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ABSTRACT
Instructional materials enhance the teaching/learning process by exhibiting
information necessary to acquire knowledge and skills. The acquisition of basic vocational
knowledge, skills and attitudes to facilitate occupational efficiency requires skill oriented
teaching and learning activities. Over the years, the poor performance of students in public
examinations has been blamed on the wrong choice of teaching methods by teachers.
Teaching and learning activities have a lot to do with other variables, such as instructional
materials, school environment variables, students factors and so on.
In this study, instructional material utilization is the main focus in order to determine
their effects on the performance of the students. Instructional materials are the devices
developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting, organized knowledge
skills and attitudes to the learners within an instructional situation.
Teachers use different instructional materials to motivate learning. The success in the
skill and knowledge acquisition in an instructional situation depends on the suitability of the
instructional material, adequacy and effective utilization of the available materials. Also, the
relevance of instructional materials to the objective of the lesson and the ease of use of the
instructional materials are serious considerations in instructional materials utilization to better
the learners performance.
The role of instructional materials in the teaching/learning process cannot be
overemphasized. They facilitate and encourage self-study or independent study in students.
The finding of this study has shown that inadequate use or lack of use of instructional
materials in the teaching/learning situation (lecture method) negates the objective of teaching.
Teachers who do not make use of instructional materials hide in the cover of none supply of
the teaching resources. Therefore, as a matter of policy implementation, the governments at
all levels should supply regularly standardized instructional materials, some useful hard and

soft wares for use in schools. The vocational, technology and science teachers should be
trained retrained and exposed regularly to make them to be up to date in the effective
selection and utilization of instructional materials for effective teaching.

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM IN EACH BACKGROUND
Introduction
Lack of classroom materials is one of the problems that our public school has.
Because of these problems, teachers are spending their own money in buying materials that
will sustain the productivity of the classroom. Lack of classroom materials has a big impact
in the process of Teaching and Learning. Through this problem teaching learning process will
not become productive and conducive. Classrooms lack basic materials that the teacher need.
Many classroom lacks of enough books, art supplies and technology to provide same
instruction offered at schools with greater resources. Lack of books translates into an inability
for students to take books for homework. Lack of classroom materials is a negative cycle.
Without materials, the work doesnt get done, and without the work there is little incentive to
buy into school at all supplies dont get purchased.
Everything sends a message. When school doesnt have supplies, the message is that
the students are not important people doing important work. Our students already have doubts
about their importance and the value of school. The children without pencil learn to pretend
that they dont care about being prepared, but it is clearly a source of stress. When youve lost
your last pencil, its hard not to feel like a loser. Conversely, having a pencil to lend is a social
plus. I have purchased countless supplies for my student over the years. Receiving these
things from a teacher feels special to students. Its a practical and tangible expression of care
and affection. Said by Lynn Yellen. It means that these problem calls an attention to our
government. We must be a resourceful teacher to find out alternate solution. In this case we
are the one who provides the materials that are not available to maintain a learning
environment of the classroom.

Elementary teachers spend more of their own money on materials and resources than
middle and high school teacher. This is because they do more hands on activities that involve
the construction paper, paint, glue, and much more. Teachers already arent the most paid
workers, but they spend the most money out of their pocket. This is true dedication. They see
the need that these students need. Teachers are taking away from their selves and their family
to pay for your students. They are provided the supplies that your children need and the
parents arent picking up the slack. When the economy is in a recession like it is now, the
schools systems are lacking more and more. Teachers today are buying supplies for their
student in order for their student to get the best education that they believe that their students
deserve.
This research will be an avenue for the reader to know the lack of school supplies in
the school. The students personal school supplies and the teachers access to supplies are
both included in this research. I want to discuss how by not having certain school supplies the
students are not receiving the best possible education that they could be. I choose this topic as
my main focus for my research because I am studying to be a teacher and to know the effects
of it happening. This topic is very dear to me and I see the effects on the students. I hope to
influence all who read my research to think about helping the school system and how one
supply in the school could change the learning experience for a student. I suggest in this
problem is to have a Teacher Mini Grants Program. In this program or charitable it gives a
funds for them to buy the needed classroom materials. In a practical way our government
should focus on this issue and to find solution in this problem. So we can be able to have a
quality education.

Statement of the Problem


The General Problem of this study;
How does lack of school supplies affect Teaching Learning Process?
Specifically the study will seek to answer the following question;
1. What are the condition of pupils in Kaypian Elementary School in facing lack of
school supplies in terms of;
1.1 Books
1.2 Chairs
1.3 Visual aids
1.4 First aid kit
1.5 Technology
2. What is the level of the mode of manifestation of lack of school supplies as to;
2.1 Examination
2.2 Performance
2.3 Interest
2.4 Other outputs
3. Is there a significant effect between lack of school supplies and the process of
teaching and learning?
Significance of the study
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of lack of school supplies in
teaching learning process.

The following will be benefited the study like students, parents, administrators,
teacher and future researcher.
Students are the most important person in teaching. Without students teaching
learning process will not take place. Students are the one who receives information and
knowledge on their teacher. But if the school is facing lack of school supplies, then education
will not become market place of idea. Even we lack school supplies if the students are not

listening to their teacher, then they cannot be able to learn. Thats why the teacher tells to
his/her students to pass different materials like cartolina, Manila paper, colored paper etc.
Through this strategy, lack of school supplies is being sustained with the help of his/her
students. The students should know the importance of education. Even we encounter different
problem in school like lack of school supplies. The students should have a right values and
work, so they can gather lots of information.
Parents are the one who provide the needs of her children. In school parents are
monitoring the growth and development of their child. The parents can help the school by
donating different instructional materials. In this way they are showing their support. The
parents should know these problems. In a sense that they are aware that lacking of school
supplies is the most problem that the school have. Through this way there are not just aware
on their childs performance but rather the school condition. It is important that they know
this, so at least they can help the school in a simple way. These small things are a big help for
the improvement of the school. The involvement of the parents to the teacher up to the school
is an important matter that they should know.
Administrators are the one who administer the school. The role of administrators is
to know, the problems that the teacher encounter. Administrators are the one who make
solution on a particular problem. A good administrator will lead to a good school. Even
though we have good administrator, lack of school supplies is the hardest problem to solve.
We know that we also lack funds to buy the needed materials in teaching. If the administrator
will call help to other person, then this problem will be possible to solve. In this thing, the
administrators are doing something to sustain the needs of the school. Administrators are the
one who maintain the productivity of the school. Thats why they are called administrators,
because they are the one who leads the improvement of education in their school.
Teachers are a key factor in teaching. Without teacher the learners will not gain and
gather information. In this problem the teacher is the most affected person. If the teacher is a

resourceful person, then this problem will be solved. It is important that we us a teacher must
make an alternate solution or ways on how to sustain our needs in teaching. Through this
ways teaching learning process will become productive and conducive. The teacher is the one
who buy materials that are not available in school. Teachers are spending their own money
not just for the materials, but also the things of her pupils. Through this way the teacher are
showing love and care to his/her students and to the profession that he/she have now. We
know that classroom supplies are the important material in teaching. Without these materials
learning cannot take place.
Future researcher is the one who gather and know the problems that he/she seen in a
public school. The future researcher can use this study to become his/her guide in conducting
research work. It is important that this study will know the future teachers, so they can easily
embrace and accept teaching as their profession.
Scope and Limitation
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of lack of school supplies in
teaching learning process. The condition of pupils in Kaypian Elementary School in facing
lack of school supplies in terms of books, chairs, visual aids, first aid kit and technology. The
level of the mode of manifestation of lack of school supplies as to examination, performance,
interest and other outputs.

The respondent of the study is the grade five (V) of Kaypian Elementary School.
The study will be conducted for five months (5) from November to March.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

RELEVANT THEORIES

Gagne's work has been particularly influential in training and the design of
instructional materials. In fact, the idea that instruction can be systematically designed can be
attributed to Gagne and a handful of others. Gagne's instructional theory has three major
elements. First, it is based on a taxonomy, or classification, of learning outcomes. Second, it
proposes particular internal and external conditions necessary for achieving these learning
outcomes. And third, it offers nine events of instruction, which serve as a template for
developing and delivering a unit of instruction.
According to Gagne's theory, the way to determine the prerequisites for a given
learning objective is to conduct a learning hierarchy. A learning hierarchy (sometimes called
a task analysis) is constructed by working backwards from the final learning objective.
Gagne and others thought it was important for teachers and instructional designers to
think carefully about the nature of the skill or task they wanted to teach, then to make sure
that the learner had the necessary prerequisites to acquire that skill. Gagne also stressed that
practice and assessment should match the target skill. An instructional material is one of the
important components of teaching. Through the use of these materials teaching learning
process will become productive. It also, develops the skill and abilities of each individual.
A central notion in Gagne's theory is that different kinds of learning outcomes have
different internal and external conditions that support them. The external conditions are
things that the teacher or instructional designer arranges during instruction. The internal
conditions are skills and capabilities that the learner has already mastered (such as those that
would be revealed by a learning hierarchy).
So Gagnes, says that the teacher must prepare the entire thing that he/she need before
and during the instruction. The learners already have the skills and a capability, what the
teacher does is to enhance and develop all of these skills and capabilities of his/her students
have.

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Gagne's nine proposed "events of instruction" are a sequence of steps to guide the
teacher or instructional designer. According to the theory, using this sequence should help to
insure that the learner masters the desired objective. The framework has been adapted for use
in a variety of classroom settings, including college teaching. However, you can probably see
that adapting the "events" to many classroom settings is problematic. Most teachers do not
use the kind of language contained in this framework (e.g., terms such as "presenting the
stimulus", or "eliciting performance"). In fact, the whole idea of framing a course as a series
of skills that can be practiced and performed by students is an unfamiliar concept to many
teachers.
Merrill (1997) states that a ". . . content analysis focuses on components, not
integrated wholes. .." in describing the limitations of what Merrill terms First Generation
Instructional Design (ID1).The components that result from a content analysis are individual
items, such as facts, concepts, principles and procedures. Instruction derived from this form
of content analysis may allow students to pass tests, but is not effective in helping students
integrate information into meaningful wholes. These integrated wholes are essential for
understanding complex and dynamic phenomena and for using knowledge in complex
problem solving situations. That is, a well-developed cognitive structure (schema) is
necessary for new information to be learned meaningfully and for accurate recall later.
Merrill suggests that this cognitive structure consist of mental models, but that no ID1
content analysis procedure takes this notion of mental models (cognitive structure) into
account. Most of these task and content analysis procedures were developed before
interactive media that were widely available and resulted in passive, rather than interactive,
instruction. It follows that these task and content analysis procedures are not well suited to
highly interactive instructional situations, such as computer based simulations (Breuer
&Kummer, 1990).

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Instructional design theories are design oriented, they describe methods of instruction
and the situations in which those methods should be used, the methods can be broken into
simpler component methods, and the methods are probabilistic. While groups like the
Learning Technology Standards Committee exist to promote international discussion around
the technology standards necessary to support learning object-based instruction, and many
people are talking about the financial opportunities about to come into existence, there is
astonishingly little conversation around the instructional design implications of learning
objects.
This instructional design theory will be developed through a theory-building process
that includes (1) a review of literature focusing on instructional design theories that provide
scope and sequence guidance and (2) the development of taxonomy of learning objects. The
literature will be synthesized into a theory of content analysis and synthesis that will end in
the content scope specification and sequence specification of learning objects. According to
their instructional function as identified in the content analysis and synthesis, these
specifications will be linked to a specific type of learning object as identified in the taxonomy
of learning object types. Design guidelines for each of the types of learning objects in the
taxonomy will be outlined.

Gagn and Briggs (1979) early on incorporated cognitive theory into their
instructional theory for conceptualizing instructional design. Their instructional theory was
based on a set of capabilities, or learning outcomes, that students would acquire through
instruction. These outcomes were classified into five categories: verbal information,
intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitude. Instead of emphasizing
generalized factors such as practice and reinforcement in the learning process, their theory
required that the conditions of external events and internal processes must be specified
separately for each learning outcome. Also important to their instructional design theory was
the interaction of instruction with the student's previously acquired learning.

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There is currently a lot of interest in the concept of learning objects. Learning objects
are discrete units of learning resources based on agreed standards. The idea behind learning
objects is to promote greater reuse of resources within new instructional systems
development. The main work in learning objects has primarily focused on defining the
technical requirements and standards for computer based learning objects. The technology
itself is not likely to bring the benefits promised by reusable objects without a change in
methods used by practicing instructional designers. The instructional design implications of
the learning object approach is examined to determine the adaptation required in instructional
design methodologies. Object-oriented software engineering is proposed as a useful basis for
new thinking in instructional design methodology.
The Component Display Theory developed by M. David Merrill was a prescriptive
instructional design theory rooted in Gagn's theories and directed toward improving
instructional quality. Merrill and his collaborators worked to develop taxonomy of
instructional presentation types for conveying information and asking questions. Separating
performance level from the content type extends the system of outcome classification
(Merrill, 1997).
Ausubel's Meaningful Reception Theory is concerned with how students learn large
amounts of meaningful material from verbal/textual presentations in a school setting. Ausubel
proposed that learning is based upon the kinds of super ordinate, representational, and
combinatorial processes that occur during the reception of information. A primary process in
learning is subsumption in which new material is related to relevant ideas in the existing
cognitive structure on a non-verbatim basis. Meaningful learning results when new
information is acquired by linking the new information in the learner's own cognitive
structure.
An instructional design theory for concept teaching is presented. The theory is based
on direct empirical validation from a programmatic line of instructional systems research.

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Concept learning is viewed as a two-phase process: (a) formation of conceptual knowledge


and (b) development of procedural knowledge. Two fundamental components of the proposed
theoretical model are content structure variables and instructional design variables. A rational
combination of these components, based on a content analysis that takes into account the
learning model, provides the means for the selection of one of four basic instructional design
strategies. Research studies that contribute to the model are reviewed, and the model is
described with reference to instructional methods and cognitive processes.
This literature review summarizes research on online teaching and learning. It is
organized into four topics: course environment, learners outcomes, learners characteristics,
and institutional and administrative factors. The authors found little consistency of
terminology, discovered some conclusive guidelines, and identified developing lines of
inquiry. The conclusions overall suggest that most of the studies reviewed were descriptive
and exploratory, that most online students are nontraditional and Anglo American, and that
few universities have written policies, guidelines, or technical support for faculty members or
students. Asynchronous communication seemed to facilitate in-depth communication (but not
more than in traditional classes), students liked to move at their own pace, learning outcomes
appeared to be the same as in traditional courses, and students with prior training in
computers were more satisfied with online courses. Continued research is needed to inform
learner outcomes, learner characteristics, course environment, and institutional factors related
to delivery system variables in order to test learning theories and teaching models inherent in
course design.
A major instructional mechanism proposed by Ausubel is the use of advance
organizers. Ausubel emphasizes that advance organizers are different from overviews and
summaries which simply emphasize key ideas and are presented at the same level of
abstraction and generality as the rest to the material. Organizers help to link new learning
material with existing related ideas.

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Ausubel indicates that his theory applies only to reception (expository) learning in
school settings. He distinguishes reception learning from rote and discovery learning. Rote
learning does not involve subsumption and discovery learning requires the learner to discover
information through problem solving.
Ausubel believed that children have a natural tendency to organize information into a
meaningful whole. Children should first learn a general concept and then move toward
specifics.

RELATED LITERATURE
Montague, Wulfrek and Ellis (1983) highlighted that the best design does not
compensate for the lack of skills needed to develop quality instruction. An instruction is a set
of events that facilitate learning whilst design means a creative pattern or a rational, logical,
sequential process intended to solve problems. Thus, instructional design can be defined as
the systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for
instructional materials and activities. However, there are many different definitions for
instructional design and all of them are an expression of underlying philosophies and
viewpoints of what is involved in the learning process (Siemens, 2002).
According to Albion et al., instructional design can be defined as a process, a
discipline, a science, or reality as below: Rio SumarniShariffudin98
Instructional Design as a Process: ID is the systematic development of instructional
specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is
the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery
system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities
and try-out and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.

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Instructional Design as a Discipline: ID is that branch of knowledge concerned with


research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and
implementing those strategies.
Instructional Design as a Science: ID is the science of creating detailed specifications
for the development, implementation, evaluation and maintenance of situations that facilitate
the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at levels of complexity.
Instructional Design as Reality: ID can start at any point in the design process. Often a
glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. By the time the
entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks so that all parts of the
science have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred
in a systematic fashion.
Becker (1994, p. 141) in one of his studies found out a common characteristic among
516 exemplary teachers, who have been using computer based instructional materials with
great comfort. According to Barth (2004, p. 204), teacher growth correlates with pupil
growth. "Probably nothing within a school has more impact as students in terms of skills
development self-confidence, or classroom behavior than the personal and professional
growth of their teachers.
Uyoata(1995) noted that the availability of learning resources in schools are very
important in executing successfully programmed.
Onyejemez (1991) stresses that learning take place when learners are fully involved in
the process through the use of proper and variety of instructional materials in teaching.
According to Ibe (1998), an instructional material is an object or means of
communication process that stores and distributes human experience and knowledge,
therefore the totality of the information carrying devices.

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Dyson (2003) stresses the complex social nature of classrooms and the synergies that
exist among these three spheres in order to analyze literacy learning and use of computer as
an instructional material. As teacher use computer as an instructional material and children
establish their various relationships (e.g. son, daughter, student, and friend etc.) they learn to
negotiate membership within these different, yet intersecting, 23 social spheres. A key to
negotiating membership is student's ability to draw upon "diverse social resources".
Abolade (2009) emphasized that it is when original materials are not available for use
in teaching and learning that other types and forms of instructional can be applied.
Supporting the notion of small, reusable chunks of instructional media, Reigeluth and
Nelson (1997) suggest that when teachers first gain access to instructional materials, they
often break the materials down into their constituent parts. They then reassemble these parts
in ways that support their individual instructional goals. This suggests one reason why
reusable instructional components, or learning objects, may provide instructional benefits. If
instructors received instructional resources as individual components, this initial step of
decomposition could be bypassed, potentially increasing the speed and efficiency of
instructional development.
Abolade and Olumorin (2004) reported that most of the factory produced instructional
materials for teaching art based courses are usually very scarce to come by and where they
are within reach, they are usually very expensive to buy.
In this research, three major categories of mode of local production of instructional
materials for art based courses were outlined based on the presentation of Ogunmilade
(1984). The presentation was however improved upon to meet up with current use of material
resources and methods as shown in

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Classification of Instructional Materials

The Instructional Materials could best be Classification in to three forms: audio,


visual and audiovisual aids4. The audio (deal with sound only) the visual (as in sight) and
audio-visual (a combination of audio and visual i.e. sound and vision) for instance:
AUDIO: These include such things as Radio, Record players cassettes gramophone
etc. These aid teaching through the sense of hearing. They can be used in teaching.
VISUAL: The category of this consist of maps, Film steps, specimen, pictures,
charts, Blackboard, posters etc. This category appeals to the pupils through the sense of sight,
the saying that seeing, is believing applies to some extent in this context. Until facts are
presented in form of visual aid, pupils may not readily grasp the meaning of ideas, concepts
and facts.
AUDIO-VISUAL: As have said already, this group consists of a combination of both
audio and visual materials. They are therefore things like Television films and projector etc,
the use of these aids learning greatly.

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TEXTBOOKS as a medium of instruction have two distinct functions-that of a


reference source of information and that of a sequenced medium of instruction or learning.
Few standard textbooks are approximately sequenced for independent study, and written in a
self-instructional style. So, those access devices, study guides, self assessment materials,
recapitulations, learning objectives and so on will be needed? When the student is studying
will be need to have both the text and the supplementary material side by side and continually
oscillate from one to the other. This may be inconvenient and frustrating. If the student is
required to read large extracts of the book before and after parallel comment, at what stage
does he get a chance to practice his learning by trying out self-assessment questions and
exercise?

Problems facing in the Selection of instructional Materials


In spite of the advantages of instructional materials, there are problems confronting their
selection in Islamic Studies. Among these problems are
Lack of Fund: There is no adequate support or patronage from the government and
school administrators to encourage teachers of Islamic Studies in preparing instructional
materials/resources. Some of the materials are very expensive to provide by teachers. F o r
example, projected, electronic mass media and media that are retaining permanent knowledge
to the students
Teachers Attitude: Many of the school teachers are ignorant of using, those
instructional materials and induction course, lecture: and seminars are not organized in
teaching profession as they are organized in the civil services to up-grade knowledge and to
facilitate the use of sophisticated instructional materials. Teachers also do not make
maximum use of the few instructional materials at their disposal, because many of them do
not have the knowledge of operating them.
Learner's Attitude: Many learners are not interested in choosing Islamic Studies as a
Pcareer, hence, they are ashamed and feel unconcern in supporting the teachers in the

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necessary training on the use and preparation of instructional materials. Also, the stealing of
those instructional materials and problem of the students mishandling those instructional
materials while teachers are not in the classroom, there is the problem of not leaving the
instructional materials in the classroom, so that student can make use of them at their leisure
and convenient time
Lack of facilities: Like resource room, - prostration room and library. Many schools
have no good building to store materials' for safety and on the part of those who have neglect
Islamic Studies and held the belief that it is not essential part of its teachings

RELATED STUDIES
Instructional materials, including textbooks, educational media (library media print,
nonprint, and electronic resources), computer software, videotapes, films, DVDs, and
instructional television programs represent fundamental resources for schools for enhancing
instruction, furthering the pursuit of knowledge, and providing experiences of educational
significance for class groups or for individual students. It is the shared responsibility of the
State and District to provide an adequate number and range of instructional materials and
resources in a variety of formats that are appropriate, timely, and essential to the attainment
of specified educational objectives. It is also the responsibility of the State and District to
provide instructional materials that are free of bias, stereotypes, distortions, and prejudices.
(Merriam

and

Caffarella,

1999, p. 252).
The instructional materials have emerged in a variety of resources, and equipment,
which can be used to supplement or complement the teachers efforts in ensuring effective

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learning by students. It is recognized that conventional media technologies can no longer


meet the needs of our teaching and learning processes; as a result they are being replaced by
multimedia technology. This technology provides a learning environment that is self-paced,
learner-controlled and individualized. Multimedia is now permeating the educational system
as a tool for effective teaching and learning. With multimedia, the communication of
information can be done in a more effective manner and it can be an effective instructional
medium for delivering information.
Instructional techniques are important, but the use of instructional materials also
influences student achievement, use of process skills, and other outcomes. Instructional
materials provide the physical media through which the intents of the curriculum are
experienced (Talmadge&Eash, 1979).
It is important to say that the use of multimedia technology has great significance in
colleges, universities and research institutions in the Western countries. In these countries, the
technology is being seen as a key player to development in all ramifications and essential
component of education. There is a wide variety of instructional media which could be
profitably and effectively used in the second language classroom learning situation. They
could be broadly classified into four groups namely visual aids, audio-visual aids, audio aids
and resources (human and materials). Visual aids are resource materials and devices that
appeal to the sense of sight and touch as well as sense of smell.
A 1976 survey conducted by the National Survey and Assessment of Instructional
Materials contained data indicating that students are involved in learning activities with
instructional materials more than 90 percent of the time in classrooms (Talladge&Eash,
1979).
Learning resources that fall under audio-visual aids appeal to the senses of sight,
hearing and touch. They include line sound film, sound strip projector, television and video
tape-recorders and tapes. The audio aids are instructional materials that appeal to the sense of

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hearing and touch too. They include records and record players, tapes and tape recorder, radio
and language laboratories. Resources could be human or materials. Human resources include
the teacher, the pupils and other resource persons in the community. Materials include all
those physical objects mentioned earlier such as chalkboard and realia (real objects such as
bottle, yam, cup, stone, spoon and knife). They can be borrowed by the school or the teacher
or obtained free of charge by him/her. Some can be donated freely by individuals or nongovernmental organization (NGO) to school(s).
Ogunbote and Adesoye (2006) expressed that multimedia technology adds new
dimension to learning experiences because concepts were easier to present and comprehend
when the words are complemented with images and animations. Stating further that it has
been established that learners retain more when a variety of senses are engaged in impacting
knowledge; and the intensity of the experience aids retention and recall by engaging social,
emotional and intellectual senses.
The instructional media to be selected must be relevant to the objectives as well as to
the target population (i.e. learners) for whom the materials are to be used. This is important
because the objectives that the materials are designed to achieve should be similar to those
that the teacher and the learners are trying to achieve. Being relevant to the learner means that
the characteristics of the learner such as the age, level of attainment or maturation, ability,
aptitude and capability, should all be borne in mind to enable the teacher to select relevant
materials for their needs, interest and aspirations. When resources are relevant to the learners
they make for easy and meaningful teaching and learning activities. This criterion could be
put in a question form thus: What are the educational and instructional objectives set out to be
achieved using the materials.
Multimedia is defined as the combination of various digital media types such as text,
images, sound and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or
presentation to convey a message or information to an audience. In other words, multimedia
means an individual or a small group using a computer to interact with information that is

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represented in several media, by repeatedly selecting what to see and hear next (Agnew,
Kellerman and Meyer, 1996).
The teacher, therefore, should endeavor to select appropriate materials from the
community for teaching its learners instead of using materials because they have been used
and found effective in other areas. This is especially important for teaching and learning
language, and some other subjects. Any resources selected for use must be appropriate to the
objectives as well as to the learners.
Ogunbote and Adesoye (2006) expressed that multimedia technology adds new
dimension to learning experiences because concepts were easier to present and comprehend
when the words are complemented with images and animations. Stating further that it has
been established that learners retain more when a variety of senses are engaged in impacting
knowledge; and the intensity of the experience aids retention and recall by engaging social,
emotional and intellectual senses.
The physical features of learning resources are a very important factor for their
selection and use. Physical features here means attractiveness, durability, size and clarity of
the resources. Also, considered under quality are accuracy, clarity and usefulness of the
illustrations, drawings and paintings and weight of the materials for ease of handling and
storage. All these factors should be considered before selection is made. As a result of the
present economic recession in the country, efforts should be made to conserve funds by
purchasing resources that are of high quality, and so will last for a long time. The question
under quality is: What are the physical features of the instructional materials?
A study by Ubogu (2006) supports the view that multimedia resources facilitate
access to all human knowledge, anytime, and anywhere in a friendly, multi-modal, efficient
and effective way, by overcoming barriers of distance, language and culture, and by using
multiple Internet-connect devices.
In many developing countries that are experiencing economic depression, the teacher,
in the selection of instructional materials should be economical. The resources should be

23

cheap, but this does not mean sacrificing quality for cost. The teacher and learners should
find ways and means of providing necessary materials which are very expensive by
improvising them, using available local materials. Furthermore, it will be more economical to
invite resource persons to the schools rather than take the learners to the person. But when the
use of resource material is inevitable and the attainment of curriculum objective is
jeopardized without it, such a resource material should be purchased at all cost and properly
stored. Other considerations under this criterion are the cost in terms of time and energy to be
expended by the users. The question to be asked therefore is: How much would it cost in
terms of money, time and energy to use the instructional materials?

It is important to say that the use of multimedia technology has great significance in colleges,
universities and research institutions in the Western countries. In these countries, the
technology is being seen as a key player to development in all ramifications and essential
component of education.
Transfer of learning can be defined as the effective application by students of the
knowledge and skills gained as a result of attending an educational program. This transferring
of learning occurs when learning in one context or with one set of materials impacts on
performance in another context or with other related materials. Transfer of learning occurs
whenever prior learned knowledge and skills affect the way in which new knowledge and
skills are learned and performed (Cormier & Hagman, 1987).
With the use of instructional materials learning takes place. Thats why transfer of
learning is the effective way to become classroom discussion a market place of idea and a
productive learning environment. Transfer of learning happen between the teachers and
students by means of sharing their ideas, thoughts and expression in a particular issue.

24

The transfer of learning (transfer of training) is a key concept in adult theories of


learning, because most education and training instruction aspires to transfer this knowledge to
"real world" situations. The context of learning usually differs somewhat from the actual
context of application; thus the end goals of education and training are not achieved unless
this transfer takes place. (Cormier & Hagman, 1987).
In transfer of learning the teacher uses the different theorist that he/she gathered. So at
the end, we can be able to attain our objectives. It is important that all the theorist and
principles of education that we gathered must be applied in teaching. So teaching learning
process will become productive and conducive.
Work by Perkins and Salomon (1996) in the area of transfer theory suggest that
transfer is a multi-faceted phenomena of at least two distinct mechanisms- the low road and
the high road. Low road transfer occurs when conditions in the transfer context are similar to
those in a previous context of learning to trigger well developed semi-automatic responses.
This type of transfer would occur, say for example, in a person who rents a truck to move
their household belongings. They find that the familiar steering wheel, shift and other features
evoke useful card riving responses. Driving the truck is an almost automatic response even
though it is a different task, which varies in only several minor ways.
Learning objects need not all be the same size; while some will be small, they should
be combined into learning objects large enough to teach either the epitome or current
elaboration. Learning objects should be presented in order of increasing complexity,
beginning with the epitome or simplest case. Learning objects should be sequenced in an
order that simulates the real-world performance with increasing fidelity. Because more than
one learning object can be created from a single work model, and because the learning
objects thus produced will function in instructionally equivalent ways, instructionally
equivalent learning objects can be substituted for each other in the sequence.

25

Summary
The importance of Instructional Materials in any teaching/learning process cannot be
over emphasized. This is for the fact that such materials enhance, facilitate and make
teaching/learning easy, lively and concrete. The aim of this paper therefore, is to look in to
the significance of Instructional materials in the effective teaching/learning.
It also attempts to shed more light on the way teaching/learning should be made to
benefit from the modern technological advancement at all levels of educational institutions. It
also investigates the point of view on instructional materials in the teaching/Learning process.
Resources centers should be established at strategic locations and be well equipped
with instructional materials from where teachers could loan from. To this end, the resource
centers should be brought near teachers, suffice is to say the centers should be developed in
all the Schools. The availability of reference texts and instructional materials are very vital to
high academic performance, while, teachers should make efforts to improvise some of these
materials, the educational authority should play their own role by making these materials
available in schools if the set objective of the new educational system is to be achieved.
The paper revealed that teaching/learning with instructional aides is not a new
phenomenon it has been traced that that used Instructional materials at several occasions in
the process of imparting knowledge to his followers. It also discovered that, Instructional
technology or instructional media is introduced to the system with a view of promoting

26

effective teaching/learning. It recommended that, teachers need to select or improvise suitable


Instructional materials or aids to facilitate teaching/learning and motivate their students. It
finally offers some suggestions on how to make good use of Instructional materials for a
better teaching/learning.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH DESIGN METHODOLOGY

27

This chapter presents the research design, distribution of respondents, research


instrument, and data gathering procedure and the statistical treatment and interpretation of
data for the completion of the study.
Methods and Techniques of the Study
This study will use the simple descriptive research method utilizing applied research
design. Aquino (2002) defines descriptive research as a fact-finding method with adequate
interpretation. That it is something more and beyond just data-gathering; the latter is not
reflective thinking or research. The true meaning of the data collected should be reported
from point of view of the objectives and the assumption of the project underway. This follow
logically after careful classification of the data. Facts obtained may be accurate expression of
central tendency, or deviation, or of correlation; but the report is not research unless
discussion of those data is not carried up to the level of adequate interpretation. Data must be
subjected to the thinking process in terms of the ordered reasoning.

Locale of the Study


The respondents of this study are, grade 4 , grade 5 and grade 6 students .
inBagongBuhay A Elementary School . Minuyan San jose del Monte .
Table 1
Distribution of the Respondents

28

Respondents

Population

Sampl
e

149 students

30

149students

30

Grade IV students

Grade V students

40
Grade VI students

TOTAL

215students

513

100

Research Instrument
The research will use a descriptive questionnaire as the instrument to gather data from
the student respondents which composed of two parts.
Part I is a questionnaire designed to gather data on the profile of the students and
teacher respondents.

29

Part II is a questionnaire designed to assess the availability of instructional materials


and equipment. And the availability of physical facilities
Data Gathering Procedure
For this purpose, a formal letter requesting permission to administer the questionnaire
that will be given to the City Schools Division Superintendent in San Jose del Monte. The
Division Supervisor allowed the researcher distributes the questionnaires through the school
administrators and Department Head.
Data Processing and Statistical Treatment
The gathered data was organized, tallied and treated statistically. In treating the data
various statistical tools were used.
1. For the profile of students and teachers frequency count and percentage were used to
treat data statistically.
2. For the availability of instructional materials and equipment. And the availability of
physical facilities
3. The effect of lack of instructional materials, equipment and physical facilities in
teaching.

30

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS

Distribution of Respondents as to Gender

Gender

Frequency

Percentage

Male

55

42

Total

130

100

The table 1 shows the distribution of respondents as to Gender. The female group got
the highest distribution with the frequency of 75 and having a 58 in percentage. The
phenomenon of this distribution is most of the teachers in the school is female. The lowest
distribution is the male having a 55 in frequency and 42 in percentage, the phenomenon of
this distribution is the school having a shortage of a male teacher.

31

Distribution of respondent as to Age.


Age

Frequency

Percentage

51 above

36-50

57

43

21-35

58

45

20 below

10

Total

130

100

The table 2 represents the distribution of respondent as to Age. The highest


respondent of the distribution is at the age of 21-35 having a 58 in frequency and 45 in
percentage. The phenomenon of this distribution is most of the teachers in the school are let
passer. The second one is at the age of 36-50 having a 57 in frequency and 43 in the
percentage. The phenomenon of this distribution is most of the teachers in the school are
enjoying their life in teaching. The third one is at the age of 20 below having a frequency of
10 and 8 in percentage the phenomenon of this distribution is most of the teachers in the
school are fresh graduates. And lastly the lowest respondents is at the age of 51 above having
a 5 in frequency and having 4 in percentage. The phenomenon of this distribution is least of
teachers still prepare to teach even though they are old.

Distribution of Respondent as to Marital Status

Marital Status

Frequency

Percentage

Single

30

23

Married

50

38

32

In a Relationship

45

35

Widow

Total

130

100

The table shows the distribution as to Marital Status. The highest respondents of the
distribution is Married in which the frequency is 50 and the percentage is 38. The
phenomenon of this distribution is even though they are married, they chose to teach students.
The second one is In a Relationship having a 45 in frequency and 35 in distribution. The
phenomenon of this distribution is the teachers who are in a relationship are inspired to teach
students. The third one is the single having a distribution of 30 and the frequency of 23. The
phenomenon of this distribution is the teachers are still teaching even though they are single,
because being single is not a hindrance in teaching. And lastly the lowest respondents is the
widow having a frequency of 5 and a percentage of 4. The phenomenon of this distribution is
even though they are widow, they chose to teach students.

Table 1
Frequency Descriptive of Lack of Instructional Materials in terms of Books and Chairs

33

Item

Respondent

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

(SD) (D)

(SA)

(A)

(NA)

Books and Chairs

There are enough books in


the classroom.

100

320

4.2

Disagree

Using books is an effective


way in teaching..

50

40

240

3.3

Strongly Agree

Books can use by students


in doing their assignments,
research and projects.

30

210

30

Strongly Agree

Book inside the classroom


is one is to one.

180

80

4.5

Strongly
Disagree

.
Books are distributed
equally in individual.

240

60

40

3.4

Strongly Agree

There are enough chairs


inside the classroom.

250

200

4.5

Strongly

Chairs have functional


furniture design that makes
the students more
comfortable.

150

100

2.5

Strongly Agree

Reading books inside the


classroom is important.

210

60

2.7

Strongly Agree

Lack of book is the most


problem inside the
classroom.

240

40

2.8

Strongly Agree

Lack of chairs is the


problem in this classroom.

270

20

2.9

Strongly Agree

Disagree

34

The table reveals the majority of the items got the verbal interpretation of Strongly
Agree, as follows; Using books is an effective way in teaching, Books can use by students in
doing their assignments, research and projects, Books are distributed equally in individual,
Chairs have functional furniture design that makes the students more comfortable, Reading
books inside the classroom is important, Lack of book is the most problem inside the
classroom, and Lack of chairs is the problem in this classroom.
The table reveals the majority of the item got the verbal interpretation of Disagree and
Strongly Disagree, as follows; there are enough books in the classroom, Book inside the
classroom is one is to one, and there are enough chairs inside the classroom.
On this table it only says that instructional materials are important thing that makes
teaching and learning possible. But it shows also on how lack of instructional materials
affects the process of teaching and learning.

Table 2
Frequency Descriptive of Lack of Instructional Materials in terms of Visual Aids

Item

Respondent

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

5
Visual Aids

(SD) (D)

(SA)

(A)

(NA)

35

0
Using visual aids is an
effective way in instruction.

Visual aids catch the


attention of the students.

80

150

60

2.9

Strongly Agree

180

80

10

2.7

Strongly Agree

Visual aids is important


than PowerPoint.

75

280

45

Disagree

Using the chalkboard is


very important.

210

60

1.3

Not Agree

Producing visual aids


requires too much time.

120

120

2.4

Agree

The table reveals the majority of the items got the verbal interpretation of Strongly
Agree, as follows; using visual aids is an effective way in instruction, and Visual aids catch
the attention of the students. And also they disagree that Visual aids is important than
PowerPoint and not agree on using chalkboard and last they agree that preparing and
producing requires too much time.
Table 3
Frequency Descriptive of Lack of Instructional Materials in terms of Instructional
Technologies

Item

Respondent

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

(SD) (D)

(SA)

(A)

(NA)

240

40

Instructional Technologies

Overhead projectors are


easy to operate.

2.8

Strongly Agree

36

Learning about computers


is very difficult.

150

280

4.3

Disagree

The challenge of learning


about computers is
exciting.

160

120

40

3.2

Strongly Agree

Videos are difficult to use


in the classroom.

240

30

2.7

Strongly Agree

Local resources are a good


substitute for some
commercial teaching
materials

80

90

20

10

Agree

The table reveals the majority of the items got the verbal interpretation of Strongly
Agree, as follows; Overhead projectors are easy to operate, the challenge of learning
about computers is exciting, and Videos are difficult to use in the classroom. And they are
disagreeing that learning about computers is very difficult and they are agree that Local
resources are a good substitute for some commercial teaching materials.
On table 2 and 3 it only says that teachers much use technology in teaching instead of
using the traditional way. But also if technology is not available we can use the traditional
way on teaching which each preparing visual aids. Because we already know that we lack
also on technology that we can use in teaching.
Table 4
Frequency Descriptive of Lack of Instructional Materials in terms of Interest,
Examination and Performance

Item

Respondent

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

(SA)

(A)

(NA)

Instructional Technologies
(SD) (D)

37

Lack of books affects the


interest of the student.

120

120

60

Strongly Agree

Lack of chairs affects the


interest of the student.

120

90

80

2.9

Strongly Agree

Lack of books affects the


performance of the teacher.

75

60

100

15

2.5

Strongly Agree

Lack of chairs affects the


student in doing their
examination.

50

40

30

120

10

2.5

Strongly Agree

Lack of books affects the


process of teaching and
learning.
Using technology help the
student to perform well in
classroom
E-book catches the interest
of the student.

45

140

15

Agree

240

20

10

2.7

Strongly Agree

40

30

40

60

2.7

Strongly Agree

E-book helps the student to


perform well in the
classroom.
E-book helps the teacher to
have a meaningful learning
during instruction.

80

150

40

10

1.7

Agree

40

180

30

15

2.7

Strongly Agree

Dysfunctional chairs makes


the students feel
uncomfortable

20

210

30

10

2.7

Strongly Agree

The table reveals the majority of the items got the verbal interpretation of Strongly
Agree, as follows; Lack of books affects the interest of the student, Lack of chairs affects the
interest of the student, Lack of books affects the performance of the teacher, Lack of chairs
affects the student in doing their examination, Using technology help the student to perform
well in classroom, E-book catches the interest of the student, E-book helps the teacher to
have a meaningful learning during instruction and Dysfunctional chairs makes the students
feel uncomfortable. And they are agree on; Lack of books affects the process of teaching and
learning and E-book helps the student to perform well in the classroom.

38

On this table it only presents on us that it is possible that using e-book is one of the
ways to have an interaction between the students and the teacher. Because nowadays students
are very engage in using technology. It not only help the performance of the students but also
the productivity and performance of the teacher.

Chapter V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings
After all the data and information were gathered, the researcher has formulated
summary of findings in order to understand more of the result of the researcher.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect between ineffective teacher and
the academic performance of the students.
Lack of classroom materials has a big impact in the process of Teaching and Learning.
Through this problem teaching learning process will not become productive and conducive.
Classrooms lack basic materials that the teacher need. Many classroom lacks of enough
books, art supplies and technology to provide same instruction offered at schools with greater
resources. Lack of books translates into an inability for students to take books for homework.
Lack of classroom materials is a negative cycle. Without materials, the work doesnt get
done, and without the work there is little incentive to buy into school at all supplies dont get
purchased.
This research will be an avenue for the reader to know the lack of school supplies in
the school. The students personal school supplies and the teachers access to supplies are
both included in this research. I want to discuss how by not having certain school supplies the

39

students are not receiving the best possible education that they could be. I choose this topic as
my main focus for my research because I am studying to be a teacher and to know the effects
of it happening. This topic is very dear to me and I see the effects on the students. I hope to
influence all who read my research to think about helping the school system and how one
supply in the school could change the learning experience for a student. I suggest in this
problem is to have a Teacher Mini Grants Program. In this program or charitable it gives a
funds for them to buy the needed classroom materials. In a practical way our government
should focus on this issue and to find solution in this problem. So we can be able to have a
quality education.
POLICY IMPLICATION
The role of instructional materials in the teaching/learning process cannot be
overemphasized. They facilitate and encourage self-study or independent study in students.
The finding of this study has shown that inadequate use or lack of use of instructional
materials in the teaching/learning situation (lecture method) negates the objective of teaching.
Teachers who do not make use of instructional materials hide in the cover of none supply of
the teaching resources. Therefore, as a matter of policy implementation, the governments at
all levels should supply regularly standardized instructional materials, some useful hard and
soft wares for use in schools. The vocational, technology and science teachers should be
trained retrained and exposed regularly to make them to be up to date in the effective
selection and utilization of instructional materials for effective teaching.

CONCLUSION

40

It is clearly evident that emerging private primary teacher training colleges lacked
adequate facilities and learning resources. The status of instructional materials, equipment
and facilities are inadequate, obsolete, dilapidated and unsuitable for preparing competent
teachers. This state of affairs raises concern about the quality of teachers from emerging
private primary teacher training colleges serving in the school system. The proliferations of
training institutions in such conditions are a manifestation of the ineffectiveness or near to
total collapse of the systems of monitoring and regulation of teacher training institutions.
Although the situation might improve, inadequate instructional materials and resources in
teaching and learning prevent these institutions from contributing to the production of up-to
date and specialized knowledge for their trainees.
The results indicated that students taught practical agriculture using instructional
charts, pictures and filmstrips performed significantly better than students taught without
instructional materials. In the process of teaching/learning, instructional materials that were
used facilitated students understanding by supplementing, clarifying, revitalizing and
emphasizing the teachers verbal efforts. This finding suggests that teachers should encourage
the acquisition of knowledge, ideas, skills and attitudes in each learning activity.
RECOMMENDATION
Teacher quality has long been and will continue to be an important issue to parents,
educators and policymakers and to that extent therefore, there will be need for a legislation
framework to be enacted to act as a watch dog over the teacher preparation programmes
across the nation. In the light of the findings and conclusions of this research its
recommended that, the Principals and the management of emerging private primary teacher
training colleges should provide adequate instructional materials and learning facilities to
their institutions of learning for effective teaching and learning. More so the Ministry of
Education should enhance and enforce regular inspection of private primary teacher training
colleges to ensure conformity to standard guidelines.

41

Consequent upon the conclusion of this study based on the findings, the following are
recommended:
1. Science, vocational and technology teachers should be resourceful in the selection
and utilization of instructional materials that are useful in the concepts that they teach in each
lesson.
2. The teachers should be made to update their knowledge and skills in improvisation
of instructional materials through seminars, workshops and conferences organized by
governments and professional bodies.
3. Teachers should develop positive attitudes towards the selection and use of
instructional materials for teaching/ learning.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Gagne's theory. Design of Instructional Materials
Ambrose, David W. (1991/December). The Effects of Hypermedia on Learning: A Literature
Review. Educational Technology, 31(12), 51-55.
McCowin, Tamm E. (no year). A Quest for Instructional Design Competencies, Methods,
and Tools to Support Effective Performance Assessment. Available online at:
http://www.iparesearch.org/bl og/articles/ipaArticle2007AE CT_mccowin.pdf.
Mergel, Brenda (1998). Instructional Design & Learning Theory. Website:
http://www.usask.ca/educatio n/coursework/802papers/mer gel/brenda.htm.

42

Gagn and Briggs (1979) incorporated cognitive theory into their instructional theory for
conceptualizing instructional design.
The Component Display Theory developed by M. David Merrill.
Morton, Jaosn. Teachers lament lack of money for needed school supplies. Tuscaloosa
News. Tuscaloosa News, 2007. Web. 28 Jun 2012.
<http://www.tuscaloosanews.com/article/20070808/NEWS/708080343>.

Yellen, L.. What teachers are saying about the lack of school supplies. N.p., 2008. Web. 25
Jun 2012. <http://gettingtoolstocityschools.org/home/what_teachers_are_saying>.

QUESTIONARE
Profile
Age: __
Gender: __ M
__ F
Civil Status: ___Single ___Married
Educational Qualification: ___Student

___Grade teacher

Learning Space (Check the number of your response)


5= Strongly Disagree

4= Disagree

3= Strongly Agree 2= Agree 1= Not at all

Lacking of School Supplies


Books and Chairs
1. There are enough books in the classroom.
2. Using books is an effective way in teaching.
3. Books can use by students in doing their
assignments, research and projects.
4. Book inside the classroom is one is to one.
5. Books are distributed equally in individual.
6. There are enough chairs inside the classroom.
7. Chairs have functional furniture design that
makes the students more comfortable.
8. Reading books inside the classroom is

43

important.
9. Lack of book is the most problem inside the
classroom.
10. Lack of chairs is the problem in this classroom.
Visual Aids
1. Using visual aids is an effective way in
instruction.
2. Visual aids catch the attention of the
students.
3. Visual aids is important than PowerPoint.
4. Using the chalkboard is very important.
5. Producing visual aids requires too much
time.
Instructional Technologies
1. Overhead projectors are easy to operate.
2. Learning about computers is very difficult.
3. The challenge of learning about computers
is exciting.
4. Videos are difficult to use in the classroom.
5. Local resources are a good substitute for
some commercial teaching materials..

Learning Space (Check the number of your response)


5= Strongly Disagree

4= Disagree

3= Strongly Agree 2= Agree 1= Not at all

Interest, Examination and Performance


1. Lack of books affects the interest of the student.
2. Lack of chairs affects the interest of the student.
3. Lack of books affects the performance of the teacher.
4. Lack of chairs affects the student in doing their
examination.
5. Lack of books affects the process of teaching and
learning.
6. Using technology help the student to perform well in
classroom.
7. E-book catches the interest of the student.
8. E-book helps the student to perform well in the
classroom.
9. E-book helps the teacher to have a meaningful learning
during instruction.
10. Dysfunctional chairs makes the students feel
uncomfortable.

44