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Reprinted: 05-12-2000

Website: www.shipmotions.nl

Report 968, March 1993,


Delft University of Technology,
Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory,
Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft,
The Netherlands.

Hydromechanic Coefficients for Calculating


Time Domain Motions of Cutter Suction Dredges
by Cummins Equations
J.M.J. Journe
Delft University of Technology

Abstract
Software package DREDMO of the Delft Hydraulics predicts the behaviour of seagoing
cutter dredges in near-shore conditions, which behaviour can be important with respect to the
construction of the dredge and the assessment of downtime. The motion behaviour of the
seagoing dredge has been described by non-linear Cummins Equations, which have to be
solved in the time domain.
The required input data on hydromechanic coefficients, retardation functions and frequency
domain wave load series can be derived with a newly developed pre-processing program
SEWAY-D. This program, based on the frequency domain ship motions program SEAWAY,
creates the hydromechanic input data file for DREDMO with a minimum risk on human input
errors and makes DREDMO much more accessible for less-specialist users.
This report describes the underlying hydromechanic theory of the new SEAWAY-D and
DREDMO releases. Also, comparisons with frequency domain results have been given.

Introduction

the Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory


(both are laboratories of the Delft
University of Technology) developed the
computer code DREDMO [13] in the early
80s. The behaviour of the seagoing
dredge has been described by non-linear
so-called Cummins Equations, which have
to be solved in the time domain. These
equations
require
hydromechanic

The prediction of the behaviour of cutter


dredges in near-shore conditions can be
important with respect to the construction
of the dredge and the assessment of
downtime. To be able to make downtime
predictions, the Delft Hydraulics together
with the Laboratory of Soil Movement and

coefficients, retardation functions and


wave load series as input, together with
geometric and operational data of the ship
and the operational working method.
The required input data hydromechanic
coefficients, retardation functions and
frequency domain wave loads - have to be
derived from model experiments or from
calculated data by a suitable ship motion
computer program. However, the creation
of this hydromechanic input data file
appeared to be very much time consuming.
Besides this, DREDMO and its pre- and
post-processing programs were running on
main frames, and specialists were required
to operate the software.

In 1990, the author used relevant parts of


SEAWAY to create a pre-processing
program for DREDMO. The Laboratory of
Soil Movement had defined the formats of
the hydromechanic input data of
DREDMO. This pre-processing program is
called SEAWAY-D and makes DREDMO
more accessible for less-specialist users.
In 1991, the Laboratory of Soil Movement
had completed their work on DREDMO
with the delivery of PC pre- and postprocessing programs and a user-interface,
which minimises the risk on human input
errors; see [13].
In 1992, an input control program
SEAWAY-H, to check the input data of
the offsets of the under water geometry of
the ship, have been added to the
DREDMO software package.

In 1984, Delft Hydraulics decided to


develop a PC version of DREDMO, to
promote the use of their commercial
package.
In the late 80s the author had developed
computer code SEAWAY [6,8], a
frequency domain ship motions program
based on the strip theory, for calculating
the wave-induced motions and resulting
mechanic loads of mono-hull ships moving
forward with six degrees of freedom in a
seaway.
The potential coefficients and wave loads
are calculated for infinite and finite water
depths. Added resistance, shearing forces
and bending and torsion moments can be
calculated too. Linear(ised) springs and
free surface anti-rolling tanks, bilge keels
and other anti-rolling devices can be
included. Several wave spectra definitions
can been used.

Since 1993, DREDMO calculations can be


carried out too for ships with local
symmetric twin-hull sections - as for
instance appear at cutter suction dredges provided that interaction effects between
individual sections are not accounted for.
Special attention has been paid to
longitudinal jumps in the cross sections,
fully submerged cross sections and
(non)linear
viscous
roll
damping
coefficients. Improved definitions of the
hydrodynamic potential masses at an
infinite frequency and the wave loads have
been added. Finally, many numerical
routines have been improved.
All strip-theory algorithms are described in
[9]. A user manual of SEAWAY-D, with
an example of the input and the output
files, has been given in [11].
This report contains a survey of the
hydromechanic part of the underlying
theory of DREDMO and SEAWAY-D and
a validation of the calculated results.
A separately developed stripped version
of DREDMO, called SEAWAY-T, has
been used here to verify all algorithms in
the time domain.

Computed data have been validated with


results of other computer programs and
experimental data. Based on these
validation studies - and experiences,
obtained during an intensive use of the
program by the author, students and over
30 institutes and industrial users - it is
expected that this program is free of
significant errors.

Equations of Motion

The co-ordinate systems are defined in


Figure 1.

Frequency Domain Calculations

Based on Newtons second law of


dynamics, the equations of motion of a
floating object in a seaway are given by:
6

M
j =1

i, j

&x& j = Fi
for i = 1, 2, 6

in which:
M i, j

Figure 1

Co-ordinate System and


Definitions

&x& j

6x6 matrix of solid mass and


inertia of the body
acceleration of the body in
direction j
sum of forces or moments acting in
direction i

Three right-handed co-ordinate systems


have been defined:

Fi

1. G( xb , y b , zb ) connected to the ship,


with G at the ships centre of gravity,
x b in the ships centre line in the
forward direction, y b in the ships port
side direction and z b in the upward
direction

When defining a linear system with simple


harmonic wave exciting forces and
moments, defined by:

Fwi ( , t ) = Fwa i ( ) cos t + wi ( )

The resulting simple harmonic displacements, velocities and accelerations are:

2. S ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 ) fixed in space, with S in


the still water surface, x 0 in the
direction of the wave propagation and
z 0 in the upward direction.

x j ( , t ) = x aj ( ) cos(t )

x& j ( , t ) = x aj ( ) sin (t )
&x& j ( , t ) = 2 x aj ( ) cos (t )

3. O ( x , y , z ) or O( x1 , x 2 , x 3 ) moving
with the ships speed, with O above or
below the average position of the
ships centre of gravity, x or x1
parallel to still water surface, y or x 2
parallel to still water surface and z or
x3 in the upward direction. The
angular motions of the body about the
body axes are denoted by: , and
or x 4 , x5 and x 6 .

The hydromechanic forces and moments


Fi , acting on the free floating object in
waves, consist of:

linear hydrodynamic reaction forces


and moments expressed in terms with
the hydrodynamic mass and damping
coefficients:
a i, j ( ) &x& j ( , t ) bi, j ( ) x& j ( , t )

linear hydrostatic restoring forces and


moments expressed in a term with a
spring coefficient:
c i, j x j ( , t )

With this, the linear equations of motion


become:

{M

by experimental results or by empirical


formulas.
The strip theory is based upon linearity.
This means that the ship motions are
supposed to be small, relative to the crosssectional dimensions of the ship. Only
hydrodynamic effects of the hull below the
still water level are accounted for. So
when parts of the ship go out of or into the
water or when green water is shipped,
inaccuracies can be expected. Also, the
strip theory does not distinguish between
alternative above water hull forms.
Nevertheless these limitations for zero
forward speed, generally the strip theory
appears to be a successful and practical
theory for the calculation of the wave
induced motions of a ship.

&x& j } =

i, j

j =1

{ a
6

i,j

( ) &x& j ( , t ) bi , j ( ) x& j ( , t )

j =1

c i, j x j ( , t )}+ Fwa i ( ) cos t + wi ( )


for i = 1, 2, 6
So:
(M
+ b
6

j =1

+ ai , j ( ) ) &x& j ( , t )

=
&
i , j ( ) x j ( , t ) + c i , j x j ( , t )

i,j

= Fwa i ( ) cos t + wi ( )
for i = 1, 2, 6

For the determination of the twodimensional potential coefficients for


sway, heave and roll motions of not fully
submerged ship-like cross sections, the socalled 2-Parameter Lewis Transformation
can map cross-sections conformally to the
unit circle. Also the N-Parameter Close-Fit
Conformal Mapping Method can be used
for this.

The hydromechanic coefficients a i, j ( ) ,


bi, j ( ) and c i, j and the wave load com-

ponents Fwa i ( ) can be calculated with


existing 2-D or 3-D techniques.
For this, strip theory programs - like for
instance the program SEAWAY [3] - can
be used. According to the strip theory, the
total hydromechanic coefficients and wave
loads of the ship can be found easily by
integrating the cross-sectional values over
the ship length.

The advantage of conformal mapping is


that the velocity potential of the fluid
around an arbitrary shape of a cross
section in a complex plane can be derived
from the more convenient circular cross
section in another complex plane. In this
manner hydrodynamic problems can be
solved directly with the coefficients of the
mapping function, as reported by Tasai
[15,16].
The advantage of making use of the 2Parameter Lewis Conformal Mapping
Method is that the frequency-depending
potential coefficients are a function of the
breadth, the draught and the area of the
cross section, only.

The strip theory is a slender body theory,


so one should expect less accurate
predictions for ships with low length to
breadth ratios. However, experiments have
shown that the strip theory appears to be
remarkably effective for predicting the
motions of ships with length to breadth
ratios down to about 3.0 or sometimes
even lower.
The strip theory is based upon the potential
flow theory. This holds that viscous effects
are neglected, which can deliver serious
problems when predicting roll motions at
resonance frequencies. In practice, viscous
roll damping effects can be accounted for

Another method is the Frank Method [2],


also suitable for fully submerged cross
sections. This method determines the
velocity potential of a floating or a

mi , j ( )

submerged oscillating cylinder of infinite


length by the integral equation method
utilising the Greens function, which
represents a pulsating source below the
free surface.
To avoid so-called irregular frequencies
in the operational frequency range of not
fully submerged cross sections, each Frank
section will be closed automatically at the
free surface with a few extra points. This
results into a shift of these irregular
frequencies towards a higher frequency
region.

'

n i, j ( )
'

Fwi ( )
'

FK wi ( )
'

*
&&wi ( )
*
& wi ( )

The two-dimensional pitch and yaw


coefficients follow from the heave and
sway moments, respectively.

yw
xb

Finally, a method based on work published


by Kaplan and Jacobs [12] and a
longitudinal strip method has been used
for the determination of the twodimensional potential coefficients for the
surge motion.

OG

BG

At
the
following
sections,
the
hydromechanic coefficients and the wave
loads for zero forward speed are given as
they can be derived from the twodimensional values, defined in a coordinate system with the origin O in the
waterline.

k xx
k yy

k zz

The symbols, used here, are:


M i, j

'

solid mass and inertia


coefficients of the body

sectional hydrodynamic
mass coefficient
sectional hydrodynamic
damping coefficient
sectional wave exciting
force or moment
sectional Froude-Krylov
force or moment
equivalent orbital
acceleration
equivalent orbital velocity
sectional half breadth of
waterline
longitudinal distance of
cross-section to centre of
gravity, positive forwards
vertical distance of
waterline to centre of
gravity, positive upwards
vertical distance of centre
of buoyancy to centre of
gravity, positive upwards
volume of displacement
radius of gyration in air for
roll
radius of gyration in air for
pitch
radius of gyration in air for
yaw
density of water
acceleration of gravity

The solid mass coefficients are given by:

The potential mass coefficients are given


by:

M 1,1 = M =

b1,1 = n1,1' dxb

M 2 ,2 = M =

M 3, 3 = M =

b1, 5 = BG b1,1

M 4 , 4 = I xx = k xx 2

b2, 2 = n 2, 2 ' dxb

M 5, 5 = I yy = k yy
2

b2, 4 = n 2, 4 dxb + OG b2, 2


'

M 6, 6 = I zz = k zz
The remaining solid mass coefficients are
zero.
2

b2, 6 = n 2, 2 ' xb dxb


L

b3,3 = n3, 3' dxb

The potential mass coefficients are given


by:

b3, 5 = n 3, 3 xb dx b
'

a1,1 = m1,1' dx b

b4, 4 = n 4, 4 ' dxb + OG n 4, 2 ' dxb

a1,5 = BG a1,1

+ OG b2 , 4

a 2, 2 = m2, 2 ' dxb

b4, 6 = n 4, 2 ' xb dxb + OG b2.6

a 2, 4 = m2, 4 dxb + OG a2, 2


'

b5, 5 = n3, 3 xb dxb BG b1, 5


'

a2, 6 = m2, 2 xb dxb


'

b6, 6 = n 2, 2 ' xb 2 dx b

a3,3 = m3, 3' dxb

b j, i = bi, j

a 3,5 = m3, 3 xb dxb


'

The
remaining
potential
coefficients are zero.

a 4, 4 = m4, 4 ' dxb + OG m4, 2 ' dx b


L

damping

The spring coefficients are given by:

+ OG a 2, 4

c 3, 3 = 2 g y w dxb
'

a4, 6 = m4, 2 xb dxb + OG a2.6


'

c 3, 5 = 2 g y w x b dx b

'

a 5,5 = m3, 3 x b dxb BG a1, 5


'

c 4, 4 = g GM

a6, 6 = m2, 2 ' xb 2 dxb

c 5,5 = g GM L

a j, i = ai , j
The remaining potential mass coefficients
are zero.

c j, i = c i, j
The remaining spring coefficients are zero.

The wave loads are given by:


In the following figures, an example has
been given of the hydrodynamic potential
mass and damping and the wave loads for
roll in the frequency domain.

Fwi = Fwi dxb


'

with : Fwi ' = m1,1' &&w1 * + n1,1' &w1 * + FK1'


Fw2 = Fw2 dxb
'

'
'
*
'
*
'
with : Fw2 = m2, 2 &&w 2 + n2, 2 & w2 + FK 2

Fw3 = Fw3 ' dxb

Figure 3-A Potential Mass of Roll

with : Fw3 = m3, 3 &&w3 + n3, 3 & w3 + FK 3


'

'

'

'

Fw4 = Fw4 ' dxb


L

with : Fw4 ' = m4, 2 ' &&w 2 * + n4, 2 ' & w2 * + FK 4 '
+ Fw2 OG
'

Fw5 = Fw5 ' dxb

Figure 3-B Potential Damping of Roll

with : Fw5 ' = Fw1 ' BG Fw3 ' x b


Fw6 = Fw6 ' dxb
L

with : Fw6 ' = Fw2 ' x b


Figure Wave Moment of Roll
These formulations of the hydrodynamic
exciting and reaction forces and moments
can only be used in the frequency domain,
since a i, j and bi, j both depend on the
frequency of motion only and the
exciting wave loads have a linear relation
with the wave amplitude. In irregular
waves the response of the body can be
determined by using the superposition
principle, so using linear response
amplitude operators between motion and
wave amplitudes.

Time Domain Calculations

As a result of the formulation in the


frequency domain, any system influencing
the behaviour of the floating body should
have a linear relation with the
displacement, the velocity and the
acceleration of the body. However, in a lot
of cases there are several complications
which perish this linear assumption, for
instance the non- linear viscous damping,

forces and moments due to currents, wind,


anchoring, etc.
To include these non-linear effects in the
vessel behaviour, it is necessary to
formulate the equations of motion in the
time domain, which relates instantaneous
values of forces, moments and motions.
For the description of the hydromechanic
reaction forces and moments, due to time
varying ship motions, use has been made
of the classic formulation given by
Cummins [1] with simple frequency
domain solutions of Ogilvie [14].

4.1

In here,
potential.

is a normalised velocity

The impulsive displacement x during the


period (t 0 , t 0 + t ) does not influence the
motions of the fluid during this period
only, but also further on in time.
This holds that the motions during the
period (t 0 , t 0 + t ) are influenced also by
the motions before this period.
When the object performs an arbitrarily in
time varying motion, this motion can be
considered as a succession of small
impulsive displacements.
Then the resulting total velocity potential
(t ) during the period (t n , t n + t )
becomes:

Cummins Equations

The floating object is considered to be a


linear system, with translational and
rotational velocities as input and reaction
forces and moments of the surrounding
water as output.
The object is supposed to be at rest at time
t = t 0 . Then during a short time t an
impulsive displacement x , with a
constant velocity V , is given to the object.
So:
x = V t

(t ) = {V j, n j +
6

j =1

+ j (t n k , t n k + t ) V j, k t
k =1

In here:

During this impulsive displacement, the


water particles will start to move. When
assuming that the fluid is rotation-free, a
velocity potential , linear proportional to
V , can be defined:

n
tn
t n k
V j, n

number of time steps


= t 0 + n t
= t 0 + (n k ) t
j th velocity component during

= V for: t 0 < t < t 0 + t

V j, k

period (t n , t n + t )
j th velocity component during
period (t n k , t n k + t )

in which is the normalised velocity


potential.

After this impulsive displacement x , the


water particles are still moving. Because
the system is assumed to be linear, the
motions of the fluid, described by the
velocity potential , are proportional to
the impulsive displacement x .
So:

= x

for: t > t 0 + t

normalised velocity potential


caused by a displacement in
direction j during period
(t n , t n + t )
normalised velocity potential
caused by a displacement in
direction j during period
(t n k , t n k + t )

Letting t go to zero, yields:

Fi =
t

= Ai, j &x& j (t ) + Bi, j (t ) x& j ( ) d


j =1

for i = 1, 2, 6
6

(t ) =
t
6

= x& j (t ) j + j ( t ) x& j ( ) d
j =1

where x& j (t ) is the j th


ponent at time t .

Together with the linear restoring spring


terms Ci, j xi, j and the linear external

velocity com-

loads X i (t ) , Newtons second law of


dynamics provides the linear equations of
motion in the time domain:

The pressure in the fluid follows from the


linearised equation of Bernoulli:

{(M
6

p =
t

j =1

An integration of these pressures over the


wetted surface S of the floating object
provides
the
expression
for
the
hydrodynamic
reaction
forces
and
moments Fi .
With n i as the generalised directional
cosine, Fi becomes:

i, j

(t ) x& j ( ) d + C i , j x j (t )} = X i (t )

in which:
&x& j (t ) translational or rotational
acceleration in direction at time t
x& j (t ) translational or rotational velocity
in direction j at time t
x j (t ) translational or rotational
displacement in direction at time t
M i, j solid mass or inertia coefficient

6
= &x& j (t ) j ni dS +
j =1
S

for i = 1, 2, 6

+ Ai , j ) &x& j (t ) +

Fi = p ni dS

i, j

j ( t )


x& j ( ) d

dS
i

Ai, j

hydrodynamic mass coefficient

Bi, j

retardation function

Ci , j

spring coefficient

X i (t ) external load in direction i


at time t

When defining:

Ai, j = j ni dS

When replacing in the damping part by


t and changing the integration
boundaries, this part can be written in a
more convenient form:

Bi, j (t ) =
S

j (t )
t

ni dS

{(M
6

the hydrodynamic forces and moments


become:

j =1

i, j

+ Ai , j ) &x& j (t ) +

+ B i , j ( ) x& j (t ) d + C i , j x j (t )} = X i (t )
0

for i = 1, 2, 6

Referring to the classic work on this


subject by Cummins [1], these six
equations of motion are called here the
"Cummins Equations".

4.2

This results into:


2 {M i, j + Ai , j

Bi, j ( ) sin ( ) d cos(t )


0

Bi, j ( ) cos( ) d sin (t )


0

+ {Ci, j } cos(t )

Hydromechanic Coefficients

The linear restoring spring coefficients


C3, 3 , C3, 5 , C4, 4 , C5, 3 and C5, 5 can be
determined easily from the under water
geometry and the centre of gravity of the
floating object. Generally, the other Ci , j values are zero.

= X i (t )
for i = 1, 2, ... 6
In the classic frequency domain
description these equations of motion are
presented by:

To determine Ai, j and Bi, j , the velocity


potentials j and j have to be found,
which is very complex.
A much easier method to determine Ai, j

2 {M i, j + ai , j ( )} cos(t )

{bi, j ( )} sin (t )
+ {c i, j } cos(t )

and Bi, j can be obtained by making use of


the hydrodynamic mass and damping data
found with existing 2-D or 3-D potential
theory based computer programs in the
frequency domain. Relative simple
relations can be found between Ai, j , Bi, j
and the calculated data of the
hydrodynamic mass and damping in the
frequency domain.

= X i (t )
for i = 1, 2, ... 6
In here:
a i, j ( )

frequency depending
hydrodynamic mass
coefficient
frequency depending
hydrodynamic damping
coefficient
restoring spring term
coefficient

bi, j ( )

For this, the floating object is supposed to


carry out a harmonic oscillation x j with
amplitude 1.0 in the direction j :

c i, j

x j = 1 cos (t )

When comparing these time domain and


frequency domain equations - both with
linear terms as published by Ogilvie [14] it is found:

A substitution in the Cummins Equations


provides:
2 (M i, j + Ai , j ) cos (t )

a i, j ( ) = Ai, j

Bi, j ( ) sin (t ) d
0

+ C i, j cos (t )

1
Bi, j ( ) sin ( ) d
0

bi, j ( ) = Bi, j ( ) cos( ) d

= X i (t )
for i = 1, 2, ... 6

ci , j = Ci, j

10

After a Fourier re-transformation, the


damping term provides the retardation
function:

frequency. This holds that - when


determining
Bi, j
- the numerical
calculations can be carried out in a limited
frequency range 0 only:

2
Bi, j ( ) = bi, j ( ) cos( ) d
0

2
Bi, j ( ) = bi, j ( ) cos( ) d
0

Then the mass term follows from:

Ai, j

So, a truncation error Bi, j ( ) will be


introduced:

1
= ai, j ( ) + Bi, j ( ) sin ( ) d
0

Bi, j ( ) =

This mass expression is valid for any value


of , so also for = , which provides:

For the uncoupled damping coefficients so when i = j - this truncation error can
be estimated easily.
The relation between the damping
coefficient bi, j ( ) and the amplitude ratio
of the radiated waves and the oscillatory
motion i ,i ( ) is given by:

Ai, j = ai, j ( = )

4.3

Addition of Non-Linearities

So far, these equations of motion are


linear. But non-linear contributions can be
added now to X i (t ) easily.
For instance, non-linear viscous roll
damping contributions can be added to X 4
by:
( 2)
X 4 = b4, 4a & &

g2
bi,i ( ) =
i, i 2 ( )
3

From this an approximation can be found


for the tail of the damping curve:

Also it is possible to include non-linear


spring terms, by considering the stability
moment as an external load and shifting its
contribution to the right hand side of the
equation of motion, for instance:

bi,i ( ) =

i ,i
3

The value of i, i follows from the


calculated damping value at the highest
frequency used, = . This holds that a
constant amplitude ratio i ,i ( ) is
supposed here for > .

C4, 4 = 0
X 4 = g GN ( ) sin

in which GN ( ) is the transverse metacentric height at arbitrarily heeling angles.

4.4

2
bi , j ( ) cos ( ) d

Then the truncation error becomes:

i, i 2 cos( ) sin ( )
Bi, i ( ) =

( )

Some Numerical Recipes

( 1)n ( )2n

2n (2n )!
n =1

+ + ln ( ) +

Many computer programs fail when


calculating bi, j ( ) at too high a

11

cos ( ) at this interval can be taken into


account.

in which = 0.577215... (Euler constant)


Studies carried out in the past have showed
that in case of a sufficient high value of
the contribution of Bi,i into Bi,i is often
small. The potential damping calculations
were based on numerical routines as used
in computer program SEAWAY [8,9]. In
this program special attention has been
paid to the potential calculations at very
high frequencies. For normal merchant
ships are 5 radians per second, which can
be reached by the routines in SEAWAY, a
fairly good value for the maximum
frequency .
Thus, the retardation function is
approximated by the numerical solution of
the integral:

Bi, j ( ) =

Then the numerical integration, at constant


frequency intervals , is given by:
2

2
N
b

n [cos ( n ) cos ( n1 )]

n =1

Bi, j ( ) =

2
b N sin N

in which:
n = n n1 =
bn = bn bn1

2
b ( ) cos ( ) d
0 i, j

For = 0 , the value of the retardation


function can be derived simply from the
integral of the damping:

The damping curve has to be calculated at


N constant frequency intervals , so:

Bi, j ( = 0) =

N = .

2
b ( ) d
0 i, j

Because the potential damping is zero for


= 0 , the expression for the damping
term leads for = 0 , so cos ( ) = 1 , into
the following requirement for the
retardation functions:

When calculating here the retardation


functions it assumed that at each frequency
interval the damping curve is linearly
increasing or decreasing; see Figure 4.

i, j

( ) d = 0

In the equations of motion, the retardation


function multiplied with the velocity
should be integrated over an infinite time:

Figure 4 Integration of Damping Curve

i, j

( ) x& j ( t ) d

Now the contribution of this interval into


Bi, j can be calculated analytically. This
holds that caused by a large or a large
- the influence of a strongly fluctuating

However, after a certain time = i, j , the


fluctuating values of the integral have
reached already a very small value.

12

i , j

A useful limit value for the corresponding


integration time can be found with:

i, j

( ) sin ( ) d =

i, j = 2

n =1

N
B

n [sin ( n ) sin ( (n 1) )]
n =1

1
+

Bi , j ( = 0) Bi , j ( = N ) cos( N )

Bi, j ( 0)

with: 0.010

So, the Cummins Equations, which are


still linear here, are given by:

{(M
6

j =1

i, j

+ Ai , j ) &x& j (t ) +

in which:
Bn = Bi , j (n) Bi, j ( n 1)

i , j

Bi, j ( ) x& j (t ) d + C i, j x j (t )} = X i (t )
0

Similar to this, the numerical solution of


the frequency depending damping is:

for i = 1, 2, 6
The numerical integration can be carried
out with the trapezoid rule or with
Simpsons rule. Because of a relatively
small time step is required to solve the
equations of motion numerically, generally
the trapezoid rule is sufficient accurate.
The hydrodynamic
follows from:

mass

i, j

bi, j ( ) =

Ai, j

i, j

i, j

( ) cos( ) d =

n [cos ( n ) cos( (n 1) )]

n =1
1
+ Bi, j ( = N ) sin ( N )

coefficient

Equations of Motion

Integrating the velocities of the ships


centre of gravity can derive the path of the
ship in the ( x0 , y0 , z 0 ) system of axes:

When this mass coefficient is not available


for an infinite frequency, it can be
calculated from a mass coefficient at a
certain frequency = and the
retardation function:
i , j

Ai, j = ai, j ( = )

1
= ai, j ( ) +

x& 0 = x& cos y& sin


y& 0 = x& sin + y& cos

( ) sin ( ) d

z& 0 = z&
&0 = &
& = &

With:

& 0 = &

i, j = N

The Euler equations of motion are written


in the ( x, y, z ) system of axes:

the numerical solution of this integral can


be found in an similar way as for the
retardation functions:

13

(
(
(
&& (I

)
)
)

M &x& y& & + z& & = X h + X w + X ext


M &y& + x& & z& & = Yh + Yw + Yext
M &z& x& & + y& & = Z + Z + Z

I xx

yy

Roll motion:
I xx && (I yy I zz ) & & +

A4, 2 &y& + B4, 2 y& + C 4, 2 y +


A4, 4 && + B4, 4 & + C4, 4 +

ext

I zz ) & & = K h + K w + K ext

A4, 6 && + B4, 6 & + C4, 6 = K w + K ext

I yy && ( I zz I xx ) & & = M h + M w + M ext


I zz && (I xx I yy ) & & = N h + N w + N ext

Pitch motion:
I yy && ( I zz I xx ) & & +

with in the right hand sides:

A5,1 &x& + B5,1 x& + C5,1 x +


A5,3 &z& + B5, 3 z& + C5,3 z +
A5,5 && + B5,5 & + C5,5 = M w + M ext

subscript h linear hydromechanic loads


subscript w linear wave loads
subscript ext non-linear hydromechanic
loads and (non)linear
external loads, caused by
wind, currents, anchor
lines, cutter, etc.

Yaw motion:
I zz && (I zz I xx ) & & +
A6, 2 &y& + B6, 2 y& + C6, 2 y +
A && + B & + C +
6, 4

With the hydromechanic loads as defined


before, the equations of motion are defined
as given below.

A1, 3 &z& + B1, 3 z& + C1, 3 z +


A1, 5 && + B1, 5 & + C1, 5 = X w + X ext

Surge motion:
(M + A1,1 ) x&& + A1,5 &&
=

Sway motion:
M &y& + M x& & z& & +
A2, 2 &y& + B2, 2 y& + C 2, 2 y +
A && + B & + C +

2, 4

2, 4

X w + X ext
B1,1 x& B1, 5 &

+ M + y& & z& &

2, 4

A2, 6 && + B2,6 & + C 2,6 = Yw + Yext

Sway motion:
(M + A2,2 ) y&& + A2,4 && + A2,6 &&

Heave motion:
M &z& + M x& & + y& & +
A3,1 &x& + B3,1 x& + C3,1 x +

6, 4

Some of the coefficients in these six


equations of motion are zero. After
omitting these coefficients and ordering
the terms, the equations for the
accelerations are as follows.

Surge motion:
M &x& + M y& & + z& & +
A1,1 &x& + B1,1 x& + C1,1 x +

6, 4

A6, 6 && + B6, 6 & + C6, 6 = N w + N ext

A3, 3 &z& + B3,3 z& + C3, 3 z +


A3, 5 && + B3, 5 & + C3, 5 = Z w + Z ext

B2 , 2

Yw + Yext
y& B & B

2, 4

2, 6

+ M x& & + z& &

14

&

Heave motion:
(M + A3,3 ) &z& + A3,5 &&

Sway and Yaw


The non-linear viscous sway and yaw
damping term in the equations of motion
for sway and yaw can be approximated by:

=
Z w + Z ext
B3, 3 z& C3,3 z B3, 5 & C3, 5

+ M + x& & y& &

Viscous Damping

b2, 2v

Roll motion:
(I xx + A4,4 ) && + A4,2 &y& + A4,6 &&

( 2)
y& y& and b6, 6v & &

with:

=
K w + K ext
B4, 2 y& B4, 4 & B4, 6 & C4, 4
+ (I I ) & &
yy

(2 )

1
L d CD
2
1
b6, 6v ( 2) = L3 d C D
6
C D 1.50
b2, 2v ( 2) =

zz

Pitch motion:
(I yy + A5,5 ) && + A5,1 x&& + A5,3 &z&

Roll
The total non-linear roll damping term in
the equation of motion for roll can be
expressed as:

=
M w + M ext

(b

B5,1 x& B5, 3 z& C5, 3 z B5, 5 & C5, 5


+ ( I zz I xx ) & &

4, 4

+ b4 , 4 a

(1 )

) & + b

( 2)
4, 4a

& &

with:
b4 , 4

Yaw motion:
(I zz + A6,6 ) && + A6,2 &y& + A6,4 &&

B6 , 2

=
N w + N ext
y& B & B

&
6, 4
6 , 6
+ (I xx I yy ) & &

b4, 4a

(1 )

b4, 4a

( 2)

linear potential roll damping


coefficient
linear(ised) additional roll damping
coefficient
non-linear additional roll damping
coefficient

The linear potential roll-damping coefficient b4, 4 can be determined as described


before.
For time domain calculations a linear as
well as a non-linear roll-damping
coefficient can be used. However, for
frequency
domain
calculations
an
equivalent linear roll-damping coefficient
has to be estimated. This linearised rolldamping coefficient can be found by
requiring that an equivalent linear damping
dissipate an equal amount of energy as the
non-linear damping, so:

With known coefficients and right hand


sides of these equations, the six
accelerations can be determined by a
numerical method as - for instance - the
well-known Runge-Kutta method.
Because of sometimes an extreme high
stiffness of the cutter dredge system, Delft
Hydraulics has adapted the numerical
solution method of these equations in
DREDMO for this; see [13].

15

b4, 4a

(1)

( 2)
& & dt = b4, 4a & & & dt

in which 2 =

is the quotient
I xx + a 4, 4
between damping and moment of inertia
c 4, 4
and 0 2 =
is the not-damped
I xx + a 4, 4

Then the equivalent linear additional roll(1 )


damping coefficient b4, 4a becomes:
b4 , 4 a

(1)

natural roll frequency squared.

8
( 2)
a b4 , 4 a
3

When defining a non-dimensional roll


damping coefficient by:

The additional roll damping coefficients


(1 )
( 2)
b4, 4a and b4, 4a
are mainly caused by
viscous effects. Until now it is not possible
to determine these additional coefficients
in a pure theoretical way. They have to be
estimated by free rolling model
experiments or by a semi-empirical
method, based on theory and a large
number of model experiments with
systematic varied ship forms. The
linear(ised) and the non-linear equations of
pure roll motions, used to analyse free
rolling model experiments, are presented
here. Also, for zero forward ship speed,
the algorithms of the empirical method of
Ikeda, Himeno and Tanaka [3] are given.

6.1

xx

2
&& + 2 0 & + 0 = 0

Then, the logarithmic decrement of roll is:


T = 0 T
(t )

= ln
( t + T )

Experimental Roll Damping

Because of the relation = 0 2


2

0 T T = 2

in which:
potential mass coefficient

b4 , 4

potential damping coefficient

b4 , 4 a

linear(ised) additional damping


coefficient
restoring term coefficient

c 4, 4

and the assumption that 2 << 0 , it can


be written 0 .
This leads to:

+ a4, 4 ) && + b4, 4 + b4, 4a & + c 4, 4 = 0

a 4, 4

the equation of motion for roll can be


rewritten as:

In case of pure free rolling in still water,


the linear equation of the roll motion about
the centre of gravity G is given by:

(I

b4 , 4 + b4 , 4 a

So, the non-dimensional total roll damping


is given by:

(t )
1

ln

(
t
+
T
)

= b4, 4 + b4, 4a

This equation can be rewritten as:


2
&& + 2 & + 0 = 0

16

0
2 c 4, 4

The successively found values for ,


plotted on base of the average roll
amplitude, will often have a non-linear
behaviour as illustrated in Figure 5.
For behaviour like this, it will be found:

The non-potential part of the total rolldamping coefficient follows from the
average value of by:
b4, 4a =

2 c 4, 4
0

b4, 4

= 1 + 2 a

When data on free-rolling experiments


with a model in still water are available,
these -values can easily been found.
Often the results of these free rolling tests
are presented by:

a
as function of a ,
a

Figure 5 Free Rolling Data

with a as the absolute value of the


average of two successive positive or
negative maximum roll angles:
a =

This holds that during frequency domain


calculations, the damping term is
depending on the solution for the roll
amplitude.
For rectangular barges ( LxBxd ) with the
centre of gravity in the water line, it is
found by Journe [7]:

a (i ) + a (i + 1)
2

and a as the absolute value of the


difference of two successive positive or
negative maximum roll angles:

B
1 0.0013
d
2 0.50

a = a (i ) a (i + 1)

Then the total roll-damping term becomes:

Then the total non-dimensional natural


frequency becomes:

2 + a

a
1
=
ln
2
2 a

2 c 4, 4 &
2 c 4, 4 &

= ( 1 + 2 a )

0
0

The linear additional roll-damping coefficient becomes:


b4, 4a (1) = 1

These experiments deliver no information


on the relation with the frequency of
oscillation. So, it has to be decided to keep
the additional coefficient b4, 4a or the total

2 c 4, 4
0

b4, 4

But for the non-linear additional rolldamping coefficient, a quasi-quadratic


damping coefficient is found:

coefficient b4, 4 + b4, 4a constant.

17

b4 , 4 a

= 2

( 2)

2 c 4, 4 a

0
&

freedom can be simulated in the time


domain. An analyse of this simulated roll
motion, as being a linear pure roll motion
with one degree of freedom, delivers new
(1 )
( 2)
values for b4, 4a
and b4, 4a . This
procedure has to be repeated until a
suitable convergence has been reached. An
inclusion of the natural frequency 0 in
this iterative procedure provides also a
reliable value for the estimated solid mass
moment of inertia coefficient I xx .
However, this procedure is not included in
DREDMO yet.

Because this roll-damping "coefficient"


includes &( , t ) in the denominator, it
varies strongly with time.
An equivalent non-linear damping term
can be found by requiring that the
equivalent quadratic damping term will
dissipate an equal amount of energy as the
quasi-quadratic damping term, so:
T

b4, 4a

( 2)

& & & dt =

6.2

= 2

2 c 4, 4
0

a & & dt

Because of the additional part of the roll


damping is significantly influenced by the
viscosity of the fluid, it is not possible to
calculate the total roll damping in a pure
theoretical way. Besides this, experiments
showed also a non-linear (about quadratic)
behaviour of the additional parts of the roll
damping.
As mentioned before, the total non-linear
roll damping term in the left-hand side of
the equation of motion for roll can be
expressed as:

Then the equivalent quadratic additional


( 2)
roll-damping coefficient b4, 4a becomes:
b44a

(2 )

= 2

3 2 c 4, 4

2
8
0

With this, the roll-damping term based on


experimentally determined -values, as
given in Figure 5, becomes:

(b

4, 4

+ b44a

(1)

Empirical Roll Damping

) & + b

( 2)
44a

(b

& & =

+ b44a

(1)

) & + b

( 2)
44 a

& &

For the estimation of the additional parts


of the roll damping, use has been made of
work published by Ikeda, Himeno and
Tanaka [3]. Their empirical method is
called here the Ikeda Method.
At zero forward speed, this Ikeda method
estimates the following components of the
additional roll-damping coefficient of a
ship:

2 c 4, 4 &
3 2 c4, 4 & &
= 1
+2


0
8
02
So far, pure roll motions with one degree
of freedom are considered in the equations
of motion. Coupling effects between the
roll motion and the other motions are not
taken into account. This can be done in an
iterative way.

b4, 4a (1) = 0

Experimental or empirical values of 1


and 2 provide starting values for b4, 4a

4, 4

b4, 4a ( 2) = b4, 4 f ( 2) + b4, 4e ( 2) + b4, 4 k (2 )

(1 )

( 2)

and b4, 4a . With these coefficients, a freerolling experiment with all degrees of

with:

18

b4 , 4 f

( 2)

non-linear friction damping

b4, 4e

( 2)

non-linear eddy damping

b4, 4k

( 2)

non-linear bilge keel damping

OG
Bs
Ds
s
H0

a1
a3
Ms

lever of the moment


local radius of the bilge circle

fk

For numerical reasons two restrictions


have to be made during the sectional
calculations:
- if s > 0.999 then s = 0.999
-

In the description of the Ikeda method, the


nomenclature of Ikeda is maintained here
as far as possible:

Rn
L
B
D
CB
Sf

lm
rb

hk
Lk
rk

Ikeda, Himeno and Tanaka claim fairly


good agreements between their prediction
method and experimental results.
They conclude that the method can be used
safely for ordinary ship forms. But for
unusual ship forms, very full ship forms
and ships with a large breadth to draught
ratio the method should not be always
sufficiently accurate.
Even a few cross sections with a large
breadth to draught ratio can result in an
extremely large eddy-making component
of the roll damping. So, always judge the
components of this damping.

Cp

average distance between roll axis


and hull surface
height of the bilge keels
length of the bilge keels
distance between roll axis and bilge
keel
correction for increase of flow
velocity at the bilge
pressure coefficient

rf

if OG < Ds s then OG = Ds s

6.2.1

density of water
kinematic viscosity of water
acceleration of gravity
circular roll frequency
roll amplitude
Reynolds number
length of the ship
breadth of the ship
average draught of the ship
block coefficient
hull surface area

Frictional Damping, b4, 4 f ( 2)

Kato deduced semi-empirical formulas for


the frictional roll-damping from experimental results of circular cylinders, wholly
immersed in the fluid.
An effective Reynolds number for the roll
motion was defined by:

Rn =

0.512 (r f a )2

In here, for ship forms the average


distance between the roll axis and the hull
surface r f can be approximated by:

distance of centre of gravity above


still water level
sectional breadth on the water line
sectional draught
sectional area coefficient
sectional half breadth to draught
ratio
sectional Lewis coefficient
sectional Lewis coefficient
sectional Lewis scale factor

rf =

(0.887 + 0.145 C B )

Sf
L

+ 2.0 OG

with a wetted hull surface area


approximated by:
S f = L (1.70 D + C B B )

19

Sf ,

When eliminating the temperature of


water, the kinematic viscosity can be
expressed in the density of water with the
following relation in the kg-m-s system:
- fresh water:

non-linear roll-damping coefficient does


not depend on the period parameter but on
the hull form only.
When using a simple form for the pressure
distribution on the hull surface it appears
that the pressure coefficient C p is a
function of the ratio of the maximum
relative velocity U max and the mean
velocity U mean on the hull surface:

10 6 = 1.442 + 0.3924 ( 1000)


+ 0.07424 ( 1000)
sea water:

m2s

10 6 = 1.063 + 0.1039 ( 1000 )


+ 0.02602 ( 1000 )

m s

Kato expressed the skin friction coefficient


as:
C f = 1.328 Rn

0 .500

+ 0.014 Rn

The relation between C p and was


obtained from experimental roll damping
data of two-dimensional models.
These experimental results are fitted by:

0. 114

C p = 0.435 e 2.0 e 0.187 + 1.50

The first part in this expression represents


the laminar flow case. The second part has
been ignored by Ikeda, but has been
included here.

The value of around a cross-section is


approximated by the potential flow theory
for a rotating Lewis-form cylinder in an
infinite fluid.
An estimation of the sectional maximum
distance between the roll axis and the hull
surface, rmax , has to be made.
Values of rmax ( ) have to be calculated
for:
= 1 = 0.0

Using this, the non-linear roll-damping


coefficient due to skin friction at zero
forward speed is expressed as:
b4 , 4 f =

1
3
rf S f C f
2

Ikeda confirmed the use of this formula for


the three-dimensional turbulent boundary
layer over the hull of an oscillating
ellipsoid in roll motion.

6.2.2

Eddy-Making Damping, b4, 4e

U max
U mean

and:

a (1 + a3 )

= 2 = 0.5 arccos 1
4 a3

( 2)

The values of rmax ( ) follow from:

At zero forward speed the eddy making


roll damping for the naked hull is mainly
caused by vortices, generated by a twodimensional separation. From a number of
experiments
with
two-dimensional
cylinders it was found that for a naked hull
this component of the roll moment is
proportional to the roll velocity squared
and the roll amplitude. This means that the

rmax ( ) =
Ms

{(1 + a1 ) sin ( ) a 3 sin (3 )}2 +


{(1 a1 ) cos( ) + a 3 cos(3 )}2

With these two results, rmax and follow


from the conditions:

20

- if rmax ( 1 ) > rmax ( 2 ) then:


rmax = rmax ( 1 ) and = 1
- if rmax ( 1 ) < rmax ( 2 ) then:
rmax = rmax ( 2 ) and = 2

1
BE = D s 4
2
'

f R
1 1 b
Ds

The relative velocity ratio on a crosssection is obtained by:

f3

OG
2 Ds H 0 s +
Ds

2 M s

rmax +
a 2 + b2
H

r
max
Ds

OG f 1 rb
1 +
+

D
D

s

f R
+ f 2 H 0 1 b
Ds

C p

with:

f 1 = 0.5 {1 + tanh (20 s 14.0 )}


f 2 = 0.5 {1 cos ( s )}

1.5 1 e 55 s sin 2 ( s )

with:
H = 1 + a12 + 9 a3 2

The term between square brackets


f1 rb
D is included in the program

listing in the paper of Ikeda et. al. [3], but


it does not appear in the formulas given in
the paper. After contacting Ikeda, this term
has been omitted in SEAWAY and
SEAWAY-D.

+ 2 a1 (1 3 a3 ) cos (2 )
6 a 3 cos(4 )

a = 2 a 3 cos(5 )

+ a1 (1 a 3 ) cos(3 )

+ (6 3 a1 ) a3 2 + a1 2 3 a1 a3

+ a12 cos ( )

The approximation of the local radius of


the bilge circle Rb is:

b = 2 a 3 sin (5 )

+ a1 (1 a 3 ) sin (3 )

+ (6 + 3 a1 ) a3 2 + a12 + 3 a1 a 3

+ a1 sin ( )
2

Rb = 2 D s

for H 0 > 1 and Rb > Ds :


Rb = D s

for H 0 < 1 and Rb < H 0 Ds :


Rb = Bs / 2

With this a non-linear sectional eddy


making damping coefficient for zero
forward speed follows from:

H 0 ( s 1)
4

f 3 = 1 + 4 e 1. 6510 (1 s )
5

for Rb < Ds and Rb < Bs / 2 :

For three-dimensional ship forms, the zero


forward speed eddy-making damping
coefficient is found by integration over the
ship length:

21

b4, 4e

( 2)

= BE dxb

Ikeda carried out experiments to measure


the pressure on the hull surface created by
bilge keels. He found that the coefficient
+
C p of the pressure on the front-face of
the bilge keel does not depending on the
period parameter, while the coefficient

C p of the pressure on the back-face of


the bilge keel and the length of the
negative pressure region depend on the
period parameter.

'

6.2.3

Bilge Keel Damping, b4, 4k

( 2)

The bilge keel component of the nonlinear roll-damping coefficient is divided


into two components:
- a component BN due to the normal
force of the bilge keels
- a component BS due to the pressure an
the hull surface, created by the bilge
keels.
The normal force component BN of the
bilge keel damping can be deduced from
experimental results of oscillating flat
plates. The drag coefficient C D depends
on the period parameter or the KeuleganCarpenter number. Ikeda measured this
non-linear drag also by carrying out free
rolling experiments with an ellipsoid with
and without bilge keels.
This results in a non-linear sectional
damping coefficient:

Ikeda defines an equivalent length of a


constant negative pressure region S 0 over
the height of the bilge keels, which is fitted
to the following empirical formula:
S 0 = 0.30 f k rk a + 1.95 hk
The pressure coefficient on the front-face
of the bilge keel is given by:
+

C p = 1.20
The pressure coefficient on the back-face
of the bilge keel is given by:

BN = rk hk f k C D
'

C p = 22.5

with:

hk
1.20
rk f k a

The sectional pressure moment is given


by:

hk
C D = 22.5
+ 2.40
rk a f k
f k = 1.0 + 0.3 e 160(1. 0 s )

hk

l m dh = Ds A C p + B C p
2

The local distance between the roll axis


and the bilge keel, rk , will be determined
further on.

with:
A = (m3 + m4 ) m8 m7 2

Assuming a pressure distribution on the


hull caused by the bilge keels, a non-linear
sectional roll-damping coefficient can be
defined:

B=

m4 3
3 (H 0 0.215 m1 )

(1 m1 )2 (2 m3 m2 )
+
6 (1 0.215 m1 )
+ m1 (m3 m5 + m4 m6 )

k
1 2
'
2
BS = rk f k C p l m dh
2
0

22

The approximation of the local distance


between the roll axis and the bilge keel,
rk , is given as:

while:
m1 =

m2 =

Rb
Ds

rk = Ds

OG
Ds

m3 = 1.0 m1 m2

0.414 H 0 + 0.0651 m1 2

(0.382 H 0 + 0.0106) m1
m5 =
( H 0 0.215 m1 ) (1 0.215 m1 )

b4 , 4 k

( H 0 0.215 m1 ) (1 0.215 m1 )

( 2)

(B

'
N

+ BS dx b
'

Comparative Simulations

As far as ship motions are concerned,


SEAWAY-T is an equivalent of
DREDMO. To check the calculation
routines for the time domain, as used in the
pre-processing program SEAWAY-D and
in the time domain program SEAWAY-T,
comparisons have been made with the
results of the frequency domain program
SEAWAY [8] for a number of ship types.
An example of the results of these
validations is given here for the S-175
containership design in deep water, as has
been used in the Manual of SEAWAY too,
with principal dimensions as given below.

For S 0 > 0.25 Rb :

S0
0.25 m1
Ds

m8 = m7 + 0.414 m1
For S 0 < 0.25 Rb :
m 7 = 0 .0

S
m 8 = m 7 + 0.414 m1 1 cos 0
Rb

R
1.0 + OG 0.293 b

Ds
Ds

Lk

0.414 H 0 + 0.0651 m1 2

(0.382 + 0.0106 H 0 ) m1

m7 =

The total bilge keel damping coefficient


can be obtained now by integrating the
sum of the sectional roll damping
'
'
coefficients B N and BS over the length
of the bilge keels:

m4 = H 0 m1

m6 =

R
H 0 0.293 b
Ds

Length between perp., L pp


Breadth, B
Amidships draught, d m
Trim by stern, t
Block coefficient, C B

The approximation of the local radius of


the bilge circle, Rb , is given before.

175.00 m
25.40 m
9.50 m
0.00 m
0.57

Metacentric height, GM
0.98 m
Longitudinal CoB , LCoB / L pp -1.42 %

23

Radius of inertia, k xx / L pp

0.33

Radius of inertia, k yy / L pp

0.24

Radius of inertia, k zz / L pp

0.24

Height of bilge keels, h k


Length of bilge keels, Lk

0.45 m
43.75 m

amplitude of 1.0 meter. Extra attention has


been paid here to the roll motions. In both
calculations, the viscous roll damping has
been estimated with the Ikeda method. In
the frequency domain, the results are
linearised for this wave amplitude of 1.0
meter. Because of the relatively small rolldamping at zero forward speed, in the
natural frequency region the initial
conditions of the wave loads will occur
unstable roll motions in the time domain.
Then, a long simulation time is required to
obtain stable motions.

The body plan of this container ship design


is given in the Figure 6.

The agreements between the amplitudes


and the phase lags of the six basic motions,
calculated both in the frequency domain
and in the time domain, are remarkably
good. Some comparative results of the six
motion amplitudes of the S-175
containership design are given in Table I.

Figure 6 Body Plan S-175 Ship


This S-175 containership design had been
subject of several computer and
experimental studies, co-ordinated by the
Shipbuilding Research Association of
Japan and the Seakeeping Committee of
the International Towing Tank Conference
[4,5]. Results of these studies have been
used continuously for validating program
SEAWAY after each modification during
its development.
For this ship, the motions have been
calculated in the frequency domain and in
the time domain at zero forward ship
speed.
Additional data, used during the time
domain simulations, are:
- maximum frequency of damping
curves: = 5.00 rad/s
- frequency interval: = 0.05 rad/s
- maximum time in retardation
functions: i, j = 50.00 s
- time interval: t = 0.25 s
The potential coefficients and the
frequency characteristics of the wave loads
at zero forward speed, calculated by
SEAWAY-D, have been input in
SEAWAY-T and the calculations have
been carried out for a regular wave

Table I Comparison of Computations


for S-175 Ship

24

linear(ised) systems, it may be concluded


that the computer codes SEAWAY-D and
SEAWAY-T have an equal accuracy as
the frequency domain predictions of these
linear(ised) motions by the parent code
SEAWAY.

Comparisons for a rectangular barge (100


x 20 x 4 meter), with hoppers (25 x 14
meter) fore and aft, are given in Table II
for the natural roll frequency region. The
experimental roll damping data were input
here.

This conclusion holds that the preprocessing program SEAWAY-D delivers


reliable results. It is advised however to
carry out a similar validation study with
the computer codes SEAWAY-D and
DREDMO too.

[1] W.E. Cummins


The Impulse Response Function and Ship
Motions, Symposium on Ship Theory,
Institt fr Schiffbau der Universitt
Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, January
1962, Schiffstechnik, 9, 101-109, 1962.

Table II Comparison of Computations


for a Barge with Hoppers
Based on these and a lot of other
comparisons between the time domain and
the frequency domain approaches for
linear systems, it may be concluded that
SEAWAY-D + SEAWAY-T has an equal
accuracy as the frequency domain
predictions of these linear motions by the
parent program SEAWAY.
This conclusion holds that the preprocessing program SEAWAY-D provides
reliable results.

References

[2] W. Frank
Oscillation of Cylinders in or below the
Free Surface of a Fluid, Naval Ship
Research and Development Center,
Washington, U.S.A., Report 2375, 1967.
[3] Y. Ikeda, Y. Himeno and N. Tanaka
A Prediction Method for Ship Rolling,
Department of Naval Architecture,
University of Osaka Prefecture, Japan,
Report 00405, 1978.

Conclusions and Remarks

This new release of SEAWAY-D includes


the use of local twin-hull cross-sections,
the N-Parameter Close-Fit Conformal
Mapping Method and (non)linear viscous
roll damping coefficients. Special attention
has been paid to longitudinal jumps in the
cross sections and fully submerged crosssections. Also, improved definitions of the
hydrodynamic potential masses at an
infinite frequency and the wave loads have
been added.

[4] I.T.T.C.
Proceedings of the 15th International
Towing Tank Conference, The Hague, the
Netherlands, 1978.
[5] I.T.T.C.
Proceedings of the 18th International
Towing Tank Conference, Kobe, Japan,
1987.
[6] J.M.J. Journe
SEAWAY-Delft, User Manual of Release
3.00, Delft University of Technology,
Shiphydromechanics Laboratory, Delft,

Based on a lot of comparisons, made


between the time domain and the
frequency
domain
approaches
for
25

the Netherlands, Report 849, January


1990.

[12] P. Kaplan and W.R. Jacobs


Two-Dimensional Damping Coefficients
from Thin-Ship Theory, Stevens Institute
of Technology, Davidson Laboratory,
Note 586, 1960.

[7] J.M.J. Journe


Motions of Rectangular Barges, 10th
International Conference on Offshore
Mechanics and Arctic Engineering,
Stavanger, Norway, June 1991.

[13] S.A. Miedema, J.M.J. Journe


and S. Schuurmans
On the Motions of a Seagoing Cutter
Dredge,
a
Study
in
Continuity,
th
Proceedings of 13
World Dredging
Congress WODCON92, Bombay, India,
1992, www.shipmotions.nl

[8] J.M.J. Journe


SEAWAY-Delft, User Manual of Release
4.00, Delft University of Technology,
Shiphydromechanics Laboratory, Delft,
the Netherlands, Report 910, March 1992.

[14] T.F. Ogilvie


Recent Progress Towards the Understanding and Prediction of Ship Motions,
Fifth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Bergen, Norway, 1964.

[9] J.M.J. Journe


Strip Theory Algorithms, Revised Report
1992, Delft University of Technology,
Shiphydromechanics Laboratory, Delft,
the Netherlands, Report 912, March 1992.

[15] F. Tasai
On the Damping Force and Added Mass of
Ships Heaving and Pitching, Research
Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu
University, Japan, Vol. VII, No 26, 1959.

[10] J.M.J. Journe


SEAWAY-D/3.00,
a
Pre-processing
Program to Calculate the Hydromechanic
Input Data for Program DREDMO/4.0,
September 1992.

[16] F. Tasai
Hydrodynamic Force and Moment Produced by Swaying and Rolling Oscillation of
Cylinders on the Free Surface, Research
Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu
University, Japan, Vol. IX, No 35, 1961.

[11] J.M.J. Journe


User Manual of Program SEAWAYD/4.10, a Pre-Processing Program of
DREDMO/4.0, Delft University of
Technology, Shiphydromechanics Laboratory, Delft, the Netherlands, Report 969,
March 1993.

26