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Bridge Seismic Design

CSiBridge 2016

Bridge Seismic Design

Automated Seismic Design of Bridges


AASHTO Guide Specification for
LRFD Seismic Bridge Design

ISO BRG091415M14 Rev. 0

Proudly developed in the United States of America

September 2015

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Contents

Foreword
Step 1

Create the Bridge Model


1.1

Example Model

1-1

1.2

Description of the Example Bridge

1-2

1.3

Bridge Layout Line

1-4

1.4

Frame Section Property Definitions

1-4

1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4

1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7

Bent Cap Beam


Bent Column Properties
I-Girders Properties
Pile Properties

1.5

Bridge Deck Section

1-8

1.6

Bent Data

1-8

1.7

Bridge Object Definition

1-11

1.7.1
1.7.2
1.7.3

1-12
1-15
1-15

Abutment Property Assignments


Abutment Geometry
Bent Property Assignments

CSiBridge Seismic Design

1.7.4

Bent Geometry

1.8

Equivalent Pile Formulation

1-17

1.9

Bent Foundation Modeling

1-18

1.10 Mass Source

Step 2

1-19

Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request


2.1

Overview

2-1

2.2

AASHTO and USGS Hazard Maps

2-1

2.3

Seismic Design Preference

2-3

2.4

Seismic Design Request

2-4

2.5

Perform Seismic Design

2-8

2.6

Auto Load Patterns

2-9

2.7

Auto Load Cases

2-10

Step 3

Dead Load Analysis and Cracked Section Properties

Step 4

Response Spectrum and Demand Displacements

Step 5

ii

1-17

4.1

Overview

4-1

4.2

Response Spectrum Load Cases

4-1

4.3

Response Spectrum Results

4-5

Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments


5.1

Overview

5-1

5.2

Plastic Hinge Lengths

5-1

5.3

Nonlinear Hinge Properties

5-4

5.4

Nonlinear Material Property Definitions

5-7

Contents

5.4.1
5.4.2

5.5

Step 6

Nonlinear Material Properties Definitions for


Concrete
Nonlinear Material Properties Definitions for
Steel

Plastic Hinge Options

5-7
5-9
5-10

Capacity Displacement Analyses


6.1

Displacement Capacities for SDC B and C

6-2

6.2

Displacement Capacities for SDC D

6-3

6.3

Pushover Results

6-7

Step 7

Demand/Capacity Ratios

Step 8

Review Output and Create Report


8.1

Design 01 D/C Ratios

8-2

8.2

Design 02 Bent Column Force Demand

8-2

8.3

Design 03 Bent Column Idealized Moment


Capacity

8-2

Design 04 Bent Column Cracked Section


Properties

8-3

8.5

Design 05 Support Bearing Demands Forces

8-3

8.6

Design 06 Support Bearing Demand


Displacements

8-4

8.7

Design 07 Support Length Demands

8-5

8.8

Create Report

8-5

8.4

Chapter 9 Caltrans Fault Crossing Seismic Bridge Design


9.1

Introduction

9-1

9.2

Fault Crossing Response Spectrum Loading

9-2

iii

CSiBridge Seismic Design

9.3

Defining Fault Crossing Seismic Design Requests

9-5

9.4

Running Fault Crossing Seismic Design Requests

9-10

9.5

Creating a Seismic Design Report

9-11

9.6

Automatic Load Cases and Combinations

9-12

9.7

General Displacement Loading

9-14

9.7.1
9.7.2

References

iv

Defining Load Patterns and Response Spectrum


Functions
9-15
Defining a Seismic Design Request
9-17

Foreword

Over the past thirty-five years, Computer and Structures, Inc, has introduced
new and innovative ways to model complex structures. CSiBridge, the latest
innovation, is the ultimate integrated tool for modeling, analysis, and design of
bridge structures. The ease with which all of these tasks can be accomplished
makes CSiBridge the most versatile and productive bridge design package in
the industry.
Automated seismic design, one of CSiBridges many features, incorporates the
recently adopted AASHTO Guide Specification for LRFD Seismic Bridge
Design 2nd Edition, 2011. The 2011 implementation in CSiBridge also satisfies
the 2012 and 2014 interim revisions, which do not contain any changes that affect the program. CSiBridge allows engineers to define specific seismic design
parameters that are then applied to the bridge model during an automated cycle
of analysis through design.
Now, users can automate the response spectrum and pushover analyses. Furthermore, the CSiBridge program will determine the demand and capacity displacements and report the demand/capacity ratios for the Earthquake Resisting
System (ERS). All of this is accomplished in eight simple steps outlined as follows:
1. Create the Bridge Model
2. Evaluate the Ground Motion Hazard and the Seismic Design Request

vii

CSiBridge Seismic Design

3. Complete the Dead Load Analysis and evaluate the Cracked Section Properties
4. Identify Response Spectrum and Demand Displacements
5. Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments
6. Complete Capacity Displacement Analysis
7. Evaluate Demand/Capacity Ratios
8. Review Output and Create Report
A detailed explanation of each of the steps is presented in the chapters that follow. The example bridge model shown in the figure illustrates the CSiBridge
Automated Seismic Design features.

Schematic of the Eight Steps in the


Automated Seismic Design of Bridges using CSiBridge
viii

Foreword

Foreword

In addition to AASHTO Bridge Seismic Design, CSiBridge provides the capability to perform Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design. This new
seismic design procedure considers the more severe case where the rupture of a
seismic fault that crosses a bridge structure causes significantly different
ground displacements for the supports on either side of the fault. Most of the
concepts that apply to AASHTO Bridge Seismic Design also apply to the Caltrans Fault-Rupture case, with some new techniques introduced for this special
purpose. The details are provided in the last chapter of this manual.

Foreword

vii

STEP 1
Create the Bridge Model

1.1

Example Model
This chapter describes the first step in the process required to complete a Seismic Design Request for a bridge structure using CSiBridge. It is assumed the
user is familiar with the requirements in the program related to creating a
Linked Bridge Object. Only select features of the model development are included in this chapter. The CSiBridge model used throughout this manual is
available and includes all of the input parameters.

Figure 1-1 3D View of Example Model

Example Model

1-1

CSiBridge Seismic Design

As described in the AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge


Design, the seismic design strategy for this bridge is Type 1 Design; a ductile
substructure with an essentially elastic superstructure. This implies that the design must include plastic hinging in the columns.

1.2

Description of the Example Bridge


The example bridge is a three-span concrete I-girder bridge with the following
features:
Piles: 14-inch-diameter steel pipe pile filled with concrete. The concrete is reinforced with six #5 vertical bars with three #4 spirals having a 3-inch pitch.
Pile Cap: The bent columns are connected monolithically to a concrete pile cap
that is supported by nine piles each. The pile caps are 13-0 x 13-0 x 4-0
Bents: There are two interior bents with three 36-inch-diameter columns.
Deck: The deck consists of five 3-3-deep precast I-girders that support an
8-inch-thick deck and a wearing surface (35 psf). The deck width is 35'-10"
from the edge-of-deck to edge-of-deck.
Spans: Three spans of approximately 60-0.
The abutments are assumed to be free in both the longitudinal and transverse
directions.

Figure 1-2 Example Bridge Elevation

1-2

Description of the Example Bridge

STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Figure 1-3 Example Bridge Plan

Figure 1-4 Example Bridge BENT1 Elevation

Description of the Example Bridge

1-3

CSiBridge Seismic Design

1.3

Bridge Layout Line


The example model has three spans of approximately 60 feet each. The layout
line is defined using the Layout > Layout Line > New command and the
Bridge Layout Line Data form shown in Figure 1-5. The layout line is straight,
with no variation in elevation. The actual length of the layout line is 178.42 ft.

Figure 1-5 3D Bridge Layout Line Data

1.4

Frame Section Property Definitions


Four frame section properties must be described by the user to develop the example model. The four types of frame elements used in the example model
consist of a pile, bent cap beam, bent column, and precast concrete I-girder.
The section property definition for each of the elements is given in the subsections that follow.

1.4.1

Bent Cap Beam


The bent cap beams were defined using the Components > Type > Frame
Properties > Expand arrow command. The Add New Property button >

1-4

Bridge Layout Line

STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Frame Section Property Type: Concrete > Rectangular was used to add the following concrete rectangle:

Figure 1-6 3D Cap Beam Section Property Definition

The material property used was 4000 psi. Note that the units shown in Figure
1-6 are in inches. (To check this, hold down the Shift key and double click in
the Depth or Width edit box. This will display the CSiBridge Calculator.)

1.4.2

Bent Column Properties


The bent columns were defined using the Section Designer option that can be
accessed using the Components > Type > Frame Properties > New > Other
> Section Designer command. The size and quantity of both the vertical and
confinement reinforcing steel were defined using the form shown in Figure 1-7.
Further discussion of the column section properties as they pertain to the plastic hinge definitions is provided in Step 5.

Frame Section Property Definitions

1-5

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 1-7 Bent Column Property Definition

1.4.3

I-Girder Properties
The I-girder properties were
input using inch units, as
shown in Figure 1-8. (Again,
check this by holding down
the Shift key and double
clicking in a dimension edit
box to display the CSiBridge
Calculator.)

Figure 1-8 Precast I-Girder


Properties

1-6

Frame Section Property Definitions

STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

1.4.4

Pile Properties
The piles were defined as 14inch-diameter concrete piles with six #9 vertical
bars (Components > Type > Frame Properties > New > Concrete > Circular command). The outer steel casings of the pile were found to increase in the
flexural stiffness of the piles by a factor of 2.353. This value was applied as a
property modifier to the pile section property. The pile will be added to the
bridge model as Equivalent Cantilever piles, as shown in Figure 1-9 and as
described in subsequent Section 1.8. Using this method, the pile is replaced by
a beam that has equivalent stiffness properties to that of the pile with the surrounding soil.

Figure 1-9 Pile Properties

Frame Section Property Definitions

1-7

CSiBridge Seismic Design

1.5

Bridge Deck Section


The bridge deck section is 38.833 feet wide with a total of five
I-girders, as shown in Figure 1-10 (Components > Superstructure Type >
Deck Section > New command). The parapets as well as the wearing surface
are not part of the bridge deck structural definition but will be added to the
bridge model as superimposed dead loads (SDEAD).

Figure 1-10 Bridge Deck Section Properties

1.6

Bent Data
The bents for the subject model have three columns, each with a cap beam
width of 38.25 feet. The Bridge Bent data form shown in Figure 1-11, which is
accessed using the Components > Substructure Item > Bents > New command, is used to input the number of columns and the cap beam width. Since
multiple columns are specified, the location, height and support condition for
each column needs to be specified using the Bent Column Data form.

1-8

Bridge Deck Section

STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Figure 1-11 Bridge Bent Data

After the Modify/Show Column Data button is used, the Bent Column Data
form shown in Figure 1-12 can be used to define the type, location, height, angle and boundary conditions as well as the seismic hinge data for each bent
column.

Figure 1-12 Bent Column Data

For the seismic hinge data, RH Long and RH Trans are the relative clear
heights (from -1.0 to 2.0) from the base of the column to the point of contra-

Bent Data

1-9

CSiBridge Seismic Design

flexure under horizontal loading at the top of the bent, used to determine the
hinge lengths and positions for bridge seismic design. RH Long is for longitudinal loading (normal to the plane of the bent), and RH Trans is for transverse
loading (in the plane of the bent). Only concrete columns are affected. Steel
columns are not affected and use their own calculation. For each physical bent
column, the reference hinge property to be used at the top and bottom of the
column can be "Auto", "Auto Fiber", "None", and a list of user-defined hinge
properties. The reference hinge properties will only be used when the Concrete
or Steel Hinge Type is set to Auto: From Bent in the Bridge Seismic Design
Preference form, which is accessed using the Design/Rating > Seismic Design
> Preferences command. Under the case that the Hinge Type is Auto: From
Bent, if the reference hinge property is set to Auto, then the program will generate AASHTO/Caltrans hinges for concrete columns and FEMA 356 hinges
for steel columns; if the reference hinge property is set to user-defined hinge
property, then for the force-controlled type hinges, or the deformation controlled type hinges with moment-rotation or force-displacement nonlinear
property types,
An important part of this example model is the inclusion of the foundation elements. Although the foundations can be represented as Fixed, Pinned, or
Spring-Support restraints at the base of the columns, these have been explicitly
modeled in this example. It is important to note that when foundation objects
are part of the bridge model, the base of the bent column must not be restrained, but instead, connected to the foundation elements. Restraining the
base of the columns in the Bent Column Data form using Fixed or Pinned restraints would prevent the bridge loads from reaching the foundation. In this
example, a foundation spring (BFSP1) having no stiffness in any direction is
used as the Base Support data. After the foundations have been modeled and
connected to the bent column bases, support of the bent columns will be
achieved. The Foundation Spring Data form is shown in Figure 1-13. Access
this form by clicking the Foundation Spring Properties button on the Bridge
Bent Column Data form and then the Add New Foundation Spring button on
the Define Bridge Foundation Springs form, or by using the Components >
Substructure Item > Foundation Springs > New command.

1 - 10

Bent Data

STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Figure 1-13 Bent Column Base Restraint Definitions

1.7

Bridge Object Definition


The Bridge Object Data form (click the Bridge > Bridge Object > New command) is used to define the complete bridge object, including the superstructure
and substructure. See Figure 1-14.
The seismic response of the bridge model will depend on the Earthquake Resisting System (ERS). The user can define the types of support conditions at
the abutments and bents. The ERS will depend on the types of supports used at
the abutments and bents and the bearing properties that are used for each. If a
bearing has a restrained DOF, it will provide a load path that will act as part of
the bridge ERS. Abutments can be defined using bents as supports (this feature
was not used in the subject example).

Bridge Object Definition 1 - 11

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 1-14 Bridge Object Data form

The span data is used to define the span lengths and bent locations. Cross diaphragms also can be included in a bridge model using the Modify/Show Assignments > In Span Cross Diaphragms command and Modify/Show button.
No cross diaphragms were used as part of the example model.

1.7.1

Abutment Property Assignments


Both the start and end abutment assignments are specified using the Bridge Object Abutment Assignments form shown in Figure 1-15 (Bridge > Bridge Object > Supports > Abutments). The abutment bearing direction can be assigned a bearing angle if skewed abutments are needed. Diaphragms can be
added to the abutment as well.
Abutments are modeled using an Abutment Property, which can be defined
using the command Components > Substructure Item > Abutments > New.
This can also be accessed by clicking the + button next to the Abutment
Property option in the Substructure Assignment area of the Bridge Object
Abutment Assignments form. This brings up the Abutment Data form as shown

1 - 12

Bridge Object Definition

STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

in Figure 1-16. Note that a default abutment property is always created whenever the first bridge object is defined, and that is what is used for this example.

Figure 1-15 Abutment Assignments

Figure 1-16 Abutment Data

Abutments can alternatively be modeled using bents by selecting Bent Property in the Substructure Assignment area of the Bridge Object Abutment Assignment form. After that selection has been, an option is available to select the
appropriate property definition from a list of previously defined bent properties, or to add a new one by clicking the + button.

Bridge Object Definition 1 - 13

CSiBridge Seismic Design

The substructure location data is critical because CSiBridge accounts for the
superstructure/substructure kinematics. The ends of the bridge deck will have a
tendency to rotate due to gravity loading. If the abutment bearings are restrained against translation at both ends of a bridge, outward reactions on the
bearings and deck moments can be induced as a result of these restraints. The
amount of outward thrust and the moment in the deck are a function of the
amount of rotation and distance from the deck neutral axis to the top of abutment bearings. Therefore, the user should pay special attention to the substructure and bearing elevations as well as the bearing restraint properties. The user
also must keep in mind that the seismic resisting load path is dependent on the
restraint properties of the bearing at both abutments and bents.
For this example, only the vertical translation of the abutment bearings was set
to Fixed. All other abutment bearing components were set to Free since the
abutment restraint was assumed to be free in the longitudinal and transverse directions. See Figure 1-17 (display this form by clicking the + plus beside the
Bearing Property drop-down list on the Bridge Object Abutment Assignments
form and the Add New Bridge Bearing or Modify/Show Bridge Bearing button on the Define Bridge Bearings form).

Figure 1-17 Abutment Bearing Properties

To help visualize the abutment geometry, the graphic shown in Figure 1-18 includes the values in the example model to define the location of the abutment
bearings and substructure. It should also be noted that the CSiBridge program
automatically includes the BFXSS Rigid Link when the bridge object is updated.
1 - 14

Bridge Object Definition

STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

1.7.2

Abutment Geometry
Figure 1-18 also shows the location of the BBRG1 action point. This is the location where the bearing will translate or rotate depending on the bearing definitions.

Figure 1-18 Abutment Bearing Geometry

1.7.3

Bent Property Assignments


The bent property assignments are made using the Bridge Object Bent Assignment form, shown in Figure 1-19 (Bridge > Bridge Object > Supports >
Bents command). Similar to the abutment property assignments, the bent property assignments will include the bent directions, bearing properties, and substructure locations.

Bridge Object Definition 1 - 15

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 1-19 Bent Assignments form

For this example model, the bearing properties at the bents have fixed translation restraints in all directions but free restraints for all rotational directions.
See Figure 1-20 (click the + plus beside the Bearing Property drop-down list;
click the Modify/Show Bridge Bearing button on the Define Bridge Bearings
form).

Figure 1-20 Bent Bearing Data

1 - 16

Bridge Object Definition

STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

1.7.4

Bent Geometry
The bent geometry is shown in Figure 1-21 for the input values used to define
the bearing and substructure elevations from the Bridge Object Bent Assignment form (Figure 1-19).

Figure 1-21 Bent Support Geometry

Note that the BBRG2 connects to the center of the cap beam. The substructure
elevation is used to define the top of the cap beam. The action point of BBRG2
is at Elevation -49.0.

1.8

Equivalent Pile Formulation


Although it is not required to include explicit foundation elements (foundations
can be modeled as fixed, pinned or partially fixed restraints at the base of the
columns), these were included as part of the example model. Foundations can
be modeled in many ways. Equivalent length piles were used with an equivalent length of 5.1 feet to model the pile surrounded by soil, as described in Section 1.4.4. The equivalent lengths were established using the equations shown
in Figure 1-22.

Equivalent Pile Formulation 1 - 17

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 1-22 Equivalent Pile Properties

After the lengths of the piles were known, the piles were connected to an area
object representing the pile cap. The cap was meshed at the top of the pile locations. The completed pile cap appears in Figure 1-23, which is shown using a
3D extruded view.

Figure 1-23 View of Bent Foundations

1.9

Bent Foundation Modeling


The next and critical step in the model definition is to connect the foundation to
the base of the bent columns. For this example, joint constraints were used as
illustrated in Figure 1-24. This method of connecting the column base to the
foundation preserves connectivity even when updating the linked bridge model.

1 - 18

Bent Foundation Modeling

STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Column-to-Foundation Connection

Figure 1-24 Bent Column Base Connectivity

1.10

Mass Source
The Mass Source definition is used to define the mass to be included in the
modal and response spectrum load cases. Mass and weight are treated separately in CSiBridge: mass is used for inertia in dynamic analysis, and weight is
used for gravity loads.
By default, mass comes from the material mass density and any additional
mass assigned to joints, line objects, and area objects. However, you can use
the Mass Source command to specify that mass is to be computed from load
patterns, either in addition to or instead of the default mass.
Multiple Mass Sources definitions can be created for advanced dynamic analysis. This is rarely necessary. For this example, a single Mass Source is defined
that uses the default mass plus mass from load patterns.
The command Advanced > Define > Mass Source opens the Mass Source
form in shown Figure 1-25. Here the default mass source already defined can
be seen. Clicking the Modify/Show button opens the Mass Source Definition
form shown in Figure 1-26.

Mass Source 1 - 19

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 1-25 Mass Source

In this example, the combined weight of the parapets and wearing surface was
approximated as 2.0 kips per linear foot acting along the bridge deck. A load
pattern was added as a superimposed type with the name SDEAD (Loads >
Load Patterns).
This default mass that comes from the mass density of the materials is indicated by the option Element Self Mass and Additional Mass, which is checked
by default. Checking the additional option Specified Load Patterns allows
adding a linear combination of load patterns from which mass is to be computed. In this example the load pattern SDEAD is used with a scale factor of one.

Figure 1-26 Mass Source Definition

Note that adding load pattern DEAD would double-count the Element Self
Mass.

1 - 20

Mass Source

STEP 2
Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request

2.1

Overview
The ground motion hazard (response spectrum) can be determined by
CSiBridge by defining the bridge location using the latitude and longitude or
the postal zone. As an alternative, the user can input any user defined response
spectrum file. The site effects (soil site classifications) also are considered and
are part of the user input data.

2.2

AASHTO and USGS Hazard Maps


The recently adopted AASHTO Guide Specification for the LRFD Seismic
Bridge Design incorporates hazard maps based on a 1000-year return period.
When the user defines the bridge location by Latitude and Longitude,
CSiBridge creates the appropriate response spectra curve as follows:

Overview

2-1

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 2-1 AASHTO/USGS Hazard Maps used to determine the Demand Response Spectrum

Figure 2-2 Response Spectrum Function Data form

2-2

AASHTO and USGS Hazard Maps

STEP 2 - Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request

From the Response Spectrum Data form (Loads > Functions > Type > Response Spectrum > New > NCHRP 20-07), the values for SDS and SD1 are determined by CSiBridge and reported. The SD1 value is used to determine the
Seismic Design Category (SDC). The SDC is used to determine the analysis
and design requirements to be applied to the bridge. For example, if the SDC is
A, no capacity displacement calculation is performed. If the SDC is B or C,
CSiBridge uses an implicit formula (see Section 4.8 of the AASHTO Seismic
Guide Specification). If the SDC is D, CSiBridge uses a nonlinear pushover
analysis to determine the capacity displacements.

2.3

Seismic Design Preferences

Figure 2-3 Bridge Seismic Design Preferences form

The Design/Rating > Seismic Design > Preferences command accesses a form
that can be used to specify the design code, concrete hinge type, steel hinge
type and the hinge length option for all Seismic Design Requests. There are
four choices for the hinge type: Auto: AASHTO/Caltrans Hinge for concrete
and FEMA 356 hinge for steel, Auto: Fiber Hinge, Auto: From Bent and Userassigned. The following hinge length options are provided: Use Longitudinal

Seismic Design Preferences

2-3

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Hinge Length, Use Transverse Hinge Length, Use Shortest Hinge Length (DEFAULT), Use Longest Hinge Length, and Use Average Hinge Length. The
longitudinal and transverse hinge lengths are calculated based on the Seismic
Hinge Data specified in the Bridge Bent Column Data Form introduced in the
Section 1.6.

2.4

Seismic Design Request

Figure 2-4 Bridge Design Request form

The Design/Rating > Seismic Design > Design Request > Add New Request
command accesses a form that can be used to specify the name, check type,
loading and design request parameters for a Seismic Design Request. There are
two check types available: AASHTO Seismic Design and Caltrans Fault Crossing. For the loading, the pre-defined response spectrum function (see Section
2.2) to be used for a specific Seismic Design Request should be selected for the
horizontal and/or vertical direction. None should be selected if no response
spectrum is to be included in either direction in the seismic design request. The
form is shown in Figure 2-4.
For this example, which is of AASHTO Seismic Design, clicking the Modify/Show button will display the Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameters form, shown in Figure 2-5. A brief description of the parameters on that
form follows.

2-4

Seismic Design Request

STEP 2 - Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request

Figure 2-5 Seismic Design Parameters form

Item

Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameter

Seismic Design
Category
(SDC) Option

The user can choose to have the SDC be selected by the program
(i.e., Programmed Determined), or the user can impose a value
for the SDC (i.e., User Defined). To impose a value, select it from
Item 4, the Seismic Design Category.

Seismic Design
Category

If the user has opted to specify the Seismic Design Category in


Item 3, the user must specify the Seismic Design Category here as
B, C or D.

Bent Displacement
Demand Factor

This is a scale factor. The bent displacement demands obtained


from the response-spectrum analysis are multiplied by this factor. It
can be used to modify the displacement demand due to a damping
value other than 5%, or to magnify the demand for short-period
structures. This factor will be applied to all bents in both the longitudinal and transverse directions.

Seismic Design Request

2-5

CSiBridge Seismic Design

2-6

Item

Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameter

Gravity Load
Case Option

The user can specify which gravity load case is used to determine
the cracked section properties for the bent columns. The choices
include Auto-Entire Structure, Auto This Bridge Object, or User
Defined. As a default, all Dead and Super Dead loads are included
in the Auto-Entire Structure gravity load case.

Gravity Load
Case

If the User Option is selected for Item 6 Gravity Load Case Option,
the gravity load case name must be selected here.

Additional
Group

If the Auto-This Bridge Object option is selected for Item 6 Gravity


Load Case Option, an additional group can be included in the
gravity load case. This item is required only when the gravity load
case is program determined. It may include pile foundations and
other auxiliary structures.

Include P-Delta

If P-Delta Effects are to be included, the user needs to specify yes


here. P-Delta effects will cause a more abrupt drop in the pushover curve results if an idealized bilinear hinge has been assigned to
the bent columns. It is recommended that an initial Seismic Design
Request be performed before including the P-Delta effects to help
the user understand the nonlinear behavior of the bents.

Cracked
Property
Option

The cracked section properties for the bent columns can be automatically determined by the program or they can be user defined.
If program determined, the automatic gravity load case will be run
iteratively. Section Designer will use the calculated axial force at
the top and bottom on the column to determine the cracked moments of inertia in the positive and negative transverse and longitudinal directions. The average of the top and bottom column
cracked properties will be applied as named property modifier sets
and the analysis will be re-run to make sure the cracked-modified
model converges to within the specified tolerance.

Convergence
Tolerance

This value sets the relative convergence tolerance for the bentcolumn cracked-property iteration. This item is required only when
the cracked-property calculation is program determined.

10 Maximum
Number of
Iterations

This value sets the maximum number of iterations allowed for the
bent-column cracked-property iteration. The first run is considered
to be the zero-th iteration. Usually only one iteration is needed.
This item is required only when the cracked-property calculation is
program determined.

11 Accept
Unconverged
Results

Specifies if the seismic design should or should not continue if the


bent-column cracked-property iteration fails to converge. This item
is required only when the cracked-property calculation is program
determined.

12 Modal Load
Case Option

Specifies if the modal load case is to be determined by program or


specified by the user. The modal load case is used as the basis of
the response-spectrum load case that represents the seismic design. If program determined, the modal load case will use the stiff-

Seismic Design Request

STEP 2 - Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request

Item

Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameter


ness at the end of the auto-gravity load case that includes the
cracked property effects. If user-defined, the user can control the
initial stiffness, Eigen vs. Ritz, and other modal parameters by selecting user defined for Item 15 Modal Load Case.

13 Modal Load
Case

The name of an existing modal load case to be used as the basis


of the response-spectrum load case. This item is required only if
Item 14 Modal Load Case Option is user-defined.

14 Type of Modes

This is either Eigen or Ritz indicating the type of modes requested.

15 Additional
Number Of
Modes

The number of additional modes to consider beyond those automatically determined. This can be zero (default), positive, or negative. The default number of modes is determined based on the
number of bridge spans. The minimum number of modes is 12. For
a bridge object with more than two spans, 6 modes are added for
each additional span.

16 Response
Spectrum Load
Case Option

Specifies if the response-spectrum load case is to be determined


by program or specified by the user. The response-spectrum load
case represents the seismic demand. If program determined, this
load case will use the given response-spectrum function and modal
load case. Acceleration load will be applied in the longitudinal and
transverse directions of the bridge object, and combined using the
100% + 30% rule. If user-defined, the user can control the loading
or select SRSS as the method to account for directional combinations.

17 Response
Spectrum Load
Case

The name of an existing response-spectrum load case that represents the seismic demand. This item is required only if the response-spectrum load case option is user-defined.

18 Response
Spectrum Angle Option

Specifies if the angle of loading in the response-spectrum load


case is to be determined by program or specified by the user. If
program determined, the longitudinal (U1) loading direction is chosen to be from the start abutment to the end abutment, both points
located on the reference line of the bridge object. This item is required only if the response-spectrum load case option is userdefined.

19 Response
Spectrum
Angle

Angle (degree, from global X) that defines the direction of the response spectrum load case. This item is required only if the response spectrum load case is user-defined.

20 Directional
Combination

The type of directional combination for the response spectrum


analysis

21 Directional
Scale Factor

For absolute directional combination this is the scale factor used for
the secondary directions when taking the absolute sum. This is
typically 0.3 if a 100/30 rule is to be applied. For CQC3 directional
combination, this is the scale factor applied to the response spectrum function in the second horizontal direction. This is typically
greater than 0.5. For the SRSS directional combination the direc-

Seismic Design Request

2-7

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Item

Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameter


tional scale factor is normally 1.0.

2.5

22 Foundation
Group

If foundations are included and explicitly modeled, then the foundation objects need to be assigned to a group and that group needs
to be identified here. This way the foundation objects will be included in the pushover load case. This item is required only if the seismic design category is D.

23 Pushover
Target
Displacement
Ratio

The target displacement is defined as the target ratio of Capacity/


Demand for the pushover analyses. This item is required only if the
seismic design category is D.

24 Bent Failure
Criterion

The criteria to determine the bent failure. <Pushover Curve Drop>


means the bent fails when the pushover curve slope becomes
negative. This item is required only if the seismic design category is
D.

25 Pushover
Curve Drop
Tolerance

Relative decrease in base shear from the maximum that determined the displacement capacity from the pushover curve.

Perform Seismic Design


It is not necessary to execute an analysis of the bridge model before running
the Seismic Design Request. To start the Bridge Seismic Design Request, use
the Design/Rating > Seismic Design > Run Seismic command. The Perform
Bridge Design form, which is shown in Figure 2-6, will be displayed. The Design Now button will start the seismic design process.

Figure 2-6 Perform Seismic Design

2-8

Perform Seismic Design

STEP 2 - Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request

It is noted that for a designed request, when clicking the button "Delete Design
for Request", a message box asking to remove all the program-generated items,
such as load cases, load patterns, group, generalized displacement will be
popped up. The Yes button will bring up another message box asking to remove all the program-generated hinges. The program-generated items can be
removed by clicking the button "Clean up Request" if they were kept when deleting the design results. Also if the same design request is selected to be designed again when the model is locked, then a new set of the programgenerated items will be created and previous generated items will be kept;
when the model is unlocked, then the program will ask to remove the previous
program-generated items or to keep them.

2.6

Auto Load Patterns


After the Bridge Seismic Design has been run, the user can review the load pattern and load cases that CSiBridge has automatically generated by accessing
the Define Load Patterns form show in Figure 2-7 (Loads > Load Patterns
command).

Figure 2-7 Auto Load Patterns

Auto Load Patterns

2-9

CSiBridge Seismic Design

2.7

Auto Load Cases


The reason for each of the auto load cases is explained in Step 7.

Figure 2-8 Auto Load Cases

2 - 10

Auto Load Cases

Step 3
Dead Load Analysis and Cracked Section Properties

As shown in the schematic included in the Foreword, the third step begins with
the dead load analysis of the entire bridge model. The results of the dead load
analysis are then used to verify the analytical model. For concrete bent columns,
these results are used for the determination of the cracked section properties that
are then applied to the bent columns as frame section property modifiers. The reduced stiffnesses of the concrete bent columns will affect the response spectrum
and pushover analyses. The frame section property modifiers are defined separately for each of the concrete bent and abutment columns as a named property
set. The user can use the Section Designer program to observe the momentcurvatures and I,cracked properties for the various cross-sections (see also Step 5).
The calculation of the cracked section properties will be skipped for the steel
bent columns and thus no frame section property modifiers will be generated and
assigned to the steel bent columns.
Auto load patterns and auto load cases are produced by the program. The load
case, which has the default name, <SDReq1>, is automatically developed by
CSiBridge as a single stage construction load case and is used to apply the
cracked section property modifiers to the columns. Figure 3-1 shows the Load
Case Data form for the <SDReq1>GRAV load case (Analysis > Load Cases >
Type > All > New > Highlight <SDReq1>GRAV > Modify/Show Load Case).
The auto load cases are not modifiable.

Dead Load Analysis and Cracked Section Properties

3-1

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 3-1 Auto Stage Construction Load Case used to apply


Cracked Section Property Modifiers

As an option, the user can overwrite the cracked section property determined by
the program and instead, apply a user defined value. See Step 2 for the user options available in the Seismic Design Request.

3-2

Dead Load Analysis and Cracked Section Properties

Step 4
Response Spectrum and Demand Displacements

4.1

Overview
The seismic response of the entire bridge structure is analyzed by CSiBridge using the response spectrum function defined in Step 2. The number of modes used
by CSiBridge is automated and depends on the number of bridge spans. The user
should check the total mass participation to ensure that an adequate number of
modes are included in the modal analysis. The additional number of Modes can
be added to the auto-generated modal load case as the item 15 in Figure 2-5. The
response spectrum displacements are used by CSiBridge as the displacement demands as defined in Section 4.4 of the AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification.

4.2

Response Spectrum Load Cases


For the case that no response spectrum function is assigned to the vertical direction loading in the seismic design request form shown in Figure 2-4, three response spectrum load cases are automatically produced by CSiBridge:
<SDReq1>RS_X, <SDReq1>RS_Y and <SDReq1>RS_XY. With a response
spectrum function assigned to the vertical direction loading, an additional response spectrum load case <SDReq1>RS_Z is automatically produced and
<SDReq1>RS_XY will be <SDReq1>RS_XYZ. For the case of no vertical loading, the first two response spectrum load cases apply the dynamic loads along the
U1 and U2 directions. The U1 direction is defined as the longitudinal loading di-

Overview

4-1

CSiBridge Seismic Design

rection that is chosen to be from the start abutment to the end abutment, both
points located on the reference line of the bridge object. If the user wants to apply
a response spectrum load along a different axis, a directional overwrite is available in the Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameters form (see Chapter 2).

Figure 4-1 U1 Direction Response Spectrum Load Case form

The third response spectrum load case uses a Directional Combination option of
ABS, with an ABS scale factor of 0.3. This response spectrum load case will
satisfy the AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification, Section 4.4, which requires
the response spectrum loads to be combined using the 100/30 percent rule in each
of the major directions. The single response spectrum load case,
<SDReq1>RS_XY, envelopes the maximum response spectrum results for each
of the combinations 100/30 and 30/100. The Load Case Data form for the response spectrum load case <SDReq1>RS_XY is shown in Figure 4-2.

4-2

Response Spectrum Load Cases

Step 4 - Response Spectrum and Demand Displacements

The modal damping coefficient is set to 5 percent, but this value can be modified
as necessary by the user in the Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameters
form (Chapter 2).

Figure 4-2 ABS Response Spectrum Load Case form

To illustrate the ABS directional combination feature, the following BENT1 displacements are summarized for example model MO_1C:

Response Spectrum Load Cases

4-3

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 4-3 BENT1 Displacements for the three


Auto-Defined Response Spectrum Load cases

Figure 4-4 Modal Load Case Definition

4-4

Response Spectrum Load Cases

Step 4 - Response Spectrum and Demand Displacements

4.3

Response Spectrum Results


Upon completion of the response spectra analysis, the displacements are tabulated for each bent. The displacements are calculated using Generalized Displacements to account for the average cap beam displacements and the relative displacement between the cap beam and foundation. The displacements for the ABS
response spectrum load case also are tabulated for each of the bearing active degrees of freedom. These can be viewed using the Home > Display > Show Tables command to display the Choose Tables for Display form. Select the Design
Results for Bridge Seismic, Support Bearing Demands-Deformations item. These
displacements also can be displayed and animated on screen or read from the
quick report created using the Design/Rating > Seismic Design > Report command.

Response Spectrum Results

4-5

Step 5
Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

5.1

Overview
For bridge structures having a Seismic Design Category (SDC) D the AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification requires that the displacement capacity be determined using a nonlinear pushover analysis. This requires that the column
plastic hinge lengths and plastic hinge properties be determined for each column that participates as part of the Earthquake Resisting System (ERS).
In this step, the methodologies used to calculate the plastic hinge lengths and
properties will be explained. After the hinge properties have been determined,
the plastic hinges are assigned to the ERS columns. The automation of the plastic hinge assignments will also be explained in this step.

5.2

Plastic Hinge Lengths


The plastic hinge lengths for the concrete bent columns used in the Seismic
Design Request is determined for the AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification,
Section 4.11.6, as follows:
For reinforced concrete columns framing into a footing, an integral bent cap,
and oversized shaft, cased shaft, the plastic hinge length, LP in inches, may be
determined as:

Overview

5-1

CSiBridge Seismic Design

=
LP 0.08 L + 0.15 f ye dbl ,
where
L = length of column from point of maximum moment to the point of
moment contraflexure (in.),

f ye = the effective yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing (ksi), and

dbl = the diameter of the longitudinal reinforcing (in.).


The hinge length is compared to the value for the minimum hinge length, described as LP = 0.3 f ye dbl , and the larger value is used.
Note that, the L values for concrete columns are specified in the Bridge Bent
Column Data Form (Section 1.6). Here a relative height, RH, is specified from
the bottom of the column to the point of contraflexure, separately for longitudinal and transverse bending. Legal values are 1 RH 2, where RH = 0 is
the bottom of the clear height of the column and RH = 1 is the top. For the bottom hinge:
= |RH|, subject to 2

For the top hinge:

= |RH 1| , subject to 2

This can be summarized in the following table:


Below

Column Clear Height

Above

RH -1.00 -0.75 -0.50 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.50 1.75 2.00
Bottom Hinge
L/H

1.00 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Top Hinge

L/H

5-2

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.75 1.00

Plastic Hinge Lengths

Step 5 - Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

For the steel columns, based on the Section 4.11.8 in AASHTO Seismic Guide
Specification, the plastic hinge region is determined as the maximum of 1/8 of
the clear height of a steel column or 1.5 times the gross cross-sectional dimension in the direction of bending.
Calculated hinge lengths may be different for bending in the longitudinal or
transverse direction of the bents. However, each hinge can only have a single
hinge length in the model. Set the Hinge Length Option in the Bridge Seismic
Design Preferences Form as described in Section 2.3 to specify whether to use
the Longitudinal, Transverse, Longest, Shortest, or Average hinge length for a
given instance of the model. After performing a bridge seismic design with one
of these options, you can re-run the design with a different choice to see the effect.
After the hinge lengths and properties have been determined, the hinges are
placed on the bent columns at each end of the column at distances from each
end equal to 1/2 the hinge length, as shown below in Figure 5-1.

Figure 5-1 Hinge Locations

Plastic Hinge Lengths

5-3

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 5-2 Hinge Locations

5.3

Nonlinear Hinge Properties


For a steel column, the CSiBridge Automated Seismic Design Request uses a
hinge property that is consistent with the FEMA 356. For a concrete column,
the Automated Seismic Design Request uses a hinge property that is consistent
with the AASHTO/CALTRANS idealized bilinear moment-curvature diagram,
as shown in Figure 5-3 (click the Display menu > Show Moment Curvature
Cure command on the Section Designer form). From the moment curvature
shown, the yield and plastic moments along with the I,cracked properties can be
observed for a specific axial load, P. Note that this form is made available to
allow users to better understand the effects of axial loads and fiber mesh layouts on the frame member properties. The axial load values input on this form
are not used in the analysis and design of a model.

5-4

Nonlinear Hinge Properties

Step 5 - Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

Figure 5-3 Moment Curvature Diagram

Typically, the axial loads in the bent columns change as the bent is pushed over
due to the overturning effects. Therefore, the yield and plastic moments will
change depending on the amount of axial load present in a particular column at
a particular pushover step. These effects are captured in the nonlinear hinge responses whenever P-M or P-M-M hinges are specified. For this reason, the Automated Seismic Design procedure assigns coupled P-M-M hinges to the bent
columns. The default settings are shown in Figure 5-4 (select the frame(s) to be
assigned a hinge, click Advanced > Assign > Frames > Hinges, select Auto,
click the Modify/Show Auto Hinge Assignments Data button). The length of
the plastic hinge also is calculated by CSiBridge when using the Automated
Seismic Design procedure.

Nonlinear Hinge Properties

5-5

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 5-4 Auto Hinge Assignment Data

Figure 5-5 Sample Hinge Data form

5-6

Nonlinear Hinge Properties

Step 5 - Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

Upon completion of the Pushover Analysis, the Hinge Results can be traced.
This feature is explained in detail in Step 6.

5.4

Nonlinear Material Property Definitions


The ductile behavior of a plastic hinge is significantly affected by the nonlinear
material property used to define the frame member receiving the hinges. The
material nonlinear properties must be defined using the Advanced Nonlinear
Material Data forms.

5.4.1

Nonlinear Material Property Definitions for Concrete


For concrete, the nonlinear material property data form appears as shown in
Figure 5-6 (Components > Type > Material Properties > Expand arrow >
check the Show Advanced Properties check box > Add New Material > set
Material Type to Concrete > Modify/Show Material Properties button >
Nonlinear Material Data button):

Figure 5-6 Nonlinear Material Data form for Concrete

Nonlinear Material Property Definitions

5-7

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 5-7 Nonlinear Stress-Strain curves for Confined and Unconfined Concrete

Figure 5-8 Concrete Model - Mander Confined

5-8

Nonlinear Material Property Definitions

Step 5 - Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

5.4.2

Nonlinear Material Property Definitions for Steel


Similarly, for steel, the nonlinear material data form appears as show in Figure
5-9. The user can specify the parametric strain data, which includes the values
for the strain at the onset of hardening, ultimate strain capacity, and the final
slope of the stress-strain diagram.

Figure 5-9 Nonlinear Material Data form for steel

Nonlinear Material Property Definitions

5-9

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 5-10 Nonlinear Stress-Strain Plot for steel

5.5

Plastic Hinge Options


Concrete column section properties can be defined for use in two ways such
that hinge properties can be assigned to them during the Automated Seismic
Design procedure. One method is to use the Section Designer and the other is
to define a rectangle or circle using the Components > Type > Frame Properties > New command and define a rectangular or circular shape. Internally,
CSiBridge will convert the rectangular or circular shapes into Section Designer
sections for the purposes of determining the hinge and cracked section properties. The advantage of using the Section Designer feature is that the user can
choose to have the hinge defined using fibers. This option is applied when the
user activates the Design menu > Fiber Layout command from within Section
Designer and sets the Fiber Application to Calculate Moment Curvature Using
Fibers, as shown in the following form.

5 - 10

Plastic Hinge Options

Step 5 - Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

Figure 5-11 Plastic Hinge Fiber option

The fiber mesh also can be specified in this form. The mesh can be rectangular
or cylindrical depending on the shape of the column. Another advantage of using the Section Designer feature is that complex sections, similar to the one below, can be handled.

Figure 5-12 Section Designer options

Plastic Hinge Options

5 - 11

Step 6
Capacity Displacement Analysis

This step describes the automated procedure that CSiBridge uses to determine
the bridge seismic capacity displacements. The method used varies depending
on the Seismic Design Category (SDC) of a particular bridge. A flowchart that
describes when an implicit or pushover analysis is used to determine the capacity displacements is shown in Figure 6-1:

Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design

Displacement Capacities for SDC B and C

6-1

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 6-2 Design Requirements for SDC


A

Identification ERS

Recommended

Required

Required

Demand Analysis

Required

Required

Required

Implicit Capacity

Required

Required

Required

Push Over Capaci-

May be required

Re-

Required

Required

Required

ty
Support Width

quired
Detailing Ductility

SDC B

SDB C

SDB D

Capacity Protec-

Recommended

Required

Required

Recommended

Required

Required

tion
Liquefaction

The user can overwrite the program determined SDC to enforce that a pushover analysis is used to determine the displacement capacity. The differences
between the implicit and pushover approaches are described in the following
sections.

6.1

Displacement Capacities for SDC B and C


For structures having reinforced concrete columns, the displacement capacities
for SDC B and C are found using the following equations. The AASHTO
Seismic Guide Specification equations are also noted.
For SDC B:

CL= 0.12 H o ( 1.27 ln( x) 0.32 ) 0.12 H o

(4.8.1-1)

For SDC C:
L
0.12 H o ( 2.32ln( x) 1.22 ) 0.12 H o
C=

in which

6-2

Displacement Capacities for SDC B and C

(4.8.1-2)

Step 6 - Capacity Displacement Analysis

x=

Bo
Ho

(4.8.1-3)

where,
Ho =

Clear height of the column (ft)

B0 =

Column diameter or width parallel to the direction of displacement under consideration (ft)

= Factor for the column end restraint conditions


CSiBridge uses the relative heights RH Long and RH Trans of Seismic
Hinge Data specified in Bent Column Data form, shown in Figure 1-12, to determine the factor :
RH 0 or RH 1:

= 1.0

0 < RH 0.5:

= 1 / (1 RH)

0.5 < RH < 1.0:

= 1 / RH

For the bent columns that are not of Type 1 reinforced concrete, CSiBridge uses the same equations to determine the capacity. In this case, users may overwrite the SDC as D for a better solution, in which the capacity is determined
based on the pushover analysis results.

6.2

Displacement Capacities for SDC D


When the Seismic Design Category for a bridge structure is determined to be
SDC D or the user overwrites the SDC as D, CSiBridge uses a pushover analysis in accordance with the AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification, Section
4.8.2 to determine the displacement capacities. This requires that CSiBridge
actually perform several pushover analyses, depending on the number of bents
that are part of the Earthquake Resisting System (ERS). Each bent is analyzed
in a transverse and longitudinal direction local to the specific bent. For the example bridge used in this manual, there are three spans with two interior bents.
Bents can be used as abutment supports so it is possible to have additional
bents participating as part of the ERS. But, for the example bridge, there are
two interior bents. This means that a total of four pushover analyses are needed

Displacement Capacities for SDC D

6-3

CSiBridge Seismic Design

to determine the displacements capacities for each bent in each of the transverse and longitudinal directions.
To perform multiple pushover analyses on a single bridge model, CSiBridge
uses several nonlinear single-staged construction load cases.
For the example bridge, the four separate pushover load cases are named as follows:
<SDReq1>PO_TR1
<SDReq1>PO_LG1
<SDReq1>PO_TR2
<SDReq1>PO_LG2
The SDReq1 is the name provided by the user to identify a particular seismic
design request.
TR denotes Transverse and LG denotes Longitudinal.
The <request name> is added to the beginning of each auto load case name
to distinguish the load cases that are automatically provided by CSiBridge from
user defined load cases.
Figure 6-3 shows the nonlinear single-staged construction load case for the
BENT1 transverse direction.

6-4

Displacement Capacities for SDC D

Step 6 - Capacity Displacement Analysis

Figure 6-3 BENT1 Transverse Pushover Load Case


The user can not modify this load case because it is defined automatically. The
<SDReq1>PO_TR1 load case starts from the end of the initial nonlinear load
case named, <SDReq1>bGRAV.
The <SDReq1>bGRAV load case is shown in Figure 6-4 and is needed to isolate the bents from the rest of the bridge model and to apply the cracked section
property modifiers as well as apply the dead load.

Displacement Capacities for SDC D

6-5

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 6-4 BENT1 Application of Property Modifiers and


Dead Loads to BENT1
The load pattern used to apply the lateral pushover loads or displacements to
BENT1 is named, <SDReq1>PO_TR1. A 3D view of the <SDReq1>PO_TR1
loads is shown in Figure 6-5. The magnitudes of these loads are based on the
reactions from the superstructure.

6-6

Displacement Capacities for SDC D

Step 6 - Capacity Displacement Analysis

Figure 6-5 BENT1 Pushover Load Pattern for the Transverse Direction

6.3

Pushover Results
After the pushover analyses have run, the capacity displacements are automatically identified as the maximum displacement of the pushover curve just before
strength loss (negative slope on the pushover curve) for each of the pushover
runs.
The pushover results can be viewed using the Home > Display > More >
Show Static Pushover Curve command. An example output is shown in Figure 6-6 for the BENT1 transverse and longitudinal pushover load cases.
Pushover Results

6-7

CSiBridge Seismic Design

Figure 6-6 Display of BENT1 Pushover Curves

6-8

Pushover Results

Step 7
Demand/Capacity Ratios

After the demand displacement (Step 4) and displacement capacity (Step 6)


analyses have been completed, CSiBridge computes the ratio of the Demand/Capacity displacements and reports these values in the Seismic Design
Report. The table of D/C ratios can be viewed using the Home > Display >
Show Tables command, and then selecting Design Data > Bridge > Seismic
Design data > Table: Bridge Seismic Design 01 Bent D-C. The subject table will appear similar to the table shown in Figure 7-1:

Figure 7-1 D/C Displacment Ratios

In the table shown, all four D/C ratios are reported, namely, the transverse and
longitudinal directions for each bent (the example model has two bents). Note
that the Generalized Displacement name also is reported. Generalized displacements are used to average the top of bent displacements and to determine
the relative displacements between the bent cap beam and the foundation. The
generalized displacement definition is automatically defined by CSiBridge and

Demand/Capacity Ratios

7-1

CSiBridge Seismic Design

can be viewed using the Advanced > Define > Generalized Displacements
command.

7-2

Demand/Capacity Ratios

Step 8
Review Output and Create Report

This step describes the two methods of viewing the seismic design results. The
first way to review the results is to use the Home > Display > Show Tables
command. The second way is to create a report using the Orb > Report > Create Report command.
The entire list of output tables for the Bridge Seismic Design includes the following:

The seven Bridge Seismic Design tables are described in the sections that follow.

Design 01 D-C Ratios

8-1

CSiBridge Seismic Design

8.1

Design 01 D-C Ratios


The Demand/Capacity ratios are summarized for each bent in each direction.
Values less than 1.0 indicate that an adequate capacity exists for a given bent and
direction for the ground motion hazard used in the seismic design request. Values
greater than 1.0 indicate an overstress condition.

8.2

Design 02 Bent Column Force Demand


A summary of the bent column seismic demand forces are tabulated.

8.3

Design 03 Bent Column Idealized Moment Capacity


The idealized column plastic moments are calculated and tabulated. The axial
load P represents the demand axial load. The idealized plastics moments are determined using the associated axial load value, P. This table is for concrete columns only.

8-2

Design 01 D-C Ratios

Step 8 - Review Output and Create Report

8.4

Design 04 Bent Column Cracked Section Properties


A summary of the cracked property modifiers that get applied to each of the bent
columns is tabulated. This table is for concrete columns only.

8.5

Design 05 Support Bearing Demand Forces


The forces in the bearing due to the seismic loads are presented in the following
table. All bearings at the abutments and bents that are found to resist seismic
forces are included in the subject table.

Design 04 Bent Column Cracked Section Properties

8-3

CSiBridge Seismic Design

8.6

Design 06 Support Bearing Demand Deformations


The deformations for all bearings at the abutments and bents that resist seismic
loads are tabulated and reported.

8-4

Design 06 Support Bearing Demand Deformations

Step 8 - Review Output and Create Report

8.7

Design 07 Support Length Demands


The support lengths are calculated from the bearing displacements and represent
the amount of displacement normal to a specific bent or abutment.

8.8

Create Report
A single command can be used to create a report using the Design menu >
Bridge Design > Create Seismic Design Report command. Several representative pages of the report that can be created using the previously noted report request are included in the following pages. Theses have been excerpted from a 30
page summary report that CSiBridge writes as a Microsoft Word document.

Design 07 Support Length Demands

8-5

CSiBridge Seismic Design

8-6

Create Report

Step 8 - Review Output and Create Report

Create Report

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CSiBridge Seismic Design

8-8

Create Report

Chapter 9
Caltrans Fault Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

9.1

Introduction
Automated seismic design for bridges crossing seismic faults is available in
CSiBridge. The methodology is based on the following references:

Rakesh K. Goel and Anil K. Chopra, Analysis of Ordinary Bridges Crossing


Fault Rupture Zones, Research Conducted for the California Department of
Transportation Contract No. 59A0435 Earthquake Engineering Research
Center University of California at Berkeley February 2008 Report No.
UCB/EERC-2008/01.
Rakesh K. Goel and Bing Qu, Analysis of Bridges Crossing FaultRupture
Zones: StepByStep Procedure for SAP Implementation.
Caltrans, Ordinary Bridges that Cross Faults, Bridge Design Aids 14-6.
Caltrans, Analysis of Ordinary Bridges that Cross Faults, Memo to
Designers 20-8, January 2013.

In summary, this seismic design procedure considers the rupture of a seismic


fault that crosses a bridge structure such that the supports are subject to
significant ground displacements that are different for the supports on either side
of the fault.
Introduction

9-1

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

The displacement demand on the structure is calculated by performing a


nonlinear static analysis for the full displacement of the fault and adding to that
the results of a generalized response-spectrum analysis for the inertial forces due
to this non-uniform ground motion. As an aside, by using this method, a fault
which occurs near the bridge but does not cross the bridge will produce the same
demand as using standard response-spectrum analysis with uniform ground
acceleration.
The displacement capacity of the bents is determined by performing nonlinear
static pushover analysis of the isolated bents in the longitudinal and transverse
directions. This is the same procedure used in CSiBridge for automated
AASHTO LRFD seismic bridge design.
Finally, a demand/capacity ratio is computed for each bent in the longitudinal
and transverse direction and reported in a table. A report can be generated that
provides a description of the bridge structure, and the seismic demands and
capacities for one or more fault-crossing cases.
Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design follows the same general
approach as AASHTO LRFD bridge seismic design, differing primarily in the
specification of the Seismic Design Request. For this reason, you should be
familiar with details of the AASHTO procedure described in the earlier in this
manual before proceeding further.

9.2

Fault-Crossing Response-Spectrum Loading


Step 4 of the AASHTO Seismic Bridge Design procedure is replaced by
specifying the expected location, magnitude, and direction of fault displacement
that will occur at the bridge site, as well as the associated response-spectrum
loading that is associated with this motion. The fault displacement is specified
directly as part of the Seismic Design Request, as described later. First the
response-spectrum functions must be specified.
One or more response-spectrum functions should be defined that characterize the
dynamic response to the ground motion. The response-spectrum functions should
be chosen as appropriate for near-fault behavior. Different functions may be
chosen for the directions parallel to the fault, normal to the fault, and vertical. It
is important to understand how these functions will be used.

9 - 2 Fault-Crossing Response-Spectrum Loading

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

Two types of response-spectrum functions may be applied in each direction:

A standard response-spectrum function representing uniform ground


acceleration
A fault-displacement response-spectrum function representing the vibration
due to non-uniform ground displacement

Both types of response-spectrum loading may be applied in a given direction,


although usually only one or the other would be.
Standard response-spectrum functions are applied to uniform ground motion
represented as a translational acceleration in a single direction. For purposes of
comparison with fault-rupture function, this loading can be viewed as a rigidbody translation of the entire structure an arbitrary distance u0, multiplied by the
mass at each joint, and multiplied by g/u0, to create a force load acting on the
structure. Here g is the gravitational constant in the same units as the
displacement u0. Note that the units of the load are Length x Mass x
Length/Time^2 / Length = Force.
For ground motion caused by the rupture of a fault at a bridge structure, the
loading is calculated by first determining the deflected shape of the structure due
to linear static application of the ground motion. For example, consider a fault
that crosses the structure between two bents, and experiences a slip of 2u0 in the
direction parallel to the fault. The supports on one side of the fault move a
distance of u0 transversely to the left, and on the other side of the fault by a
distance of u0 transversely to the right. Each support moves a distance of u0 from
its initial position.
The deflected shape of the structure due to this loading reflects the ground
motion, but is moderated by the flexibility of the foundation, bents, bearings, and
superstructure. This deflected shape is called the quasi-static deflection, and is
used to calculate the seismic load that will be used with the response-spectrum
function. An example is shown below for a three-span structure with a transverse
fault slip occurring within the first span.

Fault-Crossing Response-Spectrum Loading 9 - 3

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

The response-spectrum load is calculated as a set of forces acting at each joint


that are given by the product of the deflections at the joint (in any direction),
multiplied by the mass at that joint, and multiplied by g/u0. Note that this loading
may have components in any direction. For example, fault motion transverse to
the bridge may cause forces in the vertical and longitudinal directions as well as
the transverse direction.
While the actual fault motion may be a net slip of 2u0, the response-spectrum
loading is applied to a displaced shape caused by motion of +1 and -1 unit
displacements on either side of the fault, due to the use of the scale factor g/u0.
This follows the method of Goel, Chopra, and Qu. Note that this approach has
the benefit that if the fault does not cross the bridge, the entire structure moves as
a rigid body for a distance u0, and the loading is then identical to the case of
uniform acceleration.

9 - 4 Fault-Crossing Response-Spectrum Loading

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

9.3

Defining Fault-Crossing Seismic Design Requests


Define one or more Seismic Design Requests, using the command shown below.

Defining Fault-Crossing Seismic Design Requests 9 - 5

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

Click Add New Request, which brings up the following form:

Choose the bridge object to which this request will apply, and select the Check
Type to be Caltrans Fault Crossing, which changes the form as shown below.
Enter the loading data as follows:

Choose Planar fault definition. General Displacement Loading will be


described later in this document.
Enter the station where the fault crosses the layout line that was used to
define the bridge object.
Enter the orientation of the fault. Default is perpendicular to the layout line
at the crossing station. You may enter a bearing, such as N30E or
S251933.45W, or a skew angle relative to Default, such as 30 or -45.
For each direction of displacement loading to be considered simultaneously
in this Design Request, enter the displacement magnitude and the
corresponding response-spectrum function.

9 - 6 Defining Fault-Crossing Seismic Design Requests

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

See Step 3 above for more information about response-spectrum


functions.
o The displacement is the actual movement, u0, of each support on
either side of the fault. In other words, it is half the total slip of the
fault. The default is 0.5m.
o For vertical motion on an inclined fault, enter the components in the
vertical and horizontal-normal directions.
For each direction of uniform acceleration loading (no slip), enter the
corresponding response-spectrum function.
o

Defining Fault-Crossing Seismic Design Requests 9 - 7

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

The displacement demand will be calculated by applying the specified fault


motions as follows:
(1) The specified fault displacements will be applied together in a nonlinearstatic displacement load case.
(2) The fault-displacement response-spectrum loads, if any, will be applied
together in a response-spectrum load case.
(3) The uniform-acceleration response-spectrum loads, if any, will be applied
together in a separate response-spectrum load case.
(4) The two response-spectrum load cases will be combined in a load
combination.
(5) The final demand result is obtained by combining the displacement load case
(1) with the response-spectrum load combination (4).
Note that if the specified displacement is too large, the nonlinear-static load case
will not converge and the seismic design request will not complete. This
indicates that the structure does not have sufficient ductility to resist the specified
loading, and further calculation not warranted. For many structures, the amount
of displacement that can be accommodated is quite small. If you cannot get
convergence with the desired value, try a smaller value so that you can determine
the capacity of the structure.
By default, the different directions of loading in the response-spectrum load cases
are combined by absolute sum. This may be changed to the SRSS or CQC3
method in the design request parameters, see below. This same method will be
used to combine the two response-spectrum load cases together in the responsespectrum load combination. If CQC3 is chosen, it actually applies only to the
uniform-acceleration load case (3), and SRSS will be used for the faultdisplacement load case (2) and for the response-spectrum load combination (4).
In any case, the final combination (5) of the nonlinear-static displacement load
case and the response-spectrum load combination will always use absolute sum.
Additional detail is provided in topic Automatic Load Cases and Combinations
below.
Additional parameters may be specified for this Design Request by clicking on
the Modify/Show button, bringing up the form as shown below. These
parameters are optional and do not usually need to be changed.

9 - 8 Defining Fault-Crossing Seismic Design Requests

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

Most of these parameters are identical to the parameters for the AASHTO Seismic
Design Request, and are described in the CSiBridge Seismic Analysis and Design
manual. A few of these parameters of particular interest for fault-crossing analysis
are described here:

The Seismic Design Category (1) has the same meaning as it does for
AASHTO seismic design, but it is not automatically determined from the
response-spectrum functions. Due to the severity of fault-crossing motion,
category D is probably most appropriate, meaning that the capacity will be
determined by nonlinear static pushover analysis. However, if you just want
to study the seismic demand due to fault crossing and dont care about
capacity, setting the category to be less than D will speed up the analysis.
Type of Modes (13) is fixed to be Ritz. This is superior to using Eigen modes
for ground displacement loading, which tends to excite higher frequency
modes than acceleration loading.

Defining Fault-Crossing Seismic Design Requests 9 - 9

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

9.4

Directional Combination (17) may be Absolute, SRSS, or CQC3. Goel and


Qu recommend using Absolute for fault-crossing analysis.

Running Fault-Crossing Seismic Design Requests


After defining one or more Seismic Design Requests, these can be run using the
command shown below:

Using the buttons on the right, select the Design Requests that you would like to
run, and set their action to Design. Then click the Design Now button.
We recommend unlocking the model before using this command, which will
delete all prior results. You may wish to save the model under a new name before
doing this. We also recommend simultaneously running all design requests of
interest at the same time, although this is not required.
After clicking the Design Now button, CSiBridge will create and run multiple
load cases for each Design Request to calculate the demands and capacities. The
results of some cases are used to create additional cases, so the analyses are

9 - 10 Running Fault-Crossing Seismic Design Requests

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

performed in a sequence of runs. These load cases are described later in this
document.
You will know when the seismic design is done when a table of final results is
presented, or a message is produced in case the Design Requests were unable to
complete for any reason.

9.5

Creating a Seismic Design Report


Use the command below to create a Bridge Seismic Design Report that includes
a description of the bridge object, the seismic loading, and the demand and
capacity results.

This report will be written to an .RTF file that can be opened in Microsoft Word
for viewing, editing, and printing.
The same data can be viewed within CSiBridge using the command Home >
Display > Show Tables.

Creating a Seismic Design Report

9 - 11

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

Results are presented for both displacement and force demands, as well as
capacities. While the displacement demands may be meaningful for design
purposes, the force demands should be used only for reference purposes, since
they superpose the linear response-spectrum results with the nonlinear static
results and are not mathematically valid.

9.6

Automatic Load Cases and Combinations


For each fault-crossing Design Request, several Load Combinations, Load Cases,
Load Patterns, Named Property Sets, Groups, Generalized Displacements, and
other entities may be automatically created during the design process. Most of
these are similar to the AASHTO Seismic Design. Additional detail is provided
here regarding the Load cases and combinations that are used for a FaultCrossing Design Request.
The following are the Load cases that created by default. The load cases and their
details may differ depending on the choice of the Design Request Parameters.
Each Load case name ends with the name of the Design Request. In these
examples, this is assumed to be QReqX:

<QreqX>GRAV. This is a nonlinear static analysis for gravity load that is


used to calculate the initial conditions for all subsequent demand and
capacity calculations. This case is re-run iteratively to determine the cracked
section properties of the columns. The cracked properties are represented as
named property sets that are applied in this load case, which is solved as a
staged-construction load case with a single stage. This case is common to
both AASTHO and fault-crossing seismic design.

<QreqX>DIS. This is a nonlinear static load case that continues from the
gravity case <QreqX>GRAV and applies the full specified ground motion.
The results of this load case will later be combined with the responsespectrum results to form the displacement demand. This case is unique to

9 - 12 Automatic Load Cases and Combinations

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

fault-crossing seismic design.

<QreqX>MODAL. This is a Ritz modal load case that uses the stiffness from
load case <QreqX>GRAV and calculates vibration modes optimized for the
fault-crossing response-spectrum analysis. For each direction of fault slip, a
separate load pattern is created that applies the specified ground motion to
the supports. These load patterns are then applied as Load Inertia and used
as the starting load vectors in the Ritz modal case. If uniform acceleration
loading has been specified for the design request, acceleration loads are
added to this modal case. Load Inertia is a new type of loading added to
CSiBridge for the purpose of calculating fault-crossing response. Load
Inertia applies the specified load pattern, multiplies the resulting
displacement at each degree-of-freedom in the structure by its respective
mass, and then reapplies the result as an inertial load to get the final
response. This same loading will be applied in the response-spectrum case.
This case is unique to fault-crossing seismic design, although a different
modal case is used for AASHTO design.

<QreqX>RS_DIS. This is a generalized response-spectrum analysis for faultcrossing motion that uses the modes calculated in load case
<QreqX>MODAL. The same fault-crossing load patterns used in the modal
case are applied here as Load Inertia. Each inertial load is applied with its
respective response-spectrum function as specified in the Design Request,
and scaled by g/u0. For each load, the modes are combined using the CQC
method. The directional loads are then combined as an absolute sum by
default, although you may choose to use SRSS in the Design Request. This
case is unique to fault-crossing seismic design, although different responsespectrum cases are used for AASHTO design.

<QreqX>RS_UNIF. This is a standard response-spectrum analysis for the


uniform acceleration, if any, specified in the design request. This case also
uses modes calculated in modal case <QreqX>MODAL. For each load, the
modes are combined using the CQC method. The directional loads are then
combined as an absolute sum by default, although you may choose to use
SRSS in the Design Request. This case is similar to that used for AASHTO
design.

Automatic Load Cases and Combinations 9 - 13

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

<QreqX>bGRAV. This is a nonlinear static analysis for gravity load that is


used to calculate the initial conditions for bent capacity calculations when the
seismic design category is D. This case is solved as a staged-construction
load case that continues from <QreqX>GRAV, removes the superstructure,
and replaces it with an equivalent mass and weight at the bearing locations.
This case is common to both AASTHO and fault-crossing seismic design.

<QreqX>PO_TRn and <QreqX>PO_LGn. These are a set of nonlinear static


pushover load cases used to calculate the bent capacities in the transverse and
longitudinal directions, respectively, for each bent n when the seismic design
category is D. Each case continues from <QreqX>bGRAV. These cases are
common to both AASTHO and fault-crossing seismic design.

Two load combinations are created to calculate the total seismic demand:

<QreqX>cboRSP. This combines the response-spectrum results from the two


cases <QreqX>RS_DIS and <QreqX>RS_UNIF. This combination is always
created, even if only one response-spectrum load case is used.

<QreqX>cboDIS.RSP. This calculates the total demand as the absolute sum


of nonlinear-static load case <QreqX>DIS and response-spectrum load
combination <QreqX>cboRSP. This is the final result that is reported used
for demand.

Further information on the calculation of capacity and the use of generalized


displacements to measure both the demand and capacity can be found earlier in
this manual for AASHTO Bridge Seismic Design.

9.7

General Displacement Loading


You may consider more general displacement loading due to fault rupture than is
possible with the planar definition described above. Examples would include
loading where the displacement is not a uniform translation on either side of the
fault, where rotational motions has occurred, or where there are multiple fault
ruptures crossing the bridge. Another instance would be where you wish to
consider the fault-parallel, fault-normal, and fault-normal motion in a single
correlated load pattern rather than three independent motions combined by
absolute sum in the response-spectrum load case.

9 - 14 General Displacement Loading

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

Note that there is no established protocol for using general displacement loading
in design at the present time. Using this method requires engineering judgment
and perhaps some experimentation.
The procedure is similar to the that described above for defining a Seismic
Design Request for planar motion, with the following differences.

9.7.1 Defining Load Patterns and Response-Spectrum


Functions
For each independent motion to be considered in the Design Request, you will
need to define a load pattern in addition to a response-spectrum function. The
same response-spectrum function can be used for multiple load Patterns if
appropriate.
The procedure is as follows:

Define the new load patterns. Enter a Name, set the Type to Other, set the
Self Weight Multiplier to zero, and click Add New Load Pattern.

For each load pattern, select the various supported joints and assign ground
displacement loads, as appropriate, using the command Advanced > Assign
Loads > Joints > Displacements. Be sure to select the desired load pattern
in the assignment form.
Note that displacement loads will only act at joint degrees of freedom
connected to ground through restraints, springs, or single-joint links.
Displacements assigned to other joints or degrees of freedom are permitted

General Displacement Loading

9 - 15

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

but will have no effect on the structure. The magnitude of the loads are not
important, only their relative values. They can be scaled later, separately for
the nonlinear and the response-spectrum load cases. For complicated ground
motion, you may wish to use tabular data entry using the interactive database
editor. The figure on the next page shows the joint displacements loads that
are generated automatically for transverse planar fault-parallel motion in the
first span. Note that loads are applied everywhere, but that they will only act
at the base.
To apply uniform acceleration, define a displacement load pattern and assign
an equal translation in the desired direction to every joint.
For each load pattern, decide on a single reference displacement value, u0,
which characterizes the motion. This may be the most difficult part. This
value will be used later to normalize the load pattern for application in the
response-spectrum load case. By analogy with the planar motion, it should
represent a measure of how much each joint moves from its initial position.
For non-uniform motion, you could use the average displacement or the
maximum displacement, as determined by your engineering judgment. You
can assign displacement loads of any magnitude in the load pattern, but the
value u0 should be representative of these loads.
Define response-spectrum functions that characterize the dynamic response
to the ground motion for the various load patterns. The response-spectrum
functions should be chosen as appropriate for type of near-fault behavior
characterized by the load patterns.

9 - 16 General Displacement Loading

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

9.7.2 Defining a Seismic Design Request


This mostly follows the procedure for the case of planar fault motion, with the
following exceptions:

Choose General Displacement Loading for the fault definition. The form will
appear as shown below (after entering Loading data).
Click the Add button to add a new load pattern.
For each load pattern:
o Choose the name of the load pattern you previously defined
o Choose the name of the corresponding response-spectrum function.
o Enter a dimensionless scale factor that will multiple the load pattern
when it is used in the nonlinear static displacement load case. The

General Displacement Loading

9 - 17

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

default is unity. Increasing this scale factor will increase the static
load, but will have no effect on the response-spectrum load case.
Enter the reference displacement u0 for the load pattern, determined
as described in Step 3 above. This value has units of length, and will
be used to scale the response-spectrum load by g/u0. The default is
0.5 m, but you should a value that actually corresponds to the
magnitude of the loads applied in the load pattern. Increasing this
reference displacement will reduce the response-spectrum load, but
will have no effect on the nonlinear static load case.

You may add or delete as many load patterns as you wish. These load patterns
will be applied in the nonlinear static, Ritz modal, and response-spectrum load
cases. The Design Request Parameters are the same as for planar motion.

9 - 18 General Displacement Loading

CSiBridge - Caltrans Fault-Crossing Seismic Bridge Design

General Displacement Loading

9 - 19

References

ACI, 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08)
and Commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete Institute, P.O.
Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.
AASHTO, 2011. AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge
Design. American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials, 444 North Capital Street, NW Suite 249, Washington, DC 2011
FEMA 356, Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of
Buildings, November 2000, Federal Emergency Management Agency,
Washington D.C.

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