dx b
a3,3 = m3, 3' dxb
b j, i = bi, j
a 3,5 = m3, 3 xb dxb
'
The
remaining
potential
coefficients are zero.
a 4, 4 = m4, 4 ' dxb + OG m4, 2 ' dx b
L
damping
The spring coefficients are given by:
+ OG a 2, 4
c 3, 3 = 2 g y w dxb
'
a4, 6 = m4, 2 xb dxb + OG a2.6
'
c 3, 5 = 2 g y w x b dx b
'
a 5,5 = m3, 3 x b dxb BG a1, 5
'
c 4, 4 = g GM
a6, 6 = m2, 2 ' xb 2 dxb
c 5,5 = g GM L
a j, i = ai , j
The remaining potential mass coefficients
are zero.
c j, i = c i, j
The remaining spring coefficients are zero.
The wave loads are given by:
In the following figures, an example has
been given of the hydrodynamic potential
mass and damping and the wave loads for
roll in the frequency domain.
Fwi = Fwi dxb
'
with : Fwi ' = m1,1' &&w1 * + n1,1' &w1 * + FK1'
Fw2 = Fw2 dxb
'
'
'
*
'
*
'
with : Fw2 = m2, 2 &&w 2 + n2, 2 & w2 + FK 2
Fw3 = Fw3 ' dxb
Figure 3A Potential Mass of Roll
with : Fw3 = m3, 3 &&w3 + n3, 3 & w3 + FK 3
'
'
'
'
Fw4 = Fw4 ' dxb
L
with : Fw4 ' = m4, 2 ' &&w 2 * + n4, 2 ' & w2 * + FK 4 '
+ Fw2 OG
'
Fw5 = Fw5 ' dxb
Figure 3B Potential Damping of Roll
with : Fw5 ' = Fw1 ' BG Fw3 ' x b
Fw6 = Fw6 ' dxb
L
with : Fw6 ' = Fw2 ' x b
Figure Wave Moment of Roll
These formulations of the hydrodynamic
exciting and reaction forces and moments
can only be used in the frequency domain,
since a i, j and bi, j both depend on the
frequency of motion only and the
exciting wave loads have a linear relation
with the wave amplitude. In irregular
waves the response of the body can be
determined by using the superposition
principle, so using linear response
amplitude operators between motion and
wave amplitudes.
Time Domain Calculations
As a result of the formulation in the
frequency domain, any system influencing
the behaviour of the floating body should
have a linear relation with the
displacement, the velocity and the
acceleration of the body. However, in a lot
of cases there are several complications
which perish this linear assumption, for
instance the non linear viscous damping,
forces and moments due to currents, wind,
anchoring, etc.
To include these nonlinear effects in the
vessel behaviour, it is necessary to
formulate the equations of motion in the
time domain, which relates instantaneous
values of forces, moments and motions.
For the description of the hydromechanic
reaction forces and moments, due to time
varying ship motions, use has been made
of the classic formulation given by
Cummins [1] with simple frequency
domain solutions of Ogilvie [14].
4.1
In here,
potential.
is a normalised velocity
The impulsive displacement x during the
period (t 0 , t 0 + t ) does not influence the
motions of the fluid during this period
only, but also further on in time.
This holds that the motions during the
period (t 0 , t 0 + t ) are influenced also by
the motions before this period.
When the object performs an arbitrarily in
time varying motion, this motion can be
considered as a succession of small
impulsive displacements.
Then the resulting total velocity potential
(t ) during the period (t n , t n + t )
becomes:
Cummins Equations
The floating object is considered to be a
linear system, with translational and
rotational velocities as input and reaction
forces and moments of the surrounding
water as output.
The object is supposed to be at rest at time
t = t 0 . Then during a short time t an
impulsive displacement x , with a
constant velocity V , is given to the object.
So:
x = V t
(t ) = {V j, n j +
6
j =1
+ j (t n k , t n k + t ) V j, k t
k =1
In here:
During this impulsive displacement, the
water particles will start to move. When
assuming that the fluid is rotationfree, a
velocity potential , linear proportional to
V , can be defined:
n
tn
t n k
V j, n
number of time steps
= t 0 + n t
= t 0 + (n k ) t
j th velocity component during
= V for: t 0 < t < t 0 + t
V j, k
period (t n , t n + t )
j th velocity component during
period (t n k , t n k + t )
in which is the normalised velocity
potential.
After this impulsive displacement x , the
water particles are still moving. Because
the system is assumed to be linear, the
motions of the fluid, described by the
velocity potential , are proportional to
the impulsive displacement x .
So:
= x
for: t > t 0 + t
normalised velocity potential
caused by a displacement in
direction j during period
(t n , t n + t )
normalised velocity potential
caused by a displacement in
direction j during period
(t n k , t n k + t )
Letting t go to zero, yields:
Fi =
t
= Ai, j &x& j (t ) + Bi, j (t ) x& j ( ) d
j =1
for i = 1, 2, 6
6
(t ) =
t
6
= x& j (t ) j + j ( t ) x& j ( ) d
j =1
where x& j (t ) is the j th
ponent at time t .
Together with the linear restoring spring
terms Ci, j xi, j and the linear external
velocity com
loads X i (t ) , Newtons second law of
dynamics provides the linear equations of
motion in the time domain:
The pressure in the fluid follows from the
linearised equation of Bernoulli:
{(M
6
p =
t
j =1
An integration of these pressures over the
wetted surface S of the floating object
provides
the
expression
for
the
hydrodynamic
reaction
forces
and
moments Fi .
With n i as the generalised directional
cosine, Fi becomes:
i, j
(t ) x& j ( ) d + C i , j x j (t )} = X i (t )
in which:
&x& j (t ) translational or rotational
acceleration in direction at time t
x& j (t ) translational or rotational velocity
in direction j at time t
x j (t ) translational or rotational
displacement in direction at time t
M i, j solid mass or inertia coefficient
6
= &x& j (t ) j ni dS +
j =1
S
for i = 1, 2, 6
+ Ai , j ) &x& j (t ) +
Fi = p ni dS
i, j
j ( t )
x& j ( ) d
dS
i
Ai, j
hydrodynamic mass coefficient
Bi, j
retardation function
Ci , j
spring coefficient
X i (t ) external load in direction i
at time t
When defining:
Ai, j = j ni dS
When replacing in the damping part by
t and changing the integration
boundaries, this part can be written in a
more convenient form:
Bi, j (t ) =
S
j (t )
t
ni dS
{(M
6
the hydrodynamic forces and moments
become:
j =1
i, j
+ Ai , j ) &x& j (t ) +
+ B i , j ( ) x& j (t ) d + C i , j x j (t )} = X i (t )
0
for i = 1, 2, 6
Referring to the classic work on this
subject by Cummins [1], these six
equations of motion are called here the
"Cummins Equations".
4.2
This results into:
2 {M i, j + Ai , j
Bi, j ( ) sin ( ) d cos(t )
0
Bi, j ( ) cos( ) d sin (t )
0
+ {Ci, j } cos(t )
Hydromechanic Coefficients
The linear restoring spring coefficients
C3, 3 , C3, 5 , C4, 4 , C5, 3 and C5, 5 can be
determined easily from the under water
geometry and the centre of gravity of the
floating object. Generally, the other Ci , j values are zero.
= X i (t )
for i = 1, 2, ... 6
In the classic frequency domain
description these equations of motion are
presented by:
To determine Ai, j and Bi, j , the velocity
potentials j and j have to be found,
which is very complex.
A much easier method to determine Ai, j
2 {M i, j + ai , j ( )} cos(t )
{bi, j ( )} sin (t )
+ {c i, j } cos(t )
and Bi, j can be obtained by making use of
the hydrodynamic mass and damping data
found with existing 2D or 3D potential
theory based computer programs in the
frequency domain. Relative simple
relations can be found between Ai, j , Bi, j
and the calculated data of the
hydrodynamic mass and damping in the
frequency domain.
= X i (t )
for i = 1, 2, ... 6
In here:
a i, j ( )
frequency depending
hydrodynamic mass
coefficient
frequency depending
hydrodynamic damping
coefficient
restoring spring term
coefficient
bi, j ( )
For this, the floating object is supposed to
carry out a harmonic oscillation x j with
amplitude 1.0 in the direction j :
c i, j
x j = 1 cos (t )
When comparing these time domain and
frequency domain equations  both with
linear terms as published by Ogilvie [14] it is found:
A substitution in the Cummins Equations
provides:
2 (M i, j + Ai , j ) cos (t )
a i, j ( ) = Ai, j
Bi, j ( ) sin (t ) d
0
+ C i, j cos (t )
1
Bi, j ( ) sin ( ) d
0
bi, j ( ) = Bi, j ( ) cos( ) d
= X i (t )
for i = 1, 2, ... 6
ci , j = Ci, j
10
After a Fourier retransformation, the
damping term provides the retardation
function:
frequency. This holds that  when
determining
Bi, j
 the numerical
calculations can be carried out in a limited
frequency range 0 only:
2
Bi, j ( ) = bi, j ( ) cos( ) d
0
2
Bi, j ( ) = bi, j ( ) cos( ) d
0
Then the mass term follows from:
Ai, j
So, a truncation error Bi, j ( ) will be
introduced:
1
= ai, j ( ) + Bi, j ( ) sin ( ) d
0
Bi, j ( ) =
This mass expression is valid for any value
of , so also for = , which provides:
For the uncoupled damping coefficients so when i = j  this truncation error can
be estimated easily.
The relation between the damping
coefficient bi, j ( ) and the amplitude ratio
of the radiated waves and the oscillatory
motion i ,i ( ) is given by:
Ai, j = ai, j ( = )
4.3
Addition of NonLinearities
So far, these equations of motion are
linear. But nonlinear contributions can be
added now to X i (t ) easily.
For instance, nonlinear viscous roll
damping contributions can be added to X 4
by:
( 2)
X 4 = b4, 4a & &
g2
bi,i ( ) =
i, i 2 ( )
3
From this an approximation can be found
for the tail of the damping curve:
Also it is possible to include nonlinear
spring terms, by considering the stability
moment as an external load and shifting its
contribution to the right hand side of the
equation of motion, for instance:
bi,i ( ) =
i ,i
3
The value of i, i follows from the
calculated damping value at the highest
frequency used, = . This holds that a
constant amplitude ratio i ,i ( ) is
supposed here for > .
C4, 4 = 0
X 4 = g GN ( ) sin
in which GN ( ) is the transverse metacentric height at arbitrarily heeling angles.
4.4
2
bi , j ( ) cos ( ) d
Then the truncation error becomes:
i, i 2 cos( ) sin ( )
Bi, i ( ) =
( )
Some Numerical Recipes
( 1)n ( )2n
2n (2n )!
n =1
+ + ln ( ) +
Many computer programs fail when
calculating bi, j ( ) at too high a
11
cos ( ) at this interval can be taken into
account.
in which = 0.577215... (Euler constant)
Studies carried out in the past have showed
that in case of a sufficient high value of
the contribution of Bi,i into Bi,i is often
small. The potential damping calculations
were based on numerical routines as used
in computer program SEAWAY [8,9]. In
this program special attention has been
paid to the potential calculations at very
high frequencies. For normal merchant
ships are 5 radians per second, which can
be reached by the routines in SEAWAY, a
fairly good value for the maximum
frequency .
Thus, the retardation function is
approximated by the numerical solution of
the integral:
Bi, j ( ) =
Then the numerical integration, at constant
frequency intervals , is given by:
2
2
N
b
n [cos ( n ) cos ( n1 )]
n =1
Bi, j ( ) =
2
b N sin N
in which:
n = n n1 =
bn = bn bn1
2
b ( ) cos ( ) d
0 i, j
For = 0 , the value of the retardation
function can be derived simply from the
integral of the damping:
The damping curve has to be calculated at
N constant frequency intervals , so:
Bi, j ( = 0) =
N = .
2
b ( ) d
0 i, j
Because the potential damping is zero for
= 0 , the expression for the damping
term leads for = 0 , so cos ( ) = 1 , into
the following requirement for the
retardation functions:
When calculating here the retardation
functions it assumed that at each frequency
interval the damping curve is linearly
increasing or decreasing; see Figure 4.
i, j
( ) d = 0
In the equations of motion, the retardation
function multiplied with the velocity
should be integrated over an infinite time:
Figure 4 Integration of Damping Curve
i, j
( ) x& j ( t ) d
Now the contribution of this interval into
Bi, j can be calculated analytically. This
holds that caused by a large or a large
 the influence of a strongly fluctuating
However, after a certain time = i, j , the
fluctuating values of the integral have
reached already a very small value.
12
i , j
A useful limit value for the corresponding
integration time can be found with:
i, j
( ) sin ( ) d =
i, j = 2
n =1
N
B
n [sin ( n ) sin ( (n 1) )]
n =1
1
+
Bi , j ( = 0) Bi , j ( = N ) cos( N )
Bi, j ( 0)
with: 0.010
So, the Cummins Equations, which are
still linear here, are given by:
{(M
6
j =1
i, j
+ Ai , j ) &x& j (t ) +
in which:
Bn = Bi , j (n) Bi, j ( n 1)
i , j
Bi, j ( ) x& j (t ) d + C i, j x j (t )} = X i (t )
0
Similar to this, the numerical solution of
the frequency depending damping is:
for i = 1, 2, 6
The numerical integration can be carried
out with the trapezoid rule or with
Simpsons rule. Because of a relatively
small time step is required to solve the
equations of motion numerically, generally
the trapezoid rule is sufficient accurate.
The hydrodynamic
follows from:
mass
i, j
bi, j ( ) =
Ai, j
i, j
i, j
( ) cos( ) d =
n [cos ( n ) cos( (n 1) )]
n =1
1
+ Bi, j ( = N ) sin ( N )
coefficient
Equations of Motion
Integrating the velocities of the ships
centre of gravity can derive the path of the
ship in the ( x0 , y0 , z 0 ) system of axes:
When this mass coefficient is not available
for an infinite frequency, it can be
calculated from a mass coefficient at a
certain frequency = and the
retardation function:
i , j
Ai, j = ai, j ( = )
1
= ai, j ( ) +
x& 0 = x& cos y& sin
y& 0 = x& sin + y& cos
( ) sin ( ) d
z& 0 = z&
&0 = &
& = &
With:
& 0 = &
i, j = N
The Euler equations of motion are written
in the ( x, y, z ) system of axes:
the numerical solution of this integral can
be found in an similar way as for the
retardation functions:
13
(
(
(
&& (I
)
)
)
M &x& y& & + z& & = X h + X w + X ext
M &y& + x& & z& & = Yh + Yw + Yext
M &z& x& & + y& & = Z + Z + Z
I xx
yy
Roll motion:
I xx && (I yy I zz ) & & +
A4, 2 &y& + B4, 2 y& + C 4, 2 y +
A4, 4 && + B4, 4 & + C4, 4 +
ext
I zz ) & & = K h + K w + K ext
A4, 6 && + B4, 6 & + C4, 6 = K w + K ext
I yy && ( I zz I xx ) & & = M h + M w + M ext
I zz && (I xx I yy ) & & = N h + N w + N ext
Pitch motion:
I yy && ( I zz I xx ) & & +
with in the right hand sides:
A5,1 &x& + B5,1 x& + C5,1 x +
A5,3 &z& + B5, 3 z& + C5,3 z +
A5,5 && + B5,5 & + C5,5 = M w + M ext
subscript h linear hydromechanic loads
subscript w linear wave loads
subscript ext nonlinear hydromechanic
loads and (non)linear
external loads, caused by
wind, currents, anchor
lines, cutter, etc.
Yaw motion:
I zz && (I zz I xx ) & & +
A6, 2 &y& + B6, 2 y& + C6, 2 y +
A && + B & + C +
6, 4
With the hydromechanic loads as defined
before, the equations of motion are defined
as given below.
A1, 3 &z& + B1, 3 z& + C1, 3 z +
A1, 5 && + B1, 5 & + C1, 5 = X w + X ext
Surge motion:
(M + A1,1 ) x&& + A1,5 &&
=
Sway motion:
M &y& + M x& & z& & +
A2, 2 &y& + B2, 2 y& + C 2, 2 y +
A && + B & + C +
2, 4
2, 4
X w + X ext
B1,1 x& B1, 5 &
+ M + y& & z& &
2, 4
A2, 6 && + B2,6 & + C 2,6 = Yw + Yext
Sway motion:
(M + A2,2 ) y&& + A2,4 && + A2,6 &&
Heave motion:
M &z& + M x& & + y& & +
A3,1 &x& + B3,1 x& + C3,1 x +
6, 4
Some of the coefficients in these six
equations of motion are zero. After
omitting these coefficients and ordering
the terms, the equations for the
accelerations are as follows.
Surge motion:
M &x& + M y& & + z& & +
A1,1 &x& + B1,1 x& + C1,1 x +
6, 4
A6, 6 && + B6, 6 & + C6, 6 = N w + N ext
A3, 3 &z& + B3,3 z& + C3, 3 z +
A3, 5 && + B3, 5 & + C3, 5 = Z w + Z ext
B2 , 2
Yw + Yext
y& B & B
2, 4
2, 6
+ M x& & + z& &
14
&
Heave motion:
(M + A3,3 ) &z& + A3,5 &&
Sway and Yaw
The nonlinear viscous sway and yaw
damping term in the equations of motion
for sway and yaw can be approximated by:
=
Z w + Z ext
B3, 3 z& C3,3 z B3, 5 & C3, 5
+ M + x& & y& &
Viscous Damping
b2, 2v
Roll motion:
(I xx + A4,4 ) && + A4,2 &y& + A4,6 &&
( 2)
y& y& and b6, 6v & &
with:
=
K w + K ext
B4, 2 y& B4, 4 & B4, 6 & C4, 4
+ (I I ) & &
yy
(2 )
1
L d CD
2
1
b6, 6v ( 2) = L3 d C D
6
C D 1.50
b2, 2v ( 2) =
zz
Pitch motion:
(I yy + A5,5 ) && + A5,1 x&& + A5,3 &z&
Roll
The total nonlinear roll damping term in
the equation of motion for roll can be
expressed as:
=
M w + M ext
(b
B5,1 x& B5, 3 z& C5, 3 z B5, 5 & C5, 5
+ ( I zz I xx ) & &
4, 4
+ b4 , 4 a
(1 )
) & + b
( 2)
4, 4a
& &
with:
b4 , 4
Yaw motion:
(I zz + A6,6 ) && + A6,2 &y& + A6,4 &&
B6 , 2
=
N w + N ext
y& B & B
&
6, 4
6 , 6
+ (I xx I yy ) & &
b4, 4a
(1 )
b4, 4a
( 2)
linear potential roll damping
coefficient
linear(ised) additional roll damping
coefficient
nonlinear additional roll damping
coefficient
The linear potential rolldamping coefficient b4, 4 can be determined as described
before.
For time domain calculations a linear as
well as a nonlinear rolldamping
coefficient can be used. However, for
frequency
domain
calculations
an
equivalent linear rolldamping coefficient
has to be estimated. This linearised rolldamping coefficient can be found by
requiring that an equivalent linear damping
dissipate an equal amount of energy as the
nonlinear damping, so:
With known coefficients and right hand
sides of these equations, the six
accelerations can be determined by a
numerical method as  for instance  the
wellknown RungeKutta method.
Because of sometimes an extreme high
stiffness of the cutter dredge system, Delft
Hydraulics has adapted the numerical
solution method of these equations in
DREDMO for this; see [13].
15
b4, 4a
(1)
( 2)
& & dt = b4, 4a & & & dt
in which 2 =
is the quotient
I xx + a 4, 4
between damping and moment of inertia
c 4, 4
and 0 2 =
is the notdamped
I xx + a 4, 4
Then the equivalent linear additional roll(1 )
damping coefficient b4, 4a becomes:
b4 , 4 a
(1)
natural roll frequency squared.
8
( 2)
a b4 , 4 a
3
When defining a nondimensional roll
damping coefficient by:
The additional roll damping coefficients
(1 )
( 2)
b4, 4a and b4, 4a
are mainly caused by
viscous effects. Until now it is not possible
to determine these additional coefficients
in a pure theoretical way. They have to be
estimated by free rolling model
experiments or by a semiempirical
method, based on theory and a large
number of model experiments with
systematic varied ship forms. The
linear(ised) and the nonlinear equations of
pure roll motions, used to analyse free
rolling model experiments, are presented
here. Also, for zero forward ship speed,
the algorithms of the empirical method of
Ikeda, Himeno and Tanaka [3] are given.
6.1
xx
2
&& + 2 0 & + 0 = 0
Then, the logarithmic decrement of roll is:
T = 0 T
(t )
= ln
( t + T )
Experimental Roll Damping
Because of the relation = 0 2
2
0 T T = 2
in which:
potential mass coefficient
b4 , 4
potential damping coefficient
b4 , 4 a
linear(ised) additional damping
coefficient
restoring term coefficient
c 4, 4
and the assumption that 2 << 0 , it can
be written 0 .
This leads to:
+ a4, 4 ) && + b4, 4 + b4, 4a & + c 4, 4 = 0
a 4, 4
the equation of motion for roll can be
rewritten as:
In case of pure free rolling in still water,
the linear equation of the roll motion about
the centre of gravity G is given by:
(I
b4 , 4 + b4 , 4 a
So, the nondimensional total roll damping
is given by:
(t )
1
ln
(
t
+
T
)
= b4, 4 + b4, 4a
This equation can be rewritten as:
2
&& + 2 & + 0 = 0
16
0
2 c 4, 4
The successively found values for ,
plotted on base of the average roll
amplitude, will often have a nonlinear
behaviour as illustrated in Figure 5.
For behaviour like this, it will be found:
The nonpotential part of the total rolldamping coefficient follows from the
average value of by:
b4, 4a =
2 c 4, 4
0
b4, 4
= 1 + 2 a
When data on freerolling experiments
with a model in still water are available,
these values can easily been found.
Often the results of these free rolling tests
are presented by:
a
as function of a ,
a
Figure 5 Free Rolling Data
with a as the absolute value of the
average of two successive positive or
negative maximum roll angles:
a =
This holds that during frequency domain
calculations, the damping term is
depending on the solution for the roll
amplitude.
For rectangular barges ( LxBxd ) with the
centre of gravity in the water line, it is
found by Journe [7]:
a (i ) + a (i + 1)
2
and a as the absolute value of the
difference of two successive positive or
negative maximum roll angles:
B
1 0.0013
d
2 0.50
a = a (i ) a (i + 1)
Then the total rolldamping term becomes:
Then the total nondimensional natural
frequency becomes:
2 + a
a
1
=
ln
2
2 a
2 c 4, 4 &
2 c 4, 4 &
= ( 1 + 2 a )
0
0
The linear additional rolldamping coefficient becomes:
b4, 4a (1) = 1
These experiments deliver no information
on the relation with the frequency of
oscillation. So, it has to be decided to keep
the additional coefficient b4, 4a or the total
2 c 4, 4
0
b4, 4
But for the nonlinear additional rolldamping coefficient, a quasiquadratic
damping coefficient is found:
coefficient b4, 4 + b4, 4a constant.
17
b4 , 4 a
= 2
( 2)
2 c 4, 4 a
0
&
freedom can be simulated in the time
domain. An analyse of this simulated roll
motion, as being a linear pure roll motion
with one degree of freedom, delivers new
(1 )
( 2)
values for b4, 4a
and b4, 4a . This
procedure has to be repeated until a
suitable convergence has been reached. An
inclusion of the natural frequency 0 in
this iterative procedure provides also a
reliable value for the estimated solid mass
moment of inertia coefficient I xx .
However, this procedure is not included in
DREDMO yet.
Because this rolldamping "coefficient"
includes &( , t ) in the denominator, it
varies strongly with time.
An equivalent nonlinear damping term
can be found by requiring that the
equivalent quadratic damping term will
dissipate an equal amount of energy as the
quasiquadratic damping term, so:
T
b4, 4a
( 2)
& & & dt =
6.2
= 2
2 c 4, 4
0
a & & dt
Because of the additional part of the roll
damping is significantly influenced by the
viscosity of the fluid, it is not possible to
calculate the total roll damping in a pure
theoretical way. Besides this, experiments
showed also a nonlinear (about quadratic)
behaviour of the additional parts of the roll
damping.
As mentioned before, the total nonlinear
roll damping term in the lefthand side of
the equation of motion for roll can be
expressed as:
Then the equivalent quadratic additional
( 2)
rolldamping coefficient b4, 4a becomes:
b44a
(2 )
= 2
3 2 c 4, 4
2
8
0
With this, the rolldamping term based on
experimentally determined values, as
given in Figure 5, becomes:
(b
4, 4
+ b44a
(1)
Empirical Roll Damping
) & + b
( 2)
44a
(b
& & =
+ b44a
(1)
) & + b
( 2)
44 a
& &
For the estimation of the additional parts
of the roll damping, use has been made of
work published by Ikeda, Himeno and
Tanaka [3]. Their empirical method is
called here the Ikeda Method.
At zero forward speed, this Ikeda method
estimates the following components of the
additional rolldamping coefficient of a
ship:
2 c 4, 4 &
3 2 c4, 4 & &
= 1
+2
0
8
02
So far, pure roll motions with one degree
of freedom are considered in the equations
of motion. Coupling effects between the
roll motion and the other motions are not
taken into account. This can be done in an
iterative way.
b4, 4a (1) = 0
Experimental or empirical values of 1
and 2 provide starting values for b4, 4a
4, 4
b4, 4a ( 2) = b4, 4 f ( 2) + b4, 4e ( 2) + b4, 4 k (2 )
(1 )
( 2)
and b4, 4a . With these coefficients, a freerolling experiment with all degrees of
with:
18
b4 , 4 f
( 2)
nonlinear friction damping
b4, 4e
( 2)
nonlinear eddy damping
b4, 4k
( 2)
nonlinear bilge keel damping
OG
Bs
Ds
s
H0
a1
a3
Ms
lever of the moment
local radius of the bilge circle
fk
For numerical reasons two restrictions
have to be made during the sectional
calculations:
 if s > 0.999 then s = 0.999

In the description of the Ikeda method, the
nomenclature of Ikeda is maintained here
as far as possible:
Rn
L
B
D
CB
Sf
lm
rb
hk
Lk
rk
Ikeda, Himeno and Tanaka claim fairly
good agreements between their prediction
method and experimental results.
They conclude that the method can be used
safely for ordinary ship forms. But for
unusual ship forms, very full ship forms
and ships with a large breadth to draught
ratio the method should not be always
sufficiently accurate.
Even a few cross sections with a large
breadth to draught ratio can result in an
extremely large eddymaking component
of the roll damping. So, always judge the
components of this damping.
Cp
average distance between roll axis
and hull surface
height of the bilge keels
length of the bilge keels
distance between roll axis and bilge
keel
correction for increase of flow
velocity at the bilge
pressure coefficient
rf
if OG < Ds s then OG = Ds s
6.2.1
density of water
kinematic viscosity of water
acceleration of gravity
circular roll frequency
roll amplitude
Reynolds number
length of the ship
breadth of the ship
average draught of the ship
block coefficient
hull surface area
Frictional Damping, b4, 4 f ( 2)
Kato deduced semiempirical formulas for
the frictional rolldamping from experimental results of circular cylinders, wholly
immersed in the fluid.
An effective Reynolds number for the roll
motion was defined by:
Rn =
0.512 (r f a )2
In here, for ship forms the average
distance between the roll axis and the hull
surface r f can be approximated by:
distance of centre of gravity above
still water level
sectional breadth on the water line
sectional draught
sectional area coefficient
sectional half breadth to draught
ratio
sectional Lewis coefficient
sectional Lewis coefficient
sectional Lewis scale factor
rf =
(0.887 + 0.145 C B )
Sf
L
+ 2.0 OG
with a wetted hull surface area
approximated by:
S f = L (1.70 D + C B B )
19
Sf ,
When eliminating the temperature of
water, the kinematic viscosity can be
expressed in the density of water with the
following relation in the kgms system:
 fresh water:
nonlinear rolldamping coefficient does
not depend on the period parameter but on
the hull form only.
When using a simple form for the pressure
distribution on the hull surface it appears
that the pressure coefficient C p is a
function of the ratio of the maximum
relative velocity U max and the mean
velocity U mean on the hull surface:
10 6 = 1.442 + 0.3924 ( 1000)
+ 0.07424 ( 1000)
sea water:
m2s
10 6 = 1.063 + 0.1039 ( 1000 )
+ 0.02602 ( 1000 )
m s
Kato expressed the skin friction coefficient
as:
C f = 1.328 Rn
0 .500
+ 0.014 Rn
The relation between C p and was
obtained from experimental roll damping
data of twodimensional models.
These experimental results are fitted by:
0. 114
C p = 0.435 e 2.0 e 0.187 + 1.50
The first part in this expression represents
the laminar flow case. The second part has
been ignored by Ikeda, but has been
included here.
The value of around a crosssection is
approximated by the potential flow theory
for a rotating Lewisform cylinder in an
infinite fluid.
An estimation of the sectional maximum
distance between the roll axis and the hull
surface, rmax , has to be made.
Values of rmax ( ) have to be calculated
for:
= 1 = 0.0
Using this, the nonlinear rolldamping
coefficient due to skin friction at zero
forward speed is expressed as:
b4 , 4 f =
1
3
rf S f C f
2
Ikeda confirmed the use of this formula for
the threedimensional turbulent boundary
layer over the hull of an oscillating
ellipsoid in roll motion.
6.2.2
EddyMaking Damping, b4, 4e
U max
U mean
and:
a (1 + a3 )
= 2 = 0.5 arccos 1
4 a3
( 2)
The values of rmax ( ) follow from:
At zero forward speed the eddy making
roll damping for the naked hull is mainly
caused by vortices, generated by a twodimensional separation. From a number of
experiments
with
twodimensional
cylinders it was found that for a naked hull
this component of the roll moment is
proportional to the roll velocity squared
and the roll amplitude. This means that the
rmax ( ) =
Ms
{(1 + a1 ) sin ( ) a 3 sin (3 )}2 +
{(1 a1 ) cos( ) + a 3 cos(3 )}2
With these two results, rmax and follow
from the conditions:
20
 if rmax ( 1 ) > rmax ( 2 ) then:
rmax = rmax ( 1 ) and = 1
 if rmax ( 1 ) < rmax ( 2 ) then:
rmax = rmax ( 2 ) and = 2
1
BE = D s 4
2
'
f R
1 1 b
Ds
The relative velocity ratio on a crosssection is obtained by:
f3
OG
2 Ds H 0 s +
Ds
2 M s
rmax +
a 2 + b2
H
r
max
Ds
OG f 1 rb
1 +
+
D
D
s
f R
+ f 2 H 0 1 b
Ds
C p
with:
f 1 = 0.5 {1 + tanh (20 s 14.0 )}
f 2 = 0.5 {1 cos ( s )}
1.5 1 e 55 s sin 2 ( s )
with:
H = 1 + a12 + 9 a3 2
The term between square brackets
f1 rb
D is included in the program
listing in the paper of Ikeda et. al. [3], but
it does not appear in the formulas given in
the paper. After contacting Ikeda, this term
has been omitted in SEAWAY and
SEAWAYD.
+ 2 a1 (1 3 a3 ) cos (2 )
6 a 3 cos(4 )
a = 2 a 3 cos(5 )
+ a1 (1 a 3 ) cos(3 )
+ (6 3 a1 ) a3 2 + a1 2 3 a1 a3
+ a12 cos ( )
The approximation of the local radius of
the bilge circle Rb is:
b = 2 a 3 sin (5 )
+ a1 (1 a 3 ) sin (3 )
+ (6 + 3 a1 ) a3 2 + a12 + 3 a1 a 3
+ a1 sin ( )
2
Rb = 2 D s
for H 0 > 1 and Rb > Ds :
Rb = D s
for H 0 < 1 and Rb < H 0 Ds :
Rb = Bs / 2
With this a nonlinear sectional eddy
making damping coefficient for zero
forward speed follows from:
H 0 ( s 1)
4
f 3 = 1 + 4 e 1. 6510 (1 s )
5
for Rb < Ds and Rb < Bs / 2 :
For threedimensional ship forms, the zero
forward speed eddymaking damping
coefficient is found by integration over the
ship length:
21
b4, 4e
( 2)
= BE dxb
Ikeda carried out experiments to measure
the pressure on the hull surface created by
bilge keels. He found that the coefficient
+
C p of the pressure on the frontface of
the bilge keel does not depending on the
period parameter, while the coefficient
C p of the pressure on the backface of
the bilge keel and the length of the
negative pressure region depend on the
period parameter.
'
6.2.3
Bilge Keel Damping, b4, 4k
( 2)
The bilge keel component of the nonlinear rolldamping coefficient is divided
into two components:
 a component BN due to the normal
force of the bilge keels
 a component BS due to the pressure an
the hull surface, created by the bilge
keels.
The normal force component BN of the
bilge keel damping can be deduced from
experimental results of oscillating flat
plates. The drag coefficient C D depends
on the period parameter or the KeuleganCarpenter number. Ikeda measured this
nonlinear drag also by carrying out free
rolling experiments with an ellipsoid with
and without bilge keels.
This results in a nonlinear sectional
damping coefficient:
Ikeda defines an equivalent length of a
constant negative pressure region S 0 over
the height of the bilge keels, which is fitted
to the following empirical formula:
S 0 = 0.30 f k rk a + 1.95 hk
The pressure coefficient on the frontface
of the bilge keel is given by:
+
C p = 1.20
The pressure coefficient on the backface
of the bilge keel is given by:
BN = rk hk f k C D
'
C p = 22.5
with:
hk
1.20
rk f k a
The sectional pressure moment is given
by:
hk
C D = 22.5
+ 2.40
rk a f k
f k = 1.0 + 0.3 e 160(1. 0 s )
hk
l m dh = Ds A C p + B C p
2
The local distance between the roll axis
and the bilge keel, rk , will be determined
further on.
with:
A = (m3 + m4 ) m8 m7 2
Assuming a pressure distribution on the
hull caused by the bilge keels, a nonlinear
sectional rolldamping coefficient can be
defined:
B=
m4 3
3 (H 0 0.215 m1 )
(1 m1 )2 (2 m3 m2 )
+
6 (1 0.215 m1 )
+ m1 (m3 m5 + m4 m6 )
k
1 2
'
2
BS = rk f k C p l m dh
2
0
22
The approximation of the local distance
between the roll axis and the bilge keel,
rk , is given as:
while:
m1 =
m2 =
Rb
Ds
rk = Ds
OG
Ds
m3 = 1.0 m1 m2
0.414 H 0 + 0.0651 m1 2
(0.382 H 0 + 0.0106) m1
m5 =
( H 0 0.215 m1 ) (1 0.215 m1 )
b4 , 4 k
( H 0 0.215 m1 ) (1 0.215 m1 )
( 2)
(B
'
N
+ BS dx b
'
Comparative Simulations
As far as ship motions are concerned,
SEAWAYT is an equivalent of
DREDMO. To check the calculation
routines for the time domain, as used in the
preprocessing program SEAWAYD and
in the time domain program SEAWAYT,
comparisons have been made with the
results of the frequency domain program
SEAWAY [8] for a number of ship types.
An example of the results of these
validations is given here for the S175
containership design in deep water, as has
been used in the Manual of SEAWAY too,
with principal dimensions as given below.
For S 0 > 0.25 Rb :
S0
0.25 m1
Ds
m8 = m7 + 0.414 m1
For S 0 < 0.25 Rb :
m 7 = 0 .0
S
m 8 = m 7 + 0.414 m1 1 cos 0
Rb
R
1.0 + OG 0.293 b
Ds
Ds
Lk
0.414 H 0 + 0.0651 m1 2
(0.382 + 0.0106 H 0 ) m1
m7 =
The total bilge keel damping coefficient
can be obtained now by integrating the
sum of the sectional roll damping
'
'
coefficients B N and BS over the length
of the bilge keels:
m4 = H 0 m1
m6 =
R
H 0 0.293 b
Ds
Length between perp., L pp
Breadth, B
Amidships draught, d m
Trim by stern, t
Block coefficient, C B
The approximation of the local radius of
the bilge circle, Rb , is given before.
175.00 m
25.40 m
9.50 m
0.00 m
0.57
Metacentric height, GM
0.98 m
Longitudinal CoB , LCoB / L pp 1.42 %
23
Radius of inertia, k xx / L pp
0.33
Radius of inertia, k yy / L pp
0.24
Radius of inertia, k zz / L pp
0.24
Height of bilge keels, h k
Length of bilge keels, Lk
0.45 m
43.75 m
amplitude of 1.0 meter. Extra attention has
been paid here to the roll motions. In both
calculations, the viscous roll damping has
been estimated with the Ikeda method. In
the frequency domain, the results are
linearised for this wave amplitude of 1.0
meter. Because of the relatively small rolldamping at zero forward speed, in the
natural frequency region the initial
conditions of the wave loads will occur
unstable roll motions in the time domain.
Then, a long simulation time is required to
obtain stable motions.
The body plan of this container ship design
is given in the Figure 6.
The agreements between the amplitudes
and the phase lags of the six basic motions,
calculated both in the frequency domain
and in the time domain, are remarkably
good. Some comparative results of the six
motion amplitudes of the S175
containership design are given in Table I.
Figure 6 Body Plan S175 Ship
This S175 containership design had been
subject of several computer and
experimental studies, coordinated by the
Shipbuilding Research Association of
Japan and the Seakeeping Committee of
the International Towing Tank Conference
[4,5]. Results of these studies have been
used continuously for validating program
SEAWAY after each modification during
its development.
For this ship, the motions have been
calculated in the frequency domain and in
the time domain at zero forward ship
speed.
Additional data, used during the time
domain simulations, are:
 maximum frequency of damping
curves: = 5.00 rad/s
 frequency interval: = 0.05 rad/s
 maximum time in retardation
functions: i, j = 50.00 s
 time interval: t = 0.25 s
The potential coefficients and the
frequency characteristics of the wave loads
at zero forward speed, calculated by
SEAWAYD, have been input in
SEAWAYT and the calculations have
been carried out for a regular wave
Table I Comparison of Computations
for S175 Ship
24
linear(ised) systems, it may be concluded
that the computer codes SEAWAYD and
SEAWAYT have an equal accuracy as
the frequency domain predictions of these
linear(ised) motions by the parent code
SEAWAY.
Comparisons for a rectangular barge (100
x 20 x 4 meter), with hoppers (25 x 14
meter) fore and aft, are given in Table II
for the natural roll frequency region. The
experimental roll damping data were input
here.
This conclusion holds that the preprocessing program SEAWAYD delivers
reliable results. It is advised however to
carry out a similar validation study with
the computer codes SEAWAYD and
DREDMO too.
[1] W.E. Cummins
The Impulse Response Function and Ship
Motions, Symposium on Ship Theory,
Institt fr Schiffbau der Universitt
Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, January
1962, Schiffstechnik, 9, 101109, 1962.
Table II Comparison of Computations
for a Barge with Hoppers
Based on these and a lot of other
comparisons between the time domain and
the frequency domain approaches for
linear systems, it may be concluded that
SEAWAYD + SEAWAYT has an equal
accuracy as the frequency domain
predictions of these linear motions by the
parent program SEAWAY.
This conclusion holds that the preprocessing program SEAWAYD provides
reliable results.
References
[2] W. Frank
Oscillation of Cylinders in or below the
Free Surface of a Fluid, Naval Ship
Research and Development Center,
Washington, U.S.A., Report 2375, 1967.
[3] Y. Ikeda, Y. Himeno and N. Tanaka
A Prediction Method for Ship Rolling,
Department of Naval Architecture,
University of Osaka Prefecture, Japan,
Report 00405, 1978.
Conclusions and Remarks
This new release of SEAWAYD includes
the use of local twinhull crosssections,
the NParameter CloseFit Conformal
Mapping Method and (non)linear viscous
roll damping coefficients. Special attention
has been paid to longitudinal jumps in the
cross sections and fully submerged crosssections. Also, improved definitions of the
hydrodynamic potential masses at an
infinite frequency and the wave loads have
been added.
[4] I.T.T.C.
Proceedings of the 15th International
Towing Tank Conference, The Hague, the
Netherlands, 1978.
[5] I.T.T.C.
Proceedings of the 18th International
Towing Tank Conference, Kobe, Japan,
1987.
[6] J.M.J. Journe
SEAWAYDelft, User Manual of Release
3.00, Delft University of Technology,
Shiphydromechanics Laboratory, Delft,
Based on a lot of comparisons, made
between the time domain and the
frequency
domain
approaches
for
25
the Netherlands, Report 849, January
1990.
[12] P. Kaplan and W.R. Jacobs
TwoDimensional Damping Coefficients
from ThinShip Theory, Stevens Institute
of Technology, Davidson Laboratory,
Note 586, 1960.
[7] J.M.J. Journe
Motions of Rectangular Barges, 10th
International Conference on Offshore
Mechanics and Arctic Engineering,
Stavanger, Norway, June 1991.
[13] S.A. Miedema, J.M.J. Journe
and S. Schuurmans
On the Motions of a Seagoing Cutter
Dredge,
a
Study
in
Continuity,
th
Proceedings of 13
World Dredging
Congress WODCON92, Bombay, India,
1992, www.shipmotions.nl
[8] J.M.J. Journe
SEAWAYDelft, User Manual of Release
4.00, Delft University of Technology,
Shiphydromechanics Laboratory, Delft,
the Netherlands, Report 910, March 1992.
[14] T.F. Ogilvie
Recent Progress Towards the Understanding and Prediction of Ship Motions,
Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Bergen, Norway, 1964.
[9] J.M.J. Journe
Strip Theory Algorithms, Revised Report
1992, Delft University of Technology,
Shiphydromechanics Laboratory, Delft,
the Netherlands, Report 912, March 1992.
[15] F. Tasai
On the Damping Force and Added Mass of
Ships Heaving and Pitching, Research
Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu
University, Japan, Vol. VII, No 26, 1959.
[10] J.M.J. Journe
SEAWAYD/3.00,
a
Preprocessing
Program to Calculate the Hydromechanic
Input Data for Program DREDMO/4.0,
September 1992.
[16] F. Tasai
Hydrodynamic Force and Moment Produced by Swaying and Rolling Oscillation of
Cylinders on the Free Surface, Research
Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu
University, Japan, Vol. IX, No 35, 1961.
[11] J.M.J. Journe
User Manual of Program SEAWAYD/4.10, a PreProcessing Program of
DREDMO/4.0, Delft University of
Technology, Shiphydromechanics Laboratory, Delft, the Netherlands, Report 969,
March 1993.
26
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