You are on page 1of 21

Biology SPM Chapter 4

Chemical composition of the cell (Komposisi kimia sel)

(unsur-unsur
utama)

96.3%

Hidrogen

Functions
Component
molecules

of

water

and

Backbone of organic molecules

Karbon

Unsur asas bagi molekul organik.

Nitrogen

Component of proteins and nucleic acid


Komponen protein dan asid nukleik

Component of water and most of organic


molecules.
Required
for
cellular
respiration.
Komponen air dan molekul organik. diperlukan
untuk respirasi.

Trace elements Sodium


Natrium
(unsur-unser
surih)

Principal cation in fluids outside of the


cell. Important in functioning of nerves.
Kation utama bendaliar di luar sel. Penting untuk
fungsi saraf.

Magnesium Cofactor of many enzymes. Important in


forming of chlorophyll.
Kofaktor dalam kebanyakan enzim. Penting dalam
pembentukan kloroplas.

Phosphorus Constituent of nucleic acid. Involve in


Fosforus
energy transfer reaction and essential
component of bone and teeth.
Kandungan asid mukleik. terlibat dalam tindaka
balas pemindahan tenaga dan komponen penting
tulang dan gigi.

Sulphur
Sulfur

Component
vitamins.

of

certain

Komponen protein dan vitamin.

Principal cation in fluids inside the cell.


Important in functioning of nerves.

Calcium
Kalsium

proteins

and

Cofactor of enzyme. Trigger muscle


contraction and as component of bones,
teeth and plant cell walls.
Kofaktor bagi enzim. merangsang pengecutan otot
dan komponen tulang, gigi dan dinding sel
tumbuhan.

Ultratrace
element

Carbon

Oksigen

Potassium

organic

Komponen air dan molekul organik

Oxygen

Anion utama bendalir di luar sel.

Kation utama bendalir dalam sel. Penting untuk


fungsi saraf.

Unsur adalah unis asas jirim. Antara 92 unsur yang dijumpai di bumi, hanya 25
dijumpai dalam benda hidup.

Element
Hydrogen

Principal anion in fluid outside the cell.

Klorin
Kalium

1. Element in the cell (Unsur di dalam sel)


Elements are the basic units of matter. Out of the 92 stable
elements found on the Earth, only 25 found in living things.

Category
Major
constituents

Chlorine

Iron
besi

Unsur-unser
ultrasurih

Cofactor of many enzymes. Constituent of


haemoglobin.
Kofaktor enzim. Kandungan hemoglobin.

Chemical compound in the cell (Sebatian kimia dalam sel)


1. Chemical compounds in the cell can be divided into two major
groups: organic and inorganic compounds.
Sebatian kimia dalam sel dibahagikan kepada dua kompulan: sebatian organik
dan tidak organik.

2. Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon.


Sebatian organik ialah sebatian yang terdiri daripada karbon.

3. The principle organic compounds found in organisms are


carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
Sebatian organik dalam organisma ialah karbohidrat, lipid, protein dan asid
nukleik.

4. Inorganic compounds are compounds that generally do not


contain carbon. Water is an important inorganic compound.
Sebatian tidak organik biasanya tidak mengandungi karbon. Air ialah sebatian
tidak organik yang penting.

Organic compound
Carbohydrates
Karbohidrat

Function
Supply energy for cell processes, storing energy
and give structural support to cell wall.
Membekal tenaga untuk proses sel, menyimpan tenaga dan
memberi sokongan kepada dinding sel.

Lipids

Store large amount of energy over long periods of


time. Act as an energy source and play a major role
in the structure of the cell membranes. Act as a
source of metabolic and reduce the loss of water by
evaporation. It also absorb shock and as a heat
insulator.

Lipid

Menyimpan tenaga yang banyak. pembekal tenaga dan


membentuk membran sel. sumber metabolisme dan
mengurangkan penyejatan air. Ia juga menyerap hentakan
serta sebagai penebat haba.

Proteins

Act as building blocks of many structural


components of the cell; required for growth. Form
enzymes which catalyse chemical reactions and
form hormones which control growth and
metabolism.

Nucleic acid (Asid nukleik)


- Nucleic acid is a complex macromolecule that store genetic
information.
Asid nukleik: makromolekul kompleks yang menyimpan maklumat genetik.

- The basic unit (monomer) for nucleic acid is nucleotide. Nucleotide is


made up of a nitrogenous base, pentose sugar and phosphate group.
Unit binaan asas(monomer) asid nukleik ialah nukleotida yang terdiri daripada bes
bernitrogen, gula pentosa dan kumpulan fosfas.

- There are two type of nucleic acid: DNA and RNA.

Membina sel baru. Untuk tumbesaran. Membentuk enzim


yang mempercepatkan tindak balas kimia dan hormon yang
digunakan unutk metabolisme.

Nucleic acids
Asid nukleik

Contain the genetic information of cells. Play a


vital role in protein synthesis.
Mengandungi maklumat genetik dalam sel. Memainkan
peranan penting dalam proses sintesis protein.

Water is a good solvent for many substances (universal solvent).


Air ialah pelarut semesta kehidupan.

Water transports sucrose and minerals in sieve tubes of plants.


Medium to transport in blood, lymph, excretory and digestion.

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) Asid deoksiribonukleik


- Made up from polynucleotide that form double helix structure.

Air mengangkut sukrosa dan mineral dalam pembuluh tapis tumbuhan.


Medium pengangkutan dalam darah, cecair limfa, perkumuhan dan pencernaan.

Terdiri daripada polinukleotida yang berpilin bersama untuk membentuk struktur keliks
ganda dua.

Water is not easily compressed, helps to give the cells its shape and
structure. (Support)

- Found in nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondia.

Air mengekalkan bentuk tetap dan struktur sel.(Sokongan)

Water takes part in biochemical reactions. It is essential in


photosynthesis.
Air sebagai medium untuk tindak balas.Penting dalam proses fotosintesis.penting

Act as lubricant.(Sebagai pelincir)

Dijumpai dalam nukleus, kloroplas dan mitochondrion.

- Contain genetic materials that pass on to the next generation.


Mengandungi maklumat genetik yang diturunkan daripada induk kepada anak.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) Asid ribonukleik


- Made up of single chain (terdiri daripada bebenang tunggal)

Terbentuk daripada dua monosakarida yang bergabung dengan menyingkirkan


satu molekul air. Tindak balas ini ialah kondensasi.

- Found in cytoplasm, ribosome and nucleus.


dijumpai dalam sitoplasma, ribosom dan nukleus.
- Act as a copied information from DNA for the synthesis of protein.
berperanan dalam menyalin maklumat yang dibawa DNA untuk mensistesis protein.
- basic

Formula umum disakarida ialah C12H22O11. Mereka juga dipanggil gula


kompleks.

genetic substances for some virus. (Bahan genetik bagi sesetengah virus)

Carbohydrates (karbohidrat):
- made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The ratio of hydrogen to
oxygen atoms in the molecule is usually 1:2.

Many carbohydrates have the general formula Cx(H2O)y where x is


approximately equal to y.

The three basic types of carbohydrates are monosaccharide,


disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Tiga jenis asas karbohidrat ialah monosakarida, disakarida dan polisakarida.

Monosaccharide (Monosakarida)
- also called simple sugar (gula ringkas)
-

The common monosaccharides are six-carbon sugars with a


molecular formula of C6H12O6.

They are sweet-tasting crystalline substances that are soluble in


water.
Disakarida adalah bahan hablur yang berasa manis dan terlarut air.

Kebanyakan mempunyai formula umum Cx(H2O)y.

It can be broken down to their constituent monosaccharides by


chemical reaction involving the addition of water. The reaction is
known as hydrolysis.
Disakarida boleh diuraikan menjadi monosakarida dengan penambahan
molekul air. Tindak balas ini ialah hidrolisis.

Terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen dalam nisbah hidrogen kepada
oksigen ialah 1:2.

The general formula of a disaccharide is C12H22O11. They are also


called complex sugars.

The most common disaccharides are maltose, lactose and sucrose.


Contoh: maltosa, laktosa dan sukrosa.

Carbohydrate
Monosaccharides
(simple sugars)
Disaccharides
(double sugars)

Monosakarida biasanya ialah gula 6-karbon dengan formula molekul C6H12O6.

Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose and galactose.

Polysaccharides

Contoh: Glukosa, fruktosa dan galaktosa.

Disaccharides (Disakarida)
- Formed from two monosaccharides molecules combining together
with the elimination of a molecular of water. The chemical reaction
of the formation is known as condensation.

Formula
C6H12O6
C6H12O6
C6H12O6
C12H22O11

lactose
maltose
starch

C12H22O11
C12H22O11
-(C6H10O5)-

Source
fruits
fruits, honey
not naturally occurring
sugar cane, sugar beet,
fruits
milk
germinating grain/seed
energy store in plants

glycogen

Monosaccharides are sweet-tasting crystalline substances which are


soluble in water.
Monosakarida adalah bahan hablur yang berasa manis dan terlarut air.

Name
glucose
fructose
galactose
sucrose

-(C6H10O5)n

cellulose

-(C6H10O5)-

energy store in animals


(liver and muscles)
plant fibre (Cell wall)

Name
Formula

glucose
C6H12O6

galactose
C6H12O6

fructose
C6H12O6

Structure

The large size of polysaccharides makes them more or less


insoluble in water. They are not sweet and amorphous, cannot be
crystallised.
Saiz polisakarida yang besar menyebabkan mereka tidak/kurang terlarut
dalam air. Mereka tidak terasa manis dan tidak menghablur.

Name
sucrose

Formula
(glucose + fructose)

Structure

The addition of iodine solution to a solution containing starch


yields a blue-black colour.
Penambahan larutan iodin ke dalam larutan kanji menghasilkan warna hitam
biru.

lactose

Maltose

(glucose
galactose)

Polysaccharide
Starch
(Kanji)

subunit
Glucose

(glucose + glucose)

Structure
Consists
of
2
components,
unbranched, helical
chains of glucose
unit and branched
chain of glucose
unit.

Occurance
Major storage of
carbohydrate in
plants.
(Karbohidrat
simpanan
dalam
tumbuhan)

Mengandungi
dua
kompenen ialah tidak
bercabang
(rantaian
heliks glukosa), dan
bercabang.

Polysaccharides (Polisakarida)
- Many monosaccharide molecules can be added by a series of
condensation reactions to form a very large molecule
(macromolecule).
Banyak molekul monosakarida boleh digabungkan dengan tindaka balas
kondensasi untuk membentuk molekul besar.

Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharide monomers.


Polisakasida ialah polimer bagi monomer.

Polysaccharides have a general formula of (C 6H10O5)n where n is


number of monomers.
Polisakarida mempunyai formula umum (C 6H10O5)n dimana n ialah bilangan
monomer.

Glycogen
(Glikogen)

Glucose

Highly
branched Major storage of
short
chains
of carbohydrate in
glucose units.
animals
and
Rantaian
glukosa fungi.
bercabang yang pendek.

Cellulose
(Selulosa)

Glucose

Karbohidrat
simpanan
dalam
haiwan dan kulat.

Straight unbranched Plant cell wall


sel
chain of glucose Dinding
tumbuhan
units
Rantaian glukosa yang
tidak bercabang.

Reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars


(Gula penurun dan gula bukan penurun)
- All monosaccharides and certain disaccharides can reduce copper
(II) sulphate in Benedicts solution, producing a brick-red precipitate
of copper (I) oxide in heating. Such sugars are known as reducing
sugar.
Semua monosakarida dan sesetengah disakarida boleh menurun kuprum (II)
sulfat dalam larutan benedict, menghasilkan mendakan merah bata kuprum (I)
oksida selepas pemanasan. Gula tersebut dipanggil gula penurun.

Sugars that give a negative Benedicts test are known as nonreducing sugars. Example of non-reducing sugar is sucrose.
Gula yang tidak memberi kesan terhadap Ujian benedict dipanggil gula bukan
penurun. Contoh gula bukan penurun ialah sukrosa.

There is no specific test for non-reducing sugars. The non-reducing


sugar is hydrolysed to its constituent monosaccharides by boiling
with dilute hydrochloric acid. The products of hydrolysis are
neutralised with sodium hydrogen carbonate before testing with
Benedicts solution.
Tiada ujian khusus untuk mengesan gula bukan penurun. Gula bukan penurun
perlu diuraikan melalui hidrolisis (pendidihan dengan asid hidroklorik cair).
Hasilnya dineutralkan dengan natrium hidrogen karbonat dan diujidengan
larutan benedict.

Experiment: Differentiating between reducing and non-reducing sugar


Materials: Benedicts solution, dilute hydrochloric acid, solid sodium
hydrogen carbonate, 2% glucose solution, 2% fructose
solution,
2% galactose solution, 2% maltose solution, 2% sucrose
solution,
2% lactose solution.
Apparatus: Test tube, beaker, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze,
measuring cylinder, water bath and test tube holder
Aim: To test the sample sugar, whether got reducing process or not
Method A: Test for reducing sugar
1. 2ml of glucose solution are placed in a test tube.
2. 2ml of Benedicts solution are added to the test tube.
3. The test tube is then placed in a water bath of boiling water for 5
minutes.
4. The final colour of the solution in the test tube is noted.
5. Step 1 to 4 are repeated for all the other solution.

Results:
Solution
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
Maltose
Sucrose
Lactose

Conclusion:

Benedicts test
Brick-red precipitate
Brick-red precipitate
Brick-red precipitate
Brick-red precipitate
Blue solution
Brick-red precipitate

Glucose, fructose, galactose, maltose and lactose are reducing sugars


because they give a positive Benedicts test. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar
because it gives a negative Benedicts test.

6. Two amino acids can combine to form a dipeptide by a


condensation reaction between the carboxyl group of one amino
acid and the amino group of the other. The resulting a bond liking
the two amino acids that is called a peptide bond.

Method B:
1. 2ml of sucrose solution are poured into a test tube.
2. 1ml of dilute hydrochloric acid is added to the test tube.
3. The test tube is placed in a water bath and boiled for 5 minutes.
4. The test tube is cooled under a tap and solid sodium hydrogen carbonate is
added to neutralise the excess acid.
5. The test tube is placed in a water bath and boiled for 5 minutes.

Dua asid amino bergabung membentuk dipeptida melalui kondensasi antara


kumpulan karboksil satu asid amino dan kumpulan amino satu asid amino
yang lain melaui ikatan peptida.

Results: A brick-red precipitate is formed in the test tube.


Discussion:
1. Sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose and fructose when boiled with
dilute hydrochloric acid.
2. When the solution containing glucose and fructose is boiled with
Benedicts solution, it formed a brick-red precipitate.
Conclusion: Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar.
Proteins
1. About two-third of the total dry mass of a cell is composed of
proteins.
Kira-kira dua per tiga jisim kering sel ialah protein.

2. Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Sulphur is


often present and sometimes phosphorus and other elements too.
Protein mengandungi karbon, hidrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen. sulfur dan fosforus
juga hadir dalam sesetengah protein.

3. Amino acids are the subunits of all proteins.


Unit asas protein ialah asid amino.

4. There are 20 biological important amino acids.


Terdapat 20 jenis asid amino.

5. Each amino acid carried two functional groups: a carboxyl group (COOH) which is acidic and an amino group (NH2) which is basic.
Setiap asid amino mempunyai dua kumpulan berfungsi: kumpulan karboksil (COOH) yang bersifat asid dan kumpulan amino (NH2) yang bersifat bes.

Amino acid + amino acid ---------------- dipeptide + water


7. Long, chains of amino acids are called polypeptides.
Rantai asid amino yang panjang dipanggil polipeptida.

8. A peptide bond can be broken by hydrolysis with heat, dilute


acids or by enzymes.
Satu ikatan peptida boleh diputuskan melalui hidrolisis dengan haba, asid cair
atau enzim.

9. The loss of three-dimensional structure of a protein molecule is


known as denaturation.
Kehilangan struktur molekul protein dipanggil dinaturasi/ penyahaslian.

10. Denaturation can be caused by changes in temperature, pH and


salt concentration.
Denaturasi boleh disebabkan oleh perubahan suhu, pH dan kepekatan garam.

11. Heating proteins usually denatures the protein irreversibly. For


example, the transparent egg white irreversibly solidifies and
becomes opaque on boiling.
Pemanasan protein biasanya merosakan protein itu secara tidak berbalik

Struktur sekunder

helix or plate sheet. The structure is maintained by


hydrogen bonding. Example: Collagen, keratin
Rantai polipeptida yang berpintal membentuk heliks-a
(lingkaran berpilin) atau polipeptida yang berlipat menjadi
kepingan berlisu-B.Struktur tersebut dikekalkan dengan ikatan
hidrogen.Contoh: Kolagen dan keratin.

Tertiary
structure
Struktur tertier

Essential and non-essential amino acids


(Asid amino perlu dan tidak perlu)
1. In the digestive tract, protein is broken down into its amino acid
subunit by hydrolysis.

Cara rantai heliks-a atau kepingan berlisu-b berlipat


membentuk saru protein globul yang padat dan berbentuk tiga
dimensi oleh ikatan hidrogen, ion dan disulfida.

Protein akan dicernakan menjadi asid amino melalui proses hidrolisis.

Myoglobin, a protein found in muscles, has the


tertiary structure. Enzymes, antibodies and many
hormones have this structure as well.

2. Human can synthesis 11 of 20 different amino acids and known as


non-essential amino acid..

Enzim, hormon, antibodi dan protein plasma ialah contohcontoh protein kompleks struktur tertier.

Manusia boleh mensintesis 11 asid amino dan dipanggil asid amino tidak perlu.

3. The remaining 9 amino acids cannot be synthesized in human. They


must be included in the diet. They are known as essential amino
acids.
9 asid amino yang lain tidak boleh disintesis oleh manusia dan mesti meambil melalui diet
kita. Mereka dipanggil asid amino perlu.

4. Animal protein refer as first class protein while plant protein refer as
second class protein.
Protein haiwan ialah protein kelas pertama manakala protein tumbuhan ialah protein kelas
kedua.

Protein structure
Primary
structure
Struktur primer

Description
The linear sequence of amino acids in structure a
protein molecule. The first protein to have its
sequence of amino acids determined was the hormone
insulin.
Urutan linear asid amino dalam satu rantai polipeptida.

Secondary
structure

Peptide chain becomes folded or twisted forming a

Bending and twisting of the polypeptide helix into a


compact structure. Structure is maintained by ionic,
disulphide and hydrogen bonding.

Quaternary
structure
Struktur Quartener

Different polypeptide chains combine with associated


non-protein groups forming a large complex protein
molecule. Haemoglobin, an oxygen binding protein
has a quaternary structure.
Kombinasi dua atau lebih rantai polipeptida berstruktur tertier
yang membentuk satu molekul protein kompleks dan
besar.Contoh: Hemoglobin.

4.

The main types of lipids are fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids,


steroids.
Jenis utama lipid ialah lemak, minyak, lilin, fosfolipid, steroid.

5.

Fats and oils (Lemak dan minyak)


a. Fats are solid in room temperature whereas oil are liquid.
Lemak adalah pepejal dan minyak adlah cecair pada suhu bilik.
b.

Each molecule of fats and oils is made up of one glycerol


combined with three fatty acids which may be the same or
may be different. Three molecules of water are removed in
this condensation reaction.
Setiap molekul lemak dan minyak terdiri daripada satu gliserol
bergabung dengan tiga asid lemak yang sama atau berbeza. tiga
molekul air akan disingkirkan dalam process kondensasi ini.

c.

These molecules of fats and oils are known as


triglycerides.
Molekul lemak dan minyak juga dipanggil triglicerida.

d.

Fats often contain only saturated fatty acids whereas oils


usually contain unsaturated fatty acids.
Lemak biasanya tetdiri daripada asid lemak tepu manakala minyak
terdiri daripada asid lemak tidak tepu.

Lipids (Lipid)
1. Lipids are diverse group of substances that contain carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen. The proportion of oxygen is lower than that in
carbohydrates. For example, the general formula of stearic acid is
C18H36O2 or C17H35COOH
Lipid terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen.Nisbah atom hidrogen
kepada atom oksigen dalam molekul lipid adalah jauh lebih tinggi daripada
nisbah 2:1 dalam karbohidrat.
2.

All lipids are insoluble in water. Semua lipid tidak terlarut dalam air.

3.

Lipids dissolve readily in other lipids and in organic solvents such as


ether, ethanol and turpentine.
Lipid sangat terlarut dalam cecair lain seperti pelarut organik (eter, ethanol dan
turpetin).

e.

In a saturated fatty acid, the carbon atoms are bonded to


the maximum number of other atoms. Saturated fatty acid
has only single bond and the hydrocarbon chain is
relatively straight.
Dalam asid lemak tepu, atom karbon diikat dengan bilangan atom
yang maksimum dan mempunyai ikatan tunggal sahaja.

f.

Unsaturated fatty acid has double bond are called


monounsaturated fatty acids; those with two or more
double bonds are called polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Asid lemak tidak tepu mempunyai satu ikatan ganda dua (asid lemak
mono tak tepu manakala lebih daripada dua ikatan ganda dua (asid
lemak poli tak tepu).

g.

Fats and oils function efficiently as energy storage materials.


Fats and oils provide 38kJ per gram, while carbohydrates can
provide only 17kJ per gram.

end containing the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids is


hydrophobic (water-hating). The hydrophilic end is
soluble in water while the hydrophobic end is insoluble in
water.

Lemak dan minyak membekalkan banyak tenaga.

Fosfolipid menpunyai kepala bersifat hidrofilik yang terlarut dalam


air sementara hujung (ekor) hidrofobik yang tidaka terlarut air.
c.

Phospholipids bilayer (double layer) forms the basic of the


cell membrane.
Fosfolipid dwilapisan membentuk bentuk asas membran sel.

6.

Waxes (lilin)
a. Waxes are similar to triglycerides, but the fatty acids are
bonded to long chain alcohols rather than glycerol.
Asid lemak lilin terikat kepada rantai panjang alkohol.
b.

Waxes are usually hard solids at room temperature.


Lilin merupakan pepejal pada suhu bilik.

c.

Waxes are used to waterproof the external surfaces of plants


and animals. The cuticle of a leaf and the protective covering
on an insects body are made of waxes.
Lilin digunakan sebagai permukaan kedap air tumbuhan dan haiwan
seperti kutikel epidermis daun, buah-buahan dan biji benih.

d.

Wax is also a constituent of the honeycomb of bees or sebum


from animal skin.
Lilin terdapat pada rangka luar serangga dan sebum yang dirembes oleh
kelenjar sebum pada kulit haiwan.

7.

8.

Steroids
a. A steroid molecule has a complex ring structure.
Steroid merupakan lipad yang terdiri daripada molekul berbentuk
cincin yang kompleks

Phospholipids (Fosfolipid)
a. Phospholipids have a similar structure to triglycerides but
one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group.

b.

Fosfolipid mempunyai struktur yang sama seperti trigliserida kecuali


satu asid lemak digantikan dengan kumpulan fosfat.

c.

b.

The end of the phospholipids molecule containing the


phosphate group is hydrophilic (water living) and the other

Steroids occur in plants and animals.


Steroid terdapat pada tumbuhan dan haiwan.

Steroids

Examples of steroids are cholesterol, testosterone,


oestrogen and progesterone.
Contoh: Kolesterol, tertosteron, estrogen dan progesteron.
Functions

Cholesterol

Their molecules congregate into globules because of their


hydrophobic properties. (molekul mengumpal menjadi partikel
kerana sifat hidrofobiknya.)

Strengthens the cell membrane.


Memperkuatkan membran sel

Testosterone

Male reproductive hormone

Differences (perbezaan)

Hormon lelaki

Oestrogen and
progesterone
Female reproductive hormone
Hormon perempuan

Higher melting point

Lower melting point

Takat lebur yang tinggi

Takat lebur yang rendah

solids at room temperature

liquids at room temperature

Pepejal pada suhu bilik

Cecair pada suhu bilik

More likely to cause diseases of the Less likely to cause diseases of the
heart and arteries
heart and arteries
Lebih
cenderung
menyebabkan
penyakit jantung dan arteri

Kurang cenderung menyebabkan


penyakit jantung dan arteri

More stable at room temperature Unstable at room temperature and


and less readily become rancid.
readily become rancid
Lebih stabil dan tidak senang menjadi
tengik
9.

Saturated and unsaturated fats (Lemak tepu dan tidak tepu)


a. Animals fats such as lard, butter and cream are examples of
saturated fats.
Lemak haiwan seperti mentega, krim ialah contoh lemak tepu.
b.

Vegetable oils such as olive oils, corn oil and sunflower oil
are examples of unsaturated fats.
Minyak sayur seperti minyak zaitun, jagung dan bunga matahari ialah
lemak tidak tepu.

Saturated fats (Lemak tepu)

Unsaturated fats (Lemak tak tepu)

Similarities (persamaan)
-

Both are triglycerides (kedua-dua ialah trigliserida)


They yield 38 kJ per gram (Menghasilkan 38kJ per gram)

Kurang stabil dan senang menjadi


tengik

No double bond and can not react Has double bond and can react with
with hydrogen.
hydrogen.
Tiada ikatan ganda dua dan tidak boleh
bertindak balas dengan hidrogen.

Mempunyai ikatan ganda dua dan boleh


bertindak balas dengan hidrogen.

Enzyme (Enzim)
- Enzymes are proteins which act as biological catalysts. They
speed up biochemical reactions in the cell.
Enzim ialah protein yang digunakan sebagain mangkin biologi. Mereka
mempercepatkan tandak balas biokimia dalam sel.

The substance whose reactivity is increased by an enzyme is


known as a substrate.

Sesuatu tindak balas metabolisme bermula dengan molekul substrat dan berakhir
dengan hasil.

arrows.

Thousand of simultaneous biochemical reactions occur in living


cells. Without enzymes, these biochemical reactions would be too
slow to sustain life.

Dalam sel, tindak balas biokimia mestilah berlaku dengan kadar yang pantas supaya
proses hidup sentiasa dipelihara

General characteristics of enzymes (Sifat-sifat enzim)


o Enzyme work very rapidly (Enzim bertindak dengan
pantas)
One molecule of enzyme can turn thousands or millions
of substrate molecules into products per minute. For
example, catalyse can transform approximately six
million hydrogen peroxide molecules into oxygen and
water molecules per minute.
o

Enzyme are not destroyed by the reactions which that


catalyse and only needed in small quantity (Enzim tidak
musnah selepas akhir tindak balas dan hanya diperlukan
dalam kuantiti yang sangat kecil)
Since enzymes are not altered by the reactions, they can
be used again. A small concentration of enzymes can
bring about a large amount of biochemical reactions.
Enzymes can work in either direction (Enzim bertindak
secara berbalik)
The enzyme which catalyses a reaction works in such a way
that the reaction can proceed from left to right or from right
to left, depending on circumstances. Note the two-way

Enzymes are extremely specific (Enzim adalah sangat


spesifik kerana mempunyai tapak aktif yang spesifik)
Most enzymes are specific to one particular substrate
molecule. Thus, a given enzyme will catalyse only one
reaction or one type or reaction. Maltase, for example,
act only on maltose.
Enzymes are denaturated by high temperature (Enzim
mengalami denaturasi oleh suhu tinggi)
An enzyme is inactive at very low temperatures. As
temperature rises, its activity increases until the
optimum temperature is reached. The optimum
temperature is around 40C. Above the optimum
temperature, the rate of reaction decreases rapidly,
causing altogether at about 60C. This is because
enzymes are made of protein, so they are denatured at
high temperature. When en enzyme becomes
denatured, the bonds are broken and the polypeptide
chains open up. The enzyme loses its normal shape
and becomes inactive.
Enzymes are sensitive to pH (Enzim peka terhadap pH)
Every enzyme has its own optimum pH in which it
functions best. Small changes in the pH of the medium
will denature the enzyme and render it inactive.
Alternation in the ionic charges of the acidic and basic
groups of the enzyme changes the shape of the
enzyme.

Enzim disintesis oleh sel-sel tertentu.Enzim yang tidak dirembes ke luar sel tetapi
dikekalkan untuk kegunaan dalam sel dinamakan enzim intrasel.Enzim intrasel terdapat
dalam sitoplasma, nukleus, kloroplas atau membran plasma.Enzim oksidoreduktase
yang terdapat dalam organel mitokondrion ialah enzim yang memangkinkan respirasi
sel.Contoh lain seperti DNA polimerase, RNA polimerase, dan ATP synthetase.

Extracellular enzymes are produced in the cell, then packed and secreted
from the cell. Extracellular enzymes catalyst their reactions outsides the
cell. Most digestive enzymes are extracellular enzymes. For example,
amylase, cellulose and zymase.
o

Enzyme inhibit by inhibitor (Enzim diberhentikan oleh


perencat)
The activity of enzyme will inhibit or slow down by
inhibitors such as plumbum and mercury.
Some enzymes need cofactor (Sesetengah enzim
memerlukan kofaktor)
Some enzymes need cofactor such as iron, copper or vitamin
B to work efficiently.

Naming of enzymes based on the substrate (Penamaan enzim)


An enzyme is named by attaching the suffix ase to the
name of the substrate on which it acts. For example,
maltase acts on maltose, sucrase on sucrose, and
cellulose on cellulose.
Nama enzim didapati dengan menambahkan imbuhan akhir -ase kepada nama substrat
yang dimangkinkannya

The -ase rule does not apply to enzymes discovered


before the -ase idea was introduced. For example,
pepsin, rennin, ptyalin and trypsin.

Intracellular and extracellular enzymes


(Enzim intrasel dan enzim luar sel)
Enzymes formed and retained in the cell are known as intracellular
enzymes, and occur in the cytoplasm, organelles or the nucleus. Examples
of intracellular are DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase and ATP synthetase.

enzim yang disintesis dalam sel dan kemudiannya dirembes keluar untuk bertindak di
luar sel disebut enzim luar sel. Contoh: amilase, selulase dan zimase.
o

Site of enzyme synthesis (Tapak mensintesis enzim)


Since enzymes are made of proteins, they are
synthesised by ribosomes.
Intracellular enzymes are synthesised on free
ribosomes while extracellular enzymes are
synthesised on ribosomes attached to the
endoplasmic reticulum.

Ribosom didapati terlekat pada jalinan endoplasma kasar atau bebas dalam
sitoplasma.Maklumat untuk sintesis enzim terkandung dalam molekul DNA
nukleus. Urutan bes bernitrogen pada DNA yang berlainan menggekodkan
protein yang berbeza.Dalam proses, bebenang tunggal molekul RNA dibentuk
untuk menterjemah kod-kod tersebut menjadi satu urutan asid amino.

Formation and secretion of extracellular enzymes:


Pembentukan dan rembesan enzim luar sel
- DNA in nucleus contains information for the synthesis of enzyme.
- The instruction for making the extracellular enzyme is transcribed
from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the
nucleus.
- The RNA then leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pore and
attaches itself to the ribosome located on the rough endoplasmic
reticulum.
- When the enzyme synthesis has completed, it is extruded into the
interior of the endoplasmic reticulum.
- The enzyme is then encapsulated in a transport vesicle.
- The transport vesicle fuses with the Golgi body, releasing the
enzyme into the Golgi body.
- In the Golgi body the enzyme is further modified before packing the
enzyme in a secretory vesicle.
- The secretory vesicle transports the enzyme to the plasma
membrane.
- The secretory vesicle membrane fuses with the plasma membrane
and the enzyme is released outside the cell.

Maklumat untuk sintesis enzim terkandung dalam molekul DNA


nukleus.
Urutan bes bernitrogen pada DNA (kod DNA) yang berlainan
menggekodkan protein yang berbeza.
Maklumat dalam bentuk kod genetik ditranskripsikan kepada mRNA.
mRNA kemudian dihantar keluar dari nukleus ke ribosom dan diangkut
di dalam jalinan endoplasma kasar.
mRNA diterjemah menjadi satu urutan asid amino(Protein).
Protein yang disintesis dalam ribosom diangkut melalui lumen jalinan
endoplasma kasar . Apabila sampai di hujung jalinan endoplasma
kasar, bahagian membran di situ membentuk tunas yang menggenting
untuk menghasilkan vesikel angkutan.
Protein yang terkandung dalam vesikel angkutan kemudian bergerak
menuju ke arah jasad golgi dan bercantum dengannya.
Dalam jasad golgi diubah suai.
Kemudian, enzim dirembes ke dalam vesikel rembesan yang terbentuk
di hujung jasad golgi berhampiran dengan membran plasma.
Vesikel rembesan yang mengandungi protein yang diubah suai akan
bergerak menuju ke membran plasma.
Vesikel ini akan berpadu dengan membran plasma sebelum
membebaskan protein keluar daripada sel sebagai enzim luar sel.

Problem:
What is the effect of temperature on enzyme-catalysed reactions?
Hypothesis: The enzyme is inactive at low temperatures. It is most active

when the optimum temperature is reached. Beyond the optimum


temperature, the activity of the enzyme decrease rapidly.
Manipulated variable: Temperature
Responding variable: Reaction rate
Fixed variable: Volume and concentration of starch solution, volume and
concentration of saliva solution, pH of starch and saliva
solutions.
Materials: 1% starch solution, iodine solution and ice cubes
Apparatus: Beaker, tripod stand, wire gauze, Bunsen burner, thermometer,
dropper, measuring cylinder, test tubes, white tile and
stopwatch.
Method:
1. The mouth is rinsed with distilled water.
2. The saliva solution is prepared by spiting into a small beaker and
diluting it with equal amount of distilled water.
3. Five water baths are prepared at the following temperature: 0C,
20C, 37C, 50C and 60C.
4. Two test tubes are labelled P and Q.
5. 4 cm3 of starch solution are placed in test tube P and 1 cm3 of saliva
solution is placed in test tube Q.
6. Both test tubes are placed into the first water bath (at 0C) for five
minutes.
7. The starch solution from test tune P is poured into the saliva solution
in test tube Q. The stopwatch is started immediately.
8. Every minute a drop of solution is taken from test tube Q and tested
with iodine solution on the white tile.
9. The time taken for the complete hydrolysis of starch is recorded in a
table, that is until the iodine solutions do not turn blue anymore.
10. Steps 4 to 9 repeated for the other temperatures.
11. A graph of reaction rate against temperature is platted.
Results:
Temperature
water bath (C)

of Time taken for complete Reaction rate 1/t


hydrolysis of starch (minutes) (per minute)

0
20
37
50
60

>30
8
3
6
>30

<0.03
0.13
0.33
0.17
<0.03

Discussion:
1. Test tube P and Q are kept in the water bath for five minutes to
uniform the temperature of the solutions in the two test tubes.
2. When the amylase in the saliva has completely hydrolysed the
starch, the dark blue colour does not form in the iodine test.
Conclusion:
At suboptimum temperatures, increasing the temperature increased the
reaction rate until the optimum temperature is reached at 37C. Above the
optimum temperature, the reaction rate fell rapidly because the enzyme is
denatured.
___________________________________________________________
Aim: Investigate the effect of pH on enzyme-catalysed reaction
Problem: What is the effect of pH on enzyme-catalysed reactions?
Hypothesis: The enzyme pepsin works best in acidic conditions?
Manipulated variable: pH
Responding variable: reaction rate
Fixed variable: Volume and concentration of egg albumen suspension,
volume and concentration of pepsin, temperature of the
solution.
Materials: Egg albumen suspension, dilute hydrochloric acid, dilution
sodium hydroxide and 1% pepsin.
Apparatus: Beaker, tripod stand, wire gauze, Bunsen burner,
thermometer,
dropper, test tube and measuring cylinder
Method:
1. The egg albumen suspension is prepared by adding 1g fried egg
albumen to 100ml of water. The mixture is then heated to 90C.
2. Three test tubes are labelled P, Q and R respectively.

3. 5ml of egg albumen suspension and 1ml of pepsin are placed into
each test tube.
4. 5 drops of distilled water added to test tube P.
5. 5 drops of dilute hydrochloride acid are added to test tube Q.
6. 5 drops of dilute sodium hydroxide are added to test tube R.
7. All the three test tubes are placed into a water bath at 37C for 15
minutes.
8. The appearance of the contents in each tube is recorded at the
beginning and at the end of the activity.
Results:
Test tube Contents
Appearance of content
Beginning
End
P
Albumen + pepsin + White
White
distilled water
suspension
suspension
Q
Albumen + pepsin + White
Clear suspension
dilute hydrochloric acid suspension
R
Albumen + pepsin +
White
White
dilute sodium
suspension
suspension
hydroxide
Discussion:
1. The mixture in test tube Q is clear at the end of the activity because
the albumen has been hydrolysed.
2. Pepsin do not catalyse the hydrolysis of albumen in neutral and in
alkaline conditions.
Conclusion:
Pepsin catalyses the hydrolysis of protein in acidic conditions. The
hypothesis is accepted.
Mechanism of enzyme action (Mekanisme tindakan enzim)
o Each enzyme molecule has a region with very precise shape called
the active site.
Setiap molekul enzim mempunyai satu bahagian yang mempunyai bentuk tetap
dipanggil tapak aktif.
o

The substrate molecule fits into the active site of the enzyme like a
key into a lock.

Molekul substrat bergabung dengan tapak aktif pada enzim seperti mangga
dan kunci.
o

Various types of bonds including hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds


hold the substrate(s) in the active site to form an enzyme-substrate
complex.
Pelbagai ikatan dibentuk untuk mengikat substrat dalam tapak aktif dan
membentuk kompleks enzim-substrat.

The enzyme then changes the substrate(s) either by splitting it


apart (for example hydrolysis) or linking them together (for
example (condensation).
Enzim menukarkan bentuk substrat sama ada membahagikan
menggabungkan mereka.

atau

Once formed, the products no longer fit into the active site and
escape into the surrounding medium, leaving the active site free to
receive further substrate molecules.
Selepas perubahan bentuk substrat, bentuknya tidak lagi bersesuaian dengan
tapak aktif dan hasil itu meninggalkan enzim. enzim tersebut bebas bertindak
dengan substrat lain.

The explanation of enzyme action in known as the ;lock and key


hypothesis, where the substrate is like a key whose shape is
complementary to the enzyme or lock.

Mekanisme tindakan enzim yang spesifik dikenali sebagai hipotesis mangga dan kunci
kerana penggabungan substrat kepada enzim dapat dianalogikan sebagai kunci dam
mangga.
o

The lock and key hypothesis is able to explain


Why enzymes are specific
Why any change in enzyme shape alters its effectiveness.
Hal ini menerangkan kenapa enzim adalah spesifik dan sebarang perubahan
terhadap bentuk enzim akan menggurangkan keberkesanan enzim.

Temperature (Suhu)
Initially an increase in temperature leads to an increase in
the rate of reaction because the kinetic energy of the
enzyme and substrate molecules produces more
collisions and therefore more enzyme-substrate
complexes are formed.
Peningkatan suhu pada peringkat awal meningkatkan kadar tindak
balas kerana peningkatan tenaga kinetik enzim dan substrat
menghasilkan lebih banyak pelanggaran. Oleh itu, lebih banyak
kompleks enzim-substrat terbentuk.

Factors affecting enzymes (faktor yang mempengaruhi enzim)


o pH
Most enzymes are effective in only narrow pH range.
Kebanyakan enzim hanya berkesan pada julat pH yang kecil.

The rate of reaction will increase up to a maximum,


known as the optimum temperature.

The optimum pH is the particular pH at which the rate of


reaction is the highest.

Kadar tindak balas mencapai maksimu pada suhu optimum.

pH optimum ialah pH dimana kadar tindak balas adalah tertinggi.

After the optimum temperature, the rate of reaction falls


quickly because the bonds maintaining the structure of
the enzyme start to break and the active site loses its
shape. The enzyme-substrate complexes can no longer
form and the enzyme is denatured.

Deviations from the optimum pH decrease the rate of


reaction because bonds maintaining the tertiary shape of
the enzyme are broken.
Perubahan pH dari pH optimum menurun kadar tindak balas kerana
ikatan yang digunakan untuk mengekalkan bentuk tertier enzim telah
putus.

The active site loses its shape and the enzyme-substrate


complex can no longer be formed. The enzyme is
denatured.
Tapak aktif kehilangan bentuk dan gagal membentuk kompleks enzimsubstrat. Enzim akan mengalami denaturasi.

Selepas suhu optimum, adar tindak balas menurun kerana ikatan


dalam enzim terputus dan kehilangan bentuk tapak aktif. Enzim
menjadi denaturasi.
o

Substrate concentration (Kepekatan substrat)


Initially an increase in substrate concentration increases
the chance of enzyme-substrate collisions, and the rate of
reaction increases.
Peningkatan kepekatan substrat pada peringkat awal meninggikan
kadar pelanggaran enzim dan substrat dan menyebabkan kadar
tindak balas meningkat.

Eventually all the active sites are filled at any one time
and the rate remains constant. The reaction has reached
its maximum rate, Vmax.
Pada satu peringkat, semua tapak aktif telah digunakan (mencapai
takat tepu) dan kadar tindak balas menjadi malar (kadar
maksimum)

Further addition of substrate will not increase the rate of


reaction anymore because constant enzyme concentration
becomes the limiting factor.
Penambahan substrat seterusnya tidak lagi meningkatkan kadar tindak
balas kerana kepekatan enzim telah menjadi faktor pengehad..
o

Enzyme concentration (Kepekatan enzim)


As the concentration of enzyme increases there are more
chances of enzyme-substrate collisions. The rate of
reaction increases linearly as long as no other factors are
limiting.
Kadar tindak balas meningkat secara linear dengan peningkatan
kepakatan enzim kerana tiada faktor pengehad.

Application
Dairy industry
Industri susu

Enzyme
Rennin
Renin

Use
Coagulant for milk and in
cheese production
Pengumpalan protein susu dan
penghasilkan keju

Lactase
Laktase

Hydrolysis of lactose to give


lactose-free milk products.
Menghidrolisis
laktosa
dan
menghasilkan susu tanpa laktosa.

Brewing industry
Industri
penampaian

Protease, amylase, Breakdown of starch and


cellulose
proteins. Prevent cloudiness
Protease, amilase, during storage of beers.
Menguraikan kanji dan protein.
selulase
Mengelakkan
menjadi keruh.

simpanan

bir

Biological
detergents
Detergen biologi

Protease,
lipase
and amylase
Protease, lipase
dan amilase

Removal of organic stains


such as blood, oil and saliva

Baking industry
Industri roti

Amylase
Amilase

Breakdown of starch, maltose


production

Menyingkirkan
tanda-tanda
organik seperti darah, air liur,
minyak.

Menguraikan kanji, penghasilan


maltosa

Protease

Breakdown of proteins
Menguraikan protein

Meat industry
Industri daging
Textile industry
Industri tekstil

Glucose oxidase
Glukosa oksidase
Protease, papain

For stability of dough


Menstabilkan adunan

Tenderisation of meat
Melembutkan daging

Amylase
Amilase

Removal of starch that is


applied to the threads of
fabrics.
Menyingkirkan kanji dari benang

Uses of enzymes in daily life and in industries (Kegunaan enzim)


1. Enzymes for industrial uses are obtained from animals, plants and
microorganisms (bacteria and fungi)
Enzim yang digunakan untuk industri diperoleh daripada haiwan, tumbuhan dan
mikroorganisma (bakteria dan kulat)

Leather industry

Protease

Industri kulit

Paper industry
Industri kertas

Removal of hairs from hides


Menyingkirkan rambut daripada
kulit haiwan

Ligninase

Removal of lignin from pulp


Menyingkir lignin dari pulpa

Biological detergents (Detergen biologi)


1. Enzymes are used in biological detergents because
a. Enzymes are active at very low concentrations.
Enzim adalah aktif pada kepekatan yang sangat rendah.

b. Enzymes can remove stains at low temperatures saving both


energy and chemicals.
Enzim boleh menyingkirkan tanda-tanda kotor pada suhu yang rendah
(jimat tenaga dan bahan kimia)

c. They are highly biodegradable.


Mereka adalah biodegradasi.

d. They are extremely efficient, reducing both duration of


washing time and water consumption.
Sangat berkesan (jimat masa dan kos)

2. Biological detergents contain protease, amylases and lipases.


Contoh: protease, amilase dan lipase.

3. Proteases act on stains containing proteins such as blood and saliva.


Protease menyingkirkan tanda-tanda protein seperti darah dan airl liur.
4. Amylases remove stains containing starch such as sauces, ice creams
and gravy.
Amilase menyingkirkan kotaran kanji seperti sos, ais krim dan kuah.

5. Lipases are effective in removing oil and grease.


Lipase menyingkirkan minyak dan gris.

2. The protease papain, present in papaya is sold commercially as


meat tenderiser for home application.
Protease papain yang hadir di dalam betik dijual secara komersil untuk
melembutkan daging.

Fructose syrup (Sirup fruktosa)


1. Fructose syrup is in greater demand than glucose as a food and
drink sweetener because it is sweeter and has a lower calorific
value than glucose.
Sirup fruktosa mendapat permintaan tinggi daripada glukosa kerana ia lebih
manis dan mempunyai nilai kalori yang rendah.

2. The raw material for fructose syrup is corn starch.


Bahan mentah sirup fruktosa ialah kanji jagung.

3. The conversion of starch to syrup requires three types of


enzymes: Amylase, glucoamylase, and glucose isomerase.
Pertukaran kanji kepada sirup memerlukan tiga jenis enzim seperti amilase,
glukoamilase dan glukosa isomerase.

4. Glucoamylase is obtained from fungi, whereas amylase and


glucose isomerise are obtained from bacteria.
Glukoamilase diperoleh daripada kulat manakala amilase dan glukosa
isomerase diperoleh daripada bakteria.

White bread (Roti putih)


1. Lipo-oxygenase enzymes are used to bleach the dough.
Lipo-oksigenase enzim digunakan untuk melenturkan warna adunan.

6. Recently, cellulase has been added to brighten the colors and soften
the cloth.
Selulase ditambah ke dalam detergen untuk menjadikan warna pakaian lebih
terang dan melembutan pakaian.

Tenderisation of meat (melembutkan daging)


1. Meat can be treated with proteases to break down fibrous proteins in
the connective tissues, thus increasing the tenderness of the meat.
Daging boleh ditambah dengan protease untuk menguraikan protein pada tisu
penghubung dan melembutkan daging.

2. Amylase catalyses the breakdown of flour starch to glucose.


Amilase mempercepatkan penguraian tepung kanji kepada glukosa.

Fruit juice (Jus buah-buahan)


1. Plant cell walls contain pectins which make the fruit juice viscous
and difficult to extract.
Pektin yang terkandung dalam dinding sel menyusahkan pengekstrakan jus
buah-buahan.

2. To overcome this problem, fruit is treated with pectinase to


convert pectins to short-chain sugars.

Untuk memerangi masalah ini, buah-buahan dicampur dengan pektinase untuk


menukarkan pektin kepada rantai gula yang pendek.

3. Removal of pectins increases the volume of juice extracted, speeds


up filtration of the juice, prevents the flavour from deteriorating and
prevents the juice from becoming cloudy during cold storage.
Penyingkiran pektin meningkatkan isipadu jus, mempercepatkan proses tapisan
jus, mengelakkan jus daripada menjadi keruh semasa simpan dalam peti sejuk.

The importance of the chemical composition in the cells


Kepentingan komposisi kimia di dalam sel
Chemical
Function
Consequence of
(Fungsi)
component
deficiency
(Komponen kimia)

Glucose
Glukosa

(Akibat kekurangan)

A major source of The cells lack energy to


energy for plant and carry out life processes.
Sel kekurangan tenaga untuk
animal cells
Sumber tenaga utama untuk
sel haiwan dan tumbuhan.

Starch
Kanji

Glycogen
Glikogen

Cellulose
Selulosa

Sel kekurangan tenaga untuk


membesar dan pembahagian sel
semasa percambahan biji benih

Major
carbohydrate Liver and muscle cells
storage in animal cells
would not be able to carry
out their high metabolic
Simpanan
karbohidrat activities.
utama dalam sel haiwan

Hati dan sel otot tidak boleh


menjalankan
aktiviti
metabolisme.

Gives structural support Plant cells would lose their


to cell walls
shape. The cells would
burst when excess water
Memberi sokongan kepada enters by osmosis.
struktur dinding sel

Associated with muscle Muscle cells


contraction
contract
Membantu pengecutan otot

Microtubules
Mikrotubulus

Sel
tumbuhan
kehilangan
bentuk. dan pecah apabila air
yang berlebihan memasuki sel

unable to

Sel otot gagal mengecut

Formation of cilia and Unicellular organism such


flagella
as Paramecium sp and
Pembentukan silia dan Euglena sp unable to move.
flagela

Organisma
unisel
seperti
Paramesium dan Euglena gagal
bergerak.

Channel proteins Transportation of ions Ions would not be able to


and
carrier across
the
plasma enter or leave the cell.
proteins
membrane
Protein liang dan
protein pembawa

Pengangkutan ion merentasi


membran palsma

Ion-ion tidak dalam masuk dan


keluar dari sel

Haemoglobin
Hemoglobin

Carrier of oxygen

Red blood cells unable to


carry oxygen.

Mengangkut oksigen

Sel
darah
merah
mengangkut oksigen

proses kehidupan.

Major
carbohydrate The cells lack energy to
storage in plant cells
grow and divide, such as
during seed germination.
Simpanan
karbohidrat
utama dalam sel tumbuhan

secara osmosis.

Microfilaments
Mikrofilamen

Antibodies
Antibodi

Important in defence Cells will be invaded by


against
infectious pathogens such as bacteria
diseases
and
in and viruses.
developing immunities.
Penting dalam pertahanan
badan

Hormones
Hormon

Lemak dan
minyak
Waxes
Lilin

Sel akan diserang patogen


seperti bakteria dan virus

Causes changes to the Cells unable to control


metabolic reactions of metabolic reactions
cells.
Menyebabkan
perubahan
pada
tindak
balad
metabolisme sel

Fats and oils

gagal

Sel tidak dapat mengawal tindak


balas metabolisme

Certain
unicellular Unicellular
aquatic
aquatic
organisms organism unable to float
produce oil droplets to
Organisma unisel akuatik tidak
aid buoyancy.
Membantu
organisma
akuatik untuk terapung

mampu untuk terapung.

Waterproofing material

Cells in the leaves, fruits


and seeds will suffer from
excessive loss of water.

Bahan kedap air

Sel
tumbuhan
mengalami
kehilangan air yang berlebihan

Phospholipids
Fosfolipid

Important constituent of There would be no cell


cell membrane
membranes. Water and all
other substances could
Bahan penting membran sel
enter or leave the cells
freely.
Tiada membran sel. Semua
bahan bebas masuk keluar dari
sel.

Steroids
Steroid

Enzyme
Enzim

Cholesterol strengthens
the cell membranes,
manufactures vitamin D
and sex hormones.

Cell membranes would be


weak. Cells would not be
able to produce vitamin D
and sex hormones.

Kolesterol memperkuatkan
membran sel, menghasilkan
vitamin D dan hormon
pembiakan.

Membran sel sangat lemah dan


sel gagal menghasilkan vitamin
D dan hormon pembiakan

Speed up the rate of Biochemical


reactions
biochemical reactions would be too slow to
in cells.
sustain the lifespan of cells.
Mempercepatkan
kadar
tindak balas biokimia sel.

(b) The figure shows a reaction of an enzyme and its substrate. Explain
the mechanism of the enzymatic reaction.
[10 marks]
Rajah menunjukkan enzim dan substrat. Terangkan mekanisme tindak balas enzim.

Kadar tindak balas biokimia


menjadi sangat perlahan.

Question 1:
The figure shows the organelles involved in the production of extracellular
enzymes.
Rajah menunjukkan organel-organel yang terlibat dalam penghasilan enzim luar sel.

(a) (i) Using a name example, explain the term extracellular enzyme.
Dengan menggunakan satu contoh, terangkan istilah enzim luar sel.

[2 marks]
__________________________________________________________
(ii) Based on the organelles shown, explain how extracellular enzymes
are produced.
Bedasarkan organel-organel yang ditunjukkan, terangkan bagaimana enzim luar sel
dihasilkan.

[8 marks]

Question 2:
Discuss the uses of enzymes in the household & industries.
Why are enzyme used in these industries.
Bincangkan kegunaan enzim dalam rumah tangga dan industri.
Mengapakah enzim tersebut digunakan dalam industri tersebut.

Why are enzyme used in these industries.


Answer
Enzymes are used as biological detergents.
Protease degrades coagulated proteins into soluble short-chain peptides.
Lipase degrades fat or oil stains into soluble fatty acid and glycerol.
Amylase degrades starch into soluble shorter-chain polysaccharides and
sugars.
Answer:
( a) (i) - Extracellular enzyme is produced in a cell, then packed and
secreted from the cell.
It catalyses its reaction outside the cell. An example is amylase.
- (ii) The instruction for making the extracellular enzyme is transcribed
from the deoxyribonucleic acid
o (DNA) to ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus.
o The RNA then leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pore
o and attaches itself to the ribosome located on the endoplasmic reticulum.
o When the synthesis of the enzymes is completed
o it is encapsulated in a transport vesicle which fuses with the golgi body.
o In the golgi body, the enzyme is further modified before being packed in a
secretory vesicle.
o The secretory vesicle transports the enzyme to the plasma membrane,
where it fuses with it
o and the enzyme is released outside the cell.
(b) The explanation of enzyme action is known as the lock and key
hypothesis.
The substrate molecule fits into the active site of the enzyme molecule.
The substrate is the key that fits into the enzyme lock.
Various types of bonds such as hydrogen and ionic bonds hold the
substrate
in the active site forming the enzyme-substrate complex.
Once the complex is formed, the enzyme changes the substrate to its
product.
The product leaves the active site.
The enzyme is not altered by the reaction and it can be reused.
Q. Discuss the uses of enzymes in the household & industries.

Enzymes are used in the baking industry.


Protease is used in the breakdown of proteins in flour for the production
of biscuits.
Amylase is used in the breakdown of some starch to glucose in flour for
making white bread, buns and rolls.
Enzymes are used in the medical field.
Trypsin is used to remove blood clots and to clean wounds.
Various other enzymes are used in biosensors.
Enzymes are used in industries because:
They are effective.
They are cheap and easy to use.
They can be re-used, thus only small amounts are needed.
They don't require high temperature to work, thus this reduces fuel
costs.