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Lesson1

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah
Lesson2
Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Lesson3
Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Lesson4

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Lesson5
Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Aroha
Avroah

Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, a


a, Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa

Sa-Sa, Re-Re, Ga-Ga, Ma-Ma, Pa-Pa, Dha-Dha, Ni-Ni, a-a


a-a, Ni-Ni, Dha-Dha, Pa-Pa, Ma-Ma, Ga-Ga, Re-Re, Sa-Sa.

Sa-Sa-Sa, Re-Re-Re, Ga-Ga-Ga, Ma-Ma-Ma, Pa-Pa-Pa, Dha-Dha-Dha, Ni-Ni-Ni, a-a-a


a-a-a, Ni-Ni-Ni, Dha-Dha-Dha, Pa-Pa-Pa, Ma-Ma-Ma,Ga-Ga-Ga, Re-Re-Re, Sa-Sa-Sa

Sa-Sa-Sa-Sa, Re-Re-Re-Re,Ga- Ga-Ga-Ga, Ma-Ma-Ma-Ma, Pa- Pa-Pa-Pa, Dha-Dha-Dha-Dha, Ni-Ni-Ni-Ni,


a-a- a-a
a-a- a-a, Ni-Ni-Ni-Ni, Dha-Dha-Dha-Dha, Pa-Pa-Pa-Pa, Ma-Ma-Ma-Ma, Ga-Ga-Ga-Ga, Re-Re-Re-Re,
Sa-Sa-Sa-Sa

Sa-Re-Ga, Re-Ga-Ma, Ga-Ma-Pa, Ma-Pa-Dha, Pa-Dha-Ni,Dha- Ni- a


a -Ni-Dha, Ni-Dha-Pa,Dha-Pa-Ma, Pa-Ma-Ga, Ma-Ga-Re, Ga-Re-Sa

Sa-Re-Ga-Ma, Re-Ga-Ma-Pa, Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha, Ma-Pa-Dha-Ni, Pa-Dha-Ni- a


a -Ni-Dha-Pa, Ni-Dha-Pa-Ma, Dha-Pa-Ma-Ga , Pa-Ma-Ga-Re, Ma-Ga-Re-Sa

Sa Re Ga Ma Pa, Re Ge Ma Pa Dha, Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni, Ma Pa Dha Ni a


a Ni Dha Pa Ma, ni dha pa ma ga, dha pa ma gA re, pa ma ga re sa

sa re-sa re ga, re ga-re ga ma, ga ma-ga ma pa, ma pa-ma pa dha,pa dha-pa dha ni, dha ni-dha ni a
a ni - a ni dha, ni dha-NI dha pa, dha pa-dha pa ma, Pa ma-pa ma ga, ma ga- ma ga re, ga re-ga re
sa

sa re-sa re ga ma, re ga-re ga ma pa, ga ma-ga ma pa dha, ma pa-ma pa dha nI, pa dha-pa dha ni a
a ni- a ni dha pa, ni dha-nI dHA pa ma, dha pa-dha pa ma ga, Pa ma-pa ma gA Re, ma gama ga re
sa

Sa re- Sa re ga ma pa, Re ga-Re ga ma pa dha, Ga ma-ga ma pa Dha ni, ma pa-ma pa Dha ni a


a ni- a ni Dha pa ma, ni Dha-ni Dha pa ma Ga, Dha pa-Dha pa ma Ga re, pa ma-pa ma ga re sa.

Sa sa-sa re ga, Re re -RE Ga ma, Ga ga- ga ma pa, ma ma-ma pa Dha, pa pa-pa Dha ni, Dha dha-dha
ni a
a a-a ni dha, ni ni-ni dha pa, Dha dha-dha pa ma, pa pa-pa ma ga, ma ma-ma ga re, ga ga-ga re
sa

Sa sa-sa re ga ma, Re re-re ga ma pa, ga ga-ga ma pa dha, ma ma-ma pa dha ni, pa pa-pa dha ni a

a a-a ni dha pa, ni ni-ni dha pa ma, dha dha-dha pa ma ga, pa pa-pa ma ga re, ma ma-ma ga re sa

Sa sa-sa re ga ma pa, re re-re ga ma pa dha, ga ga-ga ma pa dha ni, ma ma-ma pa dha ni a


a a-a ni dha pa ma, ni ni-ni dha pa ma ga, dha dha-dha pa ma ga re, pa pa-pa ma ga re sa

Sa ga, re ma, ga pa,, ma dha, pa ni, dha a


a dha, ni pa, dha ma, pa ga, ma re, ga sa

Sa ma, re pa, ga dha, ma ni, pa a


a pa, ni ma, dha ga, pa re, ma sa

Sa re ga-sa re ga ma, re ga ma-re ga ma pa, ga ma pa-ga ma pa dha, ma pa dha ma pa


dha ni,PA DHA NI- pa dha ni a
a ni dha a ni dha pa, ni dha pa ni dha pa ma, dha pa ma dha pa ma ga, pa ma ga
pa ma ga rE, ma ga re- ma ga re sa

Sa re ga-sa re, re ga ma-re ga, ga ma pa-ga ma, ma pa dha-ma pa, pa dha ni-pa dha, dha ni a a e
ni a
a ni dha-a ni, ni dha pa-ni dha, dha pa ma-dha pa, pa ma ga- pa ma, ma ga re-ma ga, ga re sa-ga
re, re sa ni-re sa

Ga re sa ga re, ma ga re ma ga, pa ma ga pa ma, dha pa ma dha pa, ni dha pa ni dha, a ni dha a ni,
e a ni e a
Dha ni a dha ni, pa dha ni pa dha , ma pa dha ma pa, ga ma pa ga ma, re ga ma re ga, sa re ga sa
re, ni sa re ni sa

1. Hindustani Music.
2. Carnatic Music.
There are 7 Swaras
(Notations ) in this system. They are as follows
SA, RE, GA, MA, PA, DHA, NI
The names of these swaras are as follows :
Sa:- Shadaj,
Re:- Rishab,
Ga:- Gandhar,
Ma:- Madhyam,
Pa:- Pancham,
Dha:- Dhaivat,
Ni:- Nishad
Notations
There two types of Notation system
Pandit Bhatkhande System
Pandit Paluskar System
We are going to use Pandit. Bhatkhande Notation System.
Types of Swaras
Shuddha Swaras:- Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni These 7 Swaras are called Shuddha Swaras.
Komal Swaras:- Re, Ga, Dha, Ni, These Four Swaras are called Komal Swaras
Tivra Swaras:- Ma is the Tivra Swara.
Seven Swaras come together to form a Saptak (octave). These Saptak are of following
types
Madra (Lower octave)
Madhya (Middle octave)
Taar (Upper Octave)
Notation of Shuddha Swaras:- No Symbols to these Swaras .
e.g. Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni
Notation of Komal Swaras:- Swaras are underlined
e.g. Re, Ga, Dha, Ni,
Notation of Tivra Swaras:- Straight line above the Swaras.
e.g. Ma
1. Notation Swaras according to Saptak (Octave)
Mandra Saptak: - Dot Below the Swaras e.g. Sa, Re, Gaa ,a Ma
a
Madhya Saptak:- No symbol:- e.g. Sa, Re, Ga, Ma
Taar Saptak:- Dot above the Swaras e.g. a, e, a, M
2. Aroh:- Accending order of the Swaras is known as Aroha.
3. Avroh:- Decending order of the Swaras is known as Avroha.
4. Alankar:- The sequence of Swaras in order of Aroha and Avroha is known as Alankar

5. Swara:- Musical Sound is known as Swara.


Lesson 1
Alankar
1. Aroha:Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, a
Avroha:a, Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa
2.Aroha:Sa-Sa, Re-Re, Ga-Ga, Ma-Ma, Pa-Pa, Dha-Dha, Ni-Ni, a-a
Avroh:a-a, Ni-Ni, Dha-Dha, Pa-Pa, Ma-Ma, Ga-Ga,
Re-Re, Sa-Sa.

Ju
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3.Aroha:Sa-Sa-Sa, Re-Re-Re, Ga-Ga-Ga, Ma-Ma-Ma, Pa-Pa-Pa,
Dha-Dha-Dha, Ni-Ni-Ni, a-a-a
Avroha:a-a-a, Ni-Ni-Ni, Dha-Dha-Dha, Pa-Pa-Pa, Ma-Ma-Ma,Ga-Ga-Ga, Re-Re-Re, Sa-Sa-Sa
Lesson 2
1. Aroha:Sa-Sa-Sa-Sa, Re-Re-Re-Re,Ga- Ga-Ga-Ga, Ma-Ma-Ma-Ma, Pa- Pa-Pa-Pa, Dha-Dha-Dha-Dha,

Aug
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Ni-Ni-Ni-Ni, a-a- a-a
Avroha:a-a- a-a, Ni-Ni-Ni-Ni, Dha-Dha-Dha-Dha, Pa-Pa-Pa-Pa, Ma-Ma-Ma-Ma, Ga-Ga-Ga-Ga,
Re-Re-Re-Re, Sa-Sa-Sa-Sa
2. Aroha:Sa-Re-Ga, Re-Ga-Ma, Ga-Ma-Pa, Ma-Pa-Dha, Pa-Dha-Ni,Dha- Ni- a
Avroha:a -Ni-Dha, Ni-Dha-Pa,Dha-Pa-Ma, Pa-Ma-Ga, Ma-Ga-Re, Ga-Re-Sa
3. Aroha:-

Sep
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Sa-Re-Ga-Ma, Re-Ga-Ma-Pa, Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha, Ma-Pa-Dha-Ni, Pa-Dha-Ni- a
Avroha:a -Ni-Dha-Pa, Ni-Dha-Pa-Ma, Dha-Pa-Ma-Ga , Pa-Ma-Ga-Re, Ma-Ga-Re-Sa

Lesson 3
1. Aroha:Sa Re Ga Ma Pa, Re Ge Ma Pa Dha, Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni, Ma Pa Dha Ni a

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Avroha:a Ni Dha Pa Ma, ni dha pa ma ga, dha pa ma gA re, pa ma ga re sa
2.Aroha:sa re-sa re ga, re ga-re ga ma, ga ma-ga ma pa, ma pa-ma pa dha,pa dha-pa dha ni, dha
ni-dha ni a
Avroh:a ni - a ni dha, ni dha-NI dha pa, dha pa-dha pa ma, Pa ma-pa ma ga, ma ga- ma ga re, ga
re-ga re sa
3. Aroha:sa re-sa re ga ma, re ga-re ga ma pa, ga ma-ga ma pa dha, ma pa-ma pa dha nI, pa dha-pa
dha ni a

Nov
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Avroh:a ni- a ni dha pa, ni dha-nI dHA pa ma, dha pa-dha pa ma ga, Pa ma-pa ma gA Re, ma gama
ga re sa
Lesson 4
1. Aroha :Sa re- Sa re ga ma pa, Re ga-Re ga ma pa dha, Ga ma-ga ma pa Dha ni, ma pa-ma pa Dha ni
a
Avroh:a ni- a ni Dha pa ma, ni Dha-ni Dha pa ma Ga, Dha pa-Dha pa ma Ga re, pa ma-pa ma ga
re sa.

Dec
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2. Aroha :Sa sa-sa re ga, Re re -RE Ga ma, Ga ga- ga ma pa, ma ma-ma pa Dha, pa pa-pa Dha ni, Dha
dha-dha ni a
Avroh :a a-a ni dha, ni ni-ni dha pa, Dha dha-dha pa ma, pa pa-pa ma ga, ma ma-ma ga re, ga
ga-ga re sa
3. Aroha :Sa sa-sa re ga ma, Re re-re ga ma pa, ga ga-ga ma pa dha, ma ma-ma pa dha ni, pa pa-pa
dha ni a

Avroh :a a-a ni dha pa, ni ni-ni dha pa ma, dha dha-dha pa ma ga, pa pa-pa ma ga re, ma ma-ma
ga re sa
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Lesson 5
1. Aroha :Sa sa-sa re ga ma pa, re re-re ga ma pa dha, ga ga-ga ma pa
dha ni, ma ma-ma pa dha ni a
Avroh:a a-a ni dha pa ma, ni ni-ni dha pa ma ga, dha dha-dha pa
ma ga re, pa pa-pa ma ga re sa
2.Aroha :14 / 25
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Sa ga, re ma, ga pa,, ma dha, pa ni, dha a
Avroh :a dha, ni pa, dha ma, pa ga, ma re, ga sa
3. Aroha :Sa ma, re pa, ga dha, ma ni, pa a
Avroh :a pa, ni ma, dha ga, pa re, ma sa
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Lesson 6
1. Aroha :Sa re ga-sa re ga ma, re ga ma-re ga ma pa, ga ma pa-ga ma pa dha, ma pa dha ma pa dha
ni,PA DHA NI- pa dha ni a
Avroh :a ni dha a ni dha pa, ni dha pa ni dha pa ma, dha pa ma dha pa ma ga, pa ma ga pa
ma ga rE, ma ga re- ma ga re sa
2. Aroha :Sa re ga-sa re, re ga ma-re ga, ga ma pa-ga ma, ma pa dha-ma pa, pa dha ni-pa dha, dha ni
a
Err:509
a
e ni
a
16 / 25

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Avroh:a ni dha-a ni, ni dha pa-ni dha, dha pa ma-dha pa, pa ma ga- pa ma, ma ga re-ma ga, ga re
sa-ga re, re sa ni-re sa
3. Aroha :Ga re sa ga re, ma ga re ma ga, pa ma ga pa ma, dha pa ma dha pa, ni dha pa ni dha, a ni
dha
a
ni, e
a
ni e
a
Avroh :Dha ni a dha ni, pa dha ni pa dha , ma pa dha ma pa, ga ma pa ga ma, re ga ma re ga, sa re
ga sa re, ni sa re ni sa
17 / 25
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Lesson 7
1.Aroha :Sa re ga-re ga, Re Ga Ma Ga ma, ga ma pa ma pa, ma pa Dha pa Dha, Pa Dha ni-Dha ni,
Dha ni a -ni a
Avroh:a ni Dha-ni Dha, ni Dha pa-Dha pa, Dha pa ma-pa ma, pa ma Ga- ma Ga, ma Ga re-Ga Re,
Ga re Sa-Re Sa
2.Aroha :Sa ga Re Sa, Re ma ga Re, ga pa ma ga, ma Dha pa ma, pa ni Dha pa, Dha a ni Dha, ni e
a
ni,
a
Ga E
a
Avroh :18 / 25
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a Dha ni a, ni pa Dha ni, Dha ma pa Dha, Pa ga ma pa, ma RE ga ma, Ga sa re Ga, Re ni
sa Re, Sa dha ni sa
3. Aroha :Sa re ga ma, sa re sa ma, Re ga ma pa, Re ga re pa, Ga ma pa Dha, Ga ma Ga Dha, ma pa
Dha ni, ma pa ma ni, pa dha ni a, pa dha pa a

Avroh :a ni Dha pa, a ni a pa, ni dha pa ma, ni Dha ni ma, Dha pa ma ga, dha pa dha ga, pa ma
ga re, pa ma pa re, ma ga re sa, ma ga ma sa
Lesson 8
1. Aroha :19 / 25
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Sa re -re sa, re ga ga re, ga ma-ma ga, ma pa pa ma, pa Dha Dha pa, Dha nini Dha, ni
sa sa ni, a e-e a
Avroha :a ni ni a, ni Dha-dha ni, Dha pa- pa Dha, pa mama pa, ma ga ga ma, ga re-re ga, Re
sa-sa re, Sa ni-ni sa
2. Aroha :Sa re ga re sa, Re ga ma ga re, ga ma pa ma ga, ma pa Dha pa ma, pa Dha ni Dha pa, Dha ni
a
ni Dha, ni
a
e
a
ni,
a
e Ga e
a
Avroha :a ni Dha ni a, ni Dha pa Dha ni, Dha pa ma pa Dha, pa ma ga ma pa, ma ga re GA ma , ga
re sa re ga, re sa ni sa re, sa ni Dha ni sa
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3.Aroha :Sa re sa, re ga re, ga ma ga, ma pa ma, pa Dha pa, Dha ni Dha, ni a ni, a e a
Avroha :a ni a, ni Dha ni, Dha pa Dha, pa ma pa, ma ga ma, ga re ga, re sa RE, sa ni sa
Lesson 9
1. Aroha :Sa re sa ga, re ga re ma, ga ma ga pa, ma pa ma Dha, pa Dha pa ni, Dha ni dha a
Avroha :21 / 25
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a ni a Dha, ni Dha ni pa, Dha pa Dha Ma, Pa ma pa ga, ma ga ma re, ga re ga sa

2. Aroha :Sa ga sa re ga, re ma re ga ma, ga pa ga ma pa, ma Dha ma pa Dha, pa ni pa Dha ni, Dha a
Dha ni
a
Avroha :a Dha a ni Dha, ni pa ni Dha pa, Dha ma Dha pa ma, pa ga pa ma ga, ma re ma ga re, Ga
sa ga re sa
3. Aroha :Sa re ga sa ga, re ga ma re ma, Ga ma pa ga pa, ma pa Dha ma Dha, pa Dha ni pa ni, DHA NI
a
Dha
a
22 / 25
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Avroha :a ni Dha a Dha, ni Dha pa ni pa, Dha pa ma Dha ma, pa ma ga pa ga, ma ga re ma re, ga re
sa ga sa
Lesson 10
Sargam of Shuddha swaras :Sa Ga, Sa Ga, Sa Ga, ma Ga Re Sa,
ni re, ni re, ni re, Ga Re sa ni
Sa Ga, Sa Ga, Sa Re Ga ma pa,
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ma Ga Re Sa, Ga Re Sa Ni, Sa Sa Sa
a a - a ni Dha pa, ni ni-ni Dha pa ma,
Dha Dha- Dha pa ma ga, pa pa- pa ma Ga Re,
Ma ma - ma ga re sa, ni re sa,
sa re ga ma pa, ma ga re sa, ga re sa ni sa sa sa
24 / 25
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25 / 25

In the context of Indian classical music, Swara is a Sanskrit word that means a note in the octave. The seven basicswaras of th
named shadja, rishabh, gandhar, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat and nishad, and are shortened to Sa, Ri (Carnatic) or Re (Hindu
Pa, Dha, and Ni and written S, R, G, M, P, D, N. Collectively these notes are known as the sargam (the word is an acronym of
of the first four swaras). Sargam is the Indian equivalent to solfege, a technique for the teaching of sight-singing. The tone Sa is
with any particularpitch. As in Western moveable-Do solfge, Sa refers to the tonic of a piece or scale rather than to any particu

In the general sense svara means tone, and applies to chanting and singing. The basic swaras of Vedic chanting
Notation[edit]

A dot above a letter indicates that the note is sung one octave higher, and a dot below indicates one octave lower. Or, if a note w
name - Sa, for example - is an octave higher than the note represented by S, an apostrophe is placed to the right: S'. If it is an o
apostrophe is placed to the left: 'S. Apostrophes can be added as necessary to indicate the octave: for example, ``g would be th
in the octave two octaves below that which begins on the note S (that is, two octaves below g).

The basic mode of reference is that which is equivalent to the Western Ionian mode or major scale (called Bilawalthaat in Hind
music,Dheerasankarabharanam in Carnatic). All relationships between pitches follow from this. In any seven-tone mode (startin
D, and N can be natural(shuddha, lit. 'pure') or flat (komal, 'soft') but never sharp, and the M can be natural or sharp (tivra) but n
twelve notes as in the Western chromatic scale. If a swara is not natural (shuddha), a line below a letter indicates that it is flat (
acute accent above indicates that it is sharp (tivra). Sa and Pa are immovable (once Sa is selected), forming a just perfect fifth.

In some notation systems, the distinction is made with capital and lowercase letters. When abbreviating these tones, the form o
is relatively lower in pitch always uses a lowercase letter, while the form which is higher in pitch uses an uppercase letter. So ko
the letter r and shuddha Re/Ri, the letter R, but shuddha Ma uses m because it has a raised form - tivra Ma - which uses the let
are always abbreviated as S and P, respectively, since they cannot be altered.
The chart below assumes Sa to be at C.

Full form (Carnatic)


Shadja

Shuddha Madhyama

Prati Madhyama
Panchama
Swaras in Carnatic music[edit]

The swaras in Carnatic music are slightly different in the twelve-note system. There are three types each of Rish

Position

As you can see above, Chatushruti Rishabha and Shuddha Gandhara share the same pitch (3rd key/ position). H
Swara meanings[edit]

Each shuddha swara (i.e., Sa, Re/Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha/Da, and Ni) is traditionally held to have originated in the sound of a diffe
some have additional meanings of their own. Also, each swara is associated with one of the seven chakras of the body. Just as
ascend through the saptak, so they are mapped onto the chakras in the body in ascending order. Komal notes are associated w
of each chakra; the left channel, Ida Nadi, is the side of emotion and intuition. Shuddha and tivra notes are associated with the
right channel, Pingala Nadi, is the side of logic. Ragas, therefore, have more or less of an effect on a given chakra depending o
contain.

Swara

Sa

Re

Ga

Ma

Pa

Dha

Ni

In certain forms of Indian classical music andqawwali, when a rapid 16th note sequence of the same note is sun
Special forms of swaras[edit]

In the context of Indian classical music some specific forms of swara-s fulfill the technique of playing a note.
Such ornamentations (Sanskrit: Alankar) in Indian classical music is important for the proper rendition and essential to create th
a raga. Some notes are linked with their preceding or succeeding notes; these linked notes are called gracenotes or kan-swar
deal with so called touchnotes. Kan-swars can be executed vocally and on instruments in three ways:

1. using a swift short glide (meend or ghaseet), 2. as a Sparsh (technique of playing a note on a plucked stringed instrument, th
notes is ascending) and 3. as a Krintan (the opposite of a Sparsh, movement of notes is descending).

Andolitswars are raga-specific notes that are oscillated within the Andolan alankar. The specification of the Andolanalankar is
(swing) from a fixed note touching the periphery of an adjacent note. By this oscillation the shrutis (microtones) are touched wh
between.

Abbreviated
Abbreviated
Full form
form
form
(Hindustani)
(Carnatic)
(Hindustani)
Sa

Shadja

Western

Sa

Shuddha
Shuddha Ma Madhyama

Ma

Prati Ma

Tivra
Madhyama

M'a

F#

Pa

Panchama

Pa

Swara () Short name

Notation

Mnemonic

# of half
Western
steps from
note(Sa = C)
Sa

Shadja () Sa

sa

Shuddha
Rishabha (
)
Ri

R1

ra

Chatushruti
Rishabha
) Ri
(

R2

ri

Shuddha
Gandhara
( )

G1

ga

Shatshruti
Rishabha
( ) Ri

R3

ru

Sadharana
Gandhara
( ) Ga

G2

gi

Antara
Gandhara
( )

Ga

G3

gu

Shuddha
Madhyama
( )

Ma

M1

ma

Prati
Madhyama
( )

Ma

M2

mi

Panchama
()

Pa

pa

D1

dha

Ga

Shuddha
Dhaivata (
)
Dha

Chatushruti
Dhaivata
( ) Dha

D2

dhi

Shuddha
Nishada (
)
Ni

N1

na

Shatshruti
Dhaivata
( ) Dha

D3

dhu

10

Kaisiki
Nishada
( ) Ni

N2

ni

10

Kakali
Nishada
( ) Ni

N3

nu

11

This
section does
not cite any
references
(sources). Pl
ease help
improve this
section
by adding
citations to
reliable
sources.
Unsourced
material may
be
challenged
and removed.
(May2008)

Sanskrit
Expansion

Meaning

Shadja () six-born

Rishabha
()

bull

Animal

Chakra

God

peacock

Ganapati
mldhra
(base of spine)

Bull

svdhihn
a
Agni
(genitals)

Gandhara
()

sky

goat

maipra
(solar
plexus andna
Rudra(Shiva)
vel)

Madhyama
()

middle

dove/heron

anhata
Vishnu
(heart)

Panchama
()

fifth

cuckoo/nighti viuddha
Naarada
ngale
(throat)

Sadasiva
(Shiva as
the unmanife
st, precursor
to creation)

Dhaivata
()

earth

Horse

j
(third eye)

Nishadam
()

hunter

elephant

sahasrraSurya(Sun)
(crown of the head)

Page Capture from Kramik Pustak Malika. SwarSaptak also uses SwarSaptak Notation ( for English and more computer friendly) in so

References:

nd more computer friendly) in some pages.