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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

Paul Henley A. Ayuma


College of Architecture and Fine Arts
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

Introduction
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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

Housing is one of those basic social conditions that determine the


quality of life and welfare of people and places. Where homes are located,
how well designed and built, and how well they are weaved into the
environmental, social, cultural and economic fabric of communities are
factors that, in a very real way, influence the daily lives of people, their
health, security and wellbeing, and which, given the long life of dwellings as
physical structures, affect both the present and future generations. Housing
is therefore central to sustainable development.
Rapid urbanization places remarkable strain on housing and serviced
land. By 2030, about 3 billion people, or about 40 per cent of the worlds
population, will need proper housing and access to basic infrastructure and
services such as water and sanitation systems. This translates into the need
to complete 96,150 housing units per day with serviced and documented
land from now till 2030.
Unfortunately, especially in the developing world, supply is often
limited by inadequate governance systems and human resource deficiencies,
as well as by institutions and regulations which are either obsolete or lacking
in capacity, or are poorly informed. So far, the failure of urban planning and
the construction sector in matching demand for homes has resulted in a
huge housing backlog that has led to the development of slums in a variety
of contexts globally. Due to constraints in formal housing and land delivery
systems, more and more people who would otherwise qualify for housing
programs are resorting to slum settlements.
In 1950 the urban population in Asia was 229 million, roughly
comparable to all other regions. Within the space of sixty years, however,
the population had grown seven-fold to over 1.7 billion in 2010. Asian cities
have consistently been hubs of growth and expansion. Between 1950 and
2000 eight out of the worlds ten fastest growing cities were in Asia: Tokyo,
Mumbai, Dehli, Dhaka, Jakarta, Karachi, Seoul and Kolkata. Over half of the
worlds urban population currently lives in Asian cities.

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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

These urbanization trends are set to continue in the coming decades.


Between 2010 and 2050 the urban population in Asia is predicted to nearly
double to reach 3.4 billion. The rate and scale of urban growth in Asia is
distinct to all other regions and such extensive change will continue to place
pressure on the affordability of land and housing in the region.
The continued growth and expansion of cities has placed enormous
strain on land and housing supply. The presence and expansion of urban
slums and informal settlements is a physical manifestation of poorly
functioning housing sectors, which do not provide a range of affordable
housing alternatives, especially for low- and middle-income households.
While Asia has experienced strong economic growth over the last three
decades, the benefits of this growth have not been shared equally. Economic
growth has increased the cost of key inputs to housing, particularly land and
construction materials, which has made formal, market-produced housing
prohibitively expensive for a vast proportion of the population in Asia.
As in other Asian countries, housing situation in the Philippines is
characterized by the emergence of continuing demand for affordable housing
units in response of the increasing population and household size, both in
urban and rural areas. Affordability poses a challenge due to such factors as
low income levels, inadequate supply of desired

units

and limited

accessibility to housing finance packages. Housing need for the period of


2007-2016 is estimated at 7,552,409 units, which is admittedly huge and far
greater than what the government can respond to by itself. This total consist
of 3.9 million units comprising of future housing needs resulting from
population growth; plus some 1.3 million in housing backlog, consisting of
housing needs for the homeless (e.g. living in caves, under the bridge, in
agricultural/industrial/

commercial

buildings,

push

carts,

and

streets)

dilapidated or condemned housing units.

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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

Background of Study
The study focuses on Urban Development of Lucena City which focuses
on low cost/affordable housing project. Low cost/affordable housing is
broadly defined as that which is adequate in quality and location and does
not cost so much that it prohibits its occupants meeting other basic living
costs or threatens their enjoyment of basic human rights. The project will be
designed according to the laws and policies of the Philippines in terms of
housing with the direct guidelines from HLURB (Housing and Land Use
Regulatory Board).
The project will focus on housing development project for the low
income citizens of Lucena. The project will offer the citizens of Lucena City
with affordable housing which will help the 8,859 household who only rents,
the 12,212 household who is rent-free with consent of owners, 1,967
household who is rent-free without the consent of owners to own a house
through this project in which it will help solve the Housing needs of the
population of Lucena City.

Statement of the Problem


The study aims resolve the housing needs of Lucena City through Low
Cost Housing Project. The housing project will give access to low cost housing
for the 8,859 household who only rents, the 12,212 household who is rentfree with consent of owners, 1,967 household who is rent-free without the
consent of owners through low monthly amortization financed by
government agencies like PAG-IBIG Fund. The houses in this project will be
designed in accordance to the NBCP (National Building Code of Philippines)
and the site will be planned in accordance to the standards of BP 220.
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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

This project will also set as an example in sustainable design through


cost effective materials, minimal or less carbon footprint during construction
and after construction, rainwater recycling, and solar power system for
electrical use in the housing unit.

Objectives
General Objectives
The main objective of this project is to provide an affordable housing
units to the population with low and middle income of Lucena City. The
project will provide decent housing that will not sacrifice any element of
safety or serviceability of the housing unit over its life cycle. Each housing
unit should be sustainable and functional in terms of design.
Specific Objectives
1. The housing project site development plan will be design and planned
in accordance to PD 957 (REVISED RULES AND REGULATIONS
IMPLEMENTING THE SUBDIVISION AND CONDOMINIUM BUYERS
PROTECTIVE DECREE) and other related laws.
1.1. The housing project will conform minimum design standards of a
typical subdivision in terms of roads, sidewalks, alleys, etc.
1.2. The housing project shall reserve, develop and maintain not less than
thirty percent (30%) of the total area of the subdivision, exclusive of
roads, service streets and alleys, as open space for parks and recreational
areas.

1.3.

The housing project will be constructed in a Residential Zone in

accordance to Model Zoning Ordinance.


2. Each housing unit will be architecturally and structurally sustainable
and eco-friendly.

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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

2.1.

Each housing unit that will be designed will use cost effective

construction technology and energy efficient materials in terms of


lighting, insulation, and other components of the unit.
2.2. Each housing units design will be based on Tropical Architecture
design style for thermal comfort through the use of passive cooling
elements like sunshades, cavity walls, light shelves, overhangs,
roof, and wall insulation.
2.3. Minimize energy dependency on the power grid system through
the use of solar power system for household electrical use.
3. The project development shall conform to PD 1152 (PHILIPPINE
ENVIRONMENTAL CODE) for the protection of the environment.
3.1. The housing project shall have drainage system for flood control
and sewage system for proper waste disposal.
3.2. Implement Storm water harvesting and waste water recycling
system for water conservation.
3.3. Allocation of vegetation and landscape in every saleable lot and
the subdivision itself for good air quality and visual ambiance.

Methodology
The complex process of planning and designing a low cost housing
project requires that it be a multidisciplinary endeavor. This being so, the
process must be organized and systematized so that all the stages such as:
roles, activities, contribution and expected results, and their levels,
standards and quality, are clear to everyone involved in the process.
Important Components for Design and Development
1. Location
One of the first most important components of a subdivision
development is choosing the right location, but builders do choose
different location for different reasons. Regardless, it is essential to
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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

choose an area with a healthy population or that is growing relatively


quick.
2. Space Availability
When developing a subdivision. It is essential to make sure that
there is enough space for the neighborhood to really grow. Along with
making sure that there is ample space for the beginning plans and to
make sure that each residence has enough space.
3. Types of housing unit
Determining what types of homes will be built is one of the
essential components of subdivision development. Failing to have a
plan in mind can cause you to end up with a neighborhood that doesnt
have a cohesive look and feel, or the neighborhood could go in the
wrong direction. In designing a unit each should have something in
common even if they are different in price and size. You might even
want to opt for homes in a certain style, or you could choose that you
want all of the homes to be brick to have something else in common
aesthetically.
4. Amenities
Since there are a lot of different subdivisions out there, you have
to add enough amenities to make people want to call your
neighborhood home. For example, you might choose to offer a
swimming pool and a small park for the kids to play in. Or, you could
opt to plant beautiful gardens. It isnt needed to have everything, but
you will want to have a few things to offer that will make your
subdivision different from the countless others that are out there.
When planning these amenities, however, make sure that you put
them in your budget; not only do you have to worry about initial costs,
but you also have to think about maintenance and upkeep as well.
Principles of Neighborhood Planning
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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

1. Size. A residential unit development should provide housing for that


population for which one elementary school is ordinarily required. Its
actual area depending upon its population density.
2. Boundaries. The unit should be bounded by arterial streets sufficiently
wide to facilitate traffic by-passing the neighborhood instead of passing
through it.
3. Open Spaces. Small Park and recreation space, planned to meet the
needs of the particular neighborhood should be provided.
4. Institution Sites. Sites for the school and other institutions having
service spheres coinciding with the limits of the unit should be suitably
grouped about a central point or common, and combined with the
neighborhood recreation area.
5. Internal Street System. The unit should be provided with a special
street system, each highway being proportioned to its probable traffic
load, and the street net as a whole being designed to facilitate
circulation within the unit with good access to maintain arteries, and to
discourage its use by through traffic.

Principles of neighborhood planning


Courtesy Urban Land Institute
Project Development Design Process
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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

To achieve the best outcomes in terms of design effectiveness and


process efficiencies, the applicant and or/their advisers should consider the
process described in Diagram. Diagram illustrates the best approach to
addressing design effectiveness and process efficiencies. Applicants and
their advisers should consider this process when considering development.
Each of the process steps is described below as actions. These are not
intended to be prescriptive, but are common to best practice subdivision
design processes.

DIAGRAM
1. Research
Be familiar with your site of interest and collect as much information
as you can aerial photos, cadastral plans, titles, any historical
information about buildings, previous land uses, hazards such as
flooding or slips, large trees, underground or overhead services etc.
Read the Design Guide to understand what the Council is considering
are important in subdivision design. This includes all outcomes,
guidelines and landscape advisory notes.
Look at the District Plan to see what the resource consent
requirements are for both subdivision and land uses.
In the District Plan there is a Structure Plan map. Look at this and
locate your property of interest and see what the context is. Also look
at any connections that need to be made, slope or open space areas,
or buffers for example.

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A Proposed Low Cost Housing Project

Consider the professional assistance (e.g. surveyor, engineer, and


planner) you may need each of these have professional institutes and
have lists of people in our area to contact.
2. Communicate
Meet with an advisor to discuss your ideas. It may be that several
different professionals (e.g. to help with infrastructure enquiries, or
roading) will need to assist. It may also be beneficial to have an initial
meeting and then follow-up meetings as ideas evolve.
Consider the neighbors interests. Do you know them and what their
plans are? There may be mutual benefits to you and your neighbors if
there are road connections to be made for example.

3. Assess
There may be areas of the site that are constrained in some way e.g.
by slope, proximity to incompatible uses, flooding hazard. Assess the
site with a view to mapping and addressing these constraints.
Assess the site and map for opportunities in the same way. There
may be good views, flatter land, good connection points for streets or
paths and proximity to a natural feature like a river for example.
Overlay these constraints and opportunities on a map to see where
the best locations for development areas are.
If you are using a professional like a surveyor or planner they should
do this with/for you. It is very useful to have this as background to
support your subdivision application.
4. Design Options
The position of streets and paths will be influential to the layout for
lots and these will also be the likely position for infrastructure. An
engineer or surveyor will usually need to be involved in this process.
It would be advisable to see the Council again with a few options and
get officers advice and comments. They will have some thoughts on
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how well the options satisfy the Design Guide intentions and District
Plan rules and Structure Plans.
5. Document
In the documentation parts the information and research are
gathered, including photographs.

References
BOOKS

TIME SAVE STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES


By: Joseph de Chiara & John Callender, 1973

TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN DATA


By: Donald Watson, Michael J. Crosbie, & John Hancock Callender, 1999

ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR SUBDIVISION


IN GROWTH AREAS
By: Growth Areas Authority, 2011

AFFORDABLE LAND AND HOUSING IN ASIA


By: UN-HABITAT, 2011

LAWS

NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES


REVISED RULES AND REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE SUBDIVISION
AND CONDOMINIUM BUYERS PROTECTIVE DECREE (PD 957) AND

OTHER RELATED LAWS


URBAN DEVELOPMENT HOUSING ACT OF 1992 (RA 7279)
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REVISED RULES AND STANDARDS FOR ECONOMIC ANDSOCIALIZED


HOUSING PROJECTS TO IMPLEMENTBATAS PAMBANSA BLG. 220
PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENTAL CODE (PD 1152)
DEFINING "OPEN SPACE" IN RESIDENTIAL SUBDIVISIONS AND AMENDING SECTION 31 OF
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 957 REQUIRING SUBDIVISION OWNERS TO PROVIDE ROADS,
ALLEYS, SIDEWALKS AND RESERVE OPEN SPACE FOR PARKS OR RECREATIONAL USE
(PD 1216)

WEBSITES

http://dev-tips.com/5-important-components-subdivision-development/
http://www.lawphil.net/
https://www.academia.edu/17550783/LOW_COST_HOUSING
http://philippinerealestatelaws.blogspot.com/2009/02/l-aw-s-governing-

subdivisions-and.html
http://www.zipmatch.com/blog/affordable-housing-for-filipinos
http://industry.gov.ph/industry/housing/
https://djecexplains.wordpress.com/tag/socialized-housing/
http://unhabitat.org/urban-themes/housing-slum-upgrading/
http://www.slideshare.net/joems_angel2000/housing-in-the-philippines
http://www.rha.gov.rw/uploads/media/Affordable_Housing_project.pdf

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