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Name-------------------------------------Masood Shah

Registration No------------------------1711-304078

Course-----------------------------------BBA 5th

Assignment-----------------------Business Communication

Chapter 1st

The Ability to communicate well has always provided advantages to those

when process it. Communication has a rich history, and its traditions can still be
seen in Modern-day communication concepts.

Ancient Heritage for communication Principles:

The ancient world, both the East and the West, depended heavily on oral
communication. For example, in ancient Greece and Rome, it was necessary to
communicate well on one’s feet when dealing with matters in government as
seemliest and the law courts. During the Medieval and Renaissance periods, the oral
tradition continued. As writing become more important as a permanent record of
Communication principles originating in the East, Particularly China, are
based on and connected with the importance of bureaucratic traditions, For
centuries, Chinese political theorists were concerned with the problems of
communicating within the vast government bureaucracy as well as between the
government and the people. As early as the fourth century, these theorists were
advising rulers and government officials. Their advice stated that information rulers
and officials to minimize bias and falsification of sources and to resist the influence
of cliques and opportunists.

“Lifeblood” of Every Organization

An organization is a group of people associated for business, Political,

professional, religious, athletic, or other purposes. Its activates require human
beings to interact and react, that is, to communicate. They exchange information,
Ideas, Plans, order needed supplies, make decisions, rules, proposals, contracts, and
agreements, communication is the “lifeblood” of every organization.
Because this book is concerned primarily with effective business
communication. However, you can apply these principles to other organizations, to
the professions, and to your personal communications.

Internal Communication

A Vital means of attending to company concerns is through effective internal

communication-downward, upward, and horizontal. It helps increase job
satisfaction, safety, productivity, and profits and decreases absenteeism, grievances,
and turnover.
External Communication

Messages to persons outside the company can have a far-reaching effect on

its reputation and ultimate success. The right letter, proposal, report, telephone call,
or personal conversation can win back a disgruntled customer, create a desire for a
firm’s product or service, help negotiate a profitable sale, encourage collections,
motivate performance, and in general, create goodwill.
Furthermore, communications to the public regarding social accountability
have become significantly more important during the past two decades. Because of
demands by many special interest groups (labor unions, environmental groups,
government agencies, political action committees, and others).

Benefits of Effective Communication in Your Career

Your job, promotion, and professional reputation often depend on doing well
in written and oral communication. Also, your ability to communicate effectively in
a valuable asset for many activities in your personal life.

A Valuable Job Requirement

If your career requires mainly mental rather than manual labor, your
progress will be strongly influenced by how effectively you communicate your
knowledge, proposals, and ideas to others who need or should receive them.
Strongly communication skills were found in the job descriptions listed by
numerous companies advertising positions.

An Essential for Promotion

The prime requisite of a promotable executive is “ability to communicate.”

Notice that it is at the top the mountain too often those who can not communicate
effectively in either oral or written communication remain “buried” in lower, dead-
end jobs. Members of management spend 60 to 90 percent of their working days
communicating speaking, writing, and listening.

Challenge of Communication in the Global Market

The way you communicate both writhing and outside your own country will
affect everything you accomplish. Your ability to speak and write effectively will
also make a difference to your organization. Developing the right attitude and
preparing adequately are crucial to effective communication in the international
marketplace. These qualities will help you to be effective in dealing with
international business people outside your organization. In addition, becoming
flexible in attitude and methods of communicating will help you to be effective in
dealing with issues within your organization.
Developing the Right Attitude

To the customer, you are the company.” This good advice becomes from
public relations experts. Your attitude when dealing with customers, clients, and the
public reflect on the company you represent. When you deal with international
business people, your attitudes will reflect your country and your culture.
Messages written to international clients, customers, suppliers, and other
business contacts must be especially sensitive to audience concerns. Goodwill toward
your organization is at stake as well as goodwill toward you as a representative of
your country.

Preparing Adequately

Most people can learn to communicate effectively for business it they are
willing to devote whatever effort is necessary to prepare them adequately. In
addition to the proper goodwill-building attitude, the following qualities are
a) Careful, sound judgment when choosing ideas and facts for each message.
b) Patience and understanding, even with unjustly insulting persons.
c) Integrity, backed up by a valid code of ethics.
d) Reasonable facility with the English language.
e) Applied knowledge of the communication process and principles and of
successful methods for sending and receiving messages.
f) Knowledge of the cultural conventions of your audience.

Being Flexible

Today’s workplace is increasingly diverse in age, gender, and national origin.

Diversity has brought problems to organizations, but it has also brought strengths.
Changing demographics have contributed to changes in management styles, making
effective communication central to success in carrying out the organization’s
Many companies now offer seminars or other kinds of classes in handling
diversity issues in the workplace. Today’s managers and workers need to be flexible
in the way they deal with others: Problems can be avoided by keeping an open mind
and being willing to make extra efforts in communication.
One of the most sensitive issues in language. Although English currently
appears to be the international language of business, many workers do not speak
English as their first language. Effective communication in organizations with a
multinational workforce takes flexibility and an awareness of the important
components of language use.

Communication is the process of transmitting and receiving verbal and

nonverbal messages. Communication is considered effective when it achieves the
desired reaction or response from the receiver. Simply stated, communication is a
two-way process of exchanging ideas or information.

Communication includes six Components:


Every message, whether oral or written, beings with context. Context is a
broad field that includes country, culture, organization, and external and internal
stimuli. Every country, every culture, and every company or organization has its
own conventions for processing and communicating information. This aspect of
context is the playing field on which you must plan, design and communicate your
message successfully.

As a sender-encoder, you use symbols that express your message and create
the desired response. When you send a message, you are the “encoder.” The writer
or speaker, depending on whether your message is written or oral. You try to choose
symbols usually words (and sometimes also graphics or pictures) that express your
message so that the receivers will understand it and react with the response you
desire. After convey your message and which message channel will be most effective
among the oral and written media.

You must first decide what the main point of your message is and what other
is formation to include. Your first task is to decide exactly what your message is and
what content to include. You must consider your context and especially the receiver
of your message how to receive will interpret it and how it may affect your
relationship. A simple answer to a request for information may be relatively easy. In
contrast, a message explaining why a company is moving some of its manufacturing
to mexico or a proposal to build a new headquarters for a governmental agency will
require more complex, carefully planned communication strategies.

Your medium can be the printed word electronic mail, or sound. Your
message channel depends on all the contextual factors discussed above and the
nature of the message itself. Your choices include electronic mail, the printed word,
or sound, briefly, should you or speak?
The written channel is often preferred when the message is lone technical or
formal in nature, and when the message must be documented. The oral channel is
effective when the message is urgent or personal or when immediate feedback is
important. These guidelines can change when your receiver is form another
country. For example, in many countries the Europe and Asia, complex message are
often dealt with orally, with written documents provided only later, if necessary.

Inside your Organization

Internal communication consists of sending messages inside your

organization. For internal communication, written media may be memos, reports,
bulletins, job descriptions, posters, notes, employee manuals, electronic bulletin
boards, even internal faxes. Oral communication may take the form of staff meeting
reports, face-to-face discussions, presentations, audio tapes, telephone chats, and
teleconferences, or videotapes. Another oral channel, usually unplanned by the
sender, is the “grapevine,” through which news and rumors travel quickly often
quite accurately.

Outside your Organization

External communication consists of sending messages outside your

organization. External written communication media may be letters, reports,
proposals, telegrams, cablegrams, mailgrams, faxes, telexes, postcards, contracts,
ads, brochures, catalogs, news releases, and a host of other things. You may also
communicate orally in face-to-face discussions, by telephone, or by presentations in
solo or panel situations. You may speak to groups in live presentations or through
teleconferences, video conferences, or television.


The receiver-decoder is influenced by context and by his or her mental filter.

The receivers as well as the sender are influenced by the context and by the external
and internal stimuli. Both receive messages through the eyes and ears but are also
influenced by nonverbal factors such as touch, taste, and smell. All factors of a
message are filtered through the receiver’s view of and experiences in the world. But
one problem is that we do not all undergo identical experiences with the subject or
the symbols that the sender has chosen.

Feedback can be an oral or a written message, an action, or simply silence.

Ultimately the receiver reacts with either the desired response based on a clear
understanding of the symbols or with an undesired response because of
miscommunication. Feedback can be oral or written. It can also be an action, such
as receiving in the mail an item you ordered. Sometimes silence is used as feedback,
though it is almost always ineffective. Senders need feedback in order to determine
the success or failure of the communication.
The components described above represent what happens in communication.
A context exists in which a sender chooses a message to communicate; the sender
must also choose the medium for the message; a receiver decodes the message and
provides feedback. Although this linear description seems relatively simple,
problems can occur at any point on the continuum.


No two people in the world are exactly alike, and no two cultures or countries are
the same. For example, decision making in Japan is inordinately slow by western
standards. Americans also wonder why Germans are so thorough in their reports,
why the French are so polite in letter writing, and why Middle Eastern business
people are less concerned with time. The reason is that in those cultures, these
different attitudes are acceptable and appropriate. All these differences, however,
can cause problems in conveying intended meanings.
Each person’s mind is a unique filter. Problems with communication are more likely
to occur when the communicator’s filters are sharply different. The message
sender’s meanings and the receiver’s response are affected by numerous factors,
such as individual.
a) Conventions of meaning
b) Perceptions of reality
c) Values, attitudes, and opinions

Conventions of Meaning
A fundamental principle of communication is that the symbols the sender uses to
communicate messages must have essentially the same meaning in both the sender’s
and receiver’s minds. You can never assume that the message in your mind will be
perfectly transmitted to your message to your receiver. The world is littered with
errors, sometimes humorous, often costly; as a result of differences in semantic

Communication Problems in Conventions of Meaning

The meanings of words (semantics) constructed within each person’s
experience of reality. The knowledge we each have about a subject or word affects
the meanings we attach to it. Different word interpretations are especially notable in
miscommunicated instructions and in reactions to denotations, connotations.
Miscommunicated Instructions:
When the message sender and receiver attribute different meanings to the same
words or use different words though intending the same meanings,
miscommunication occurs. Many English and foreign words have several dictionary
1. A legislator hired a new office manager with the instructions to turn in a
bimonthly report on all the activities that occurred in the previous period.
After a month by with no report, the legislator asked the office manager
why he had not turned in the report as requested. The office manager
replied that he thought the legislator wanted the report only ever 2 months.
After a short discussion on the definition of bi monthly, the two looked the
word up in the dictionary they discovered that bimonthly means both
“twice a month” and “every two months.”
2. Women sold a piece of property and asked her attorney to draw up a
Contract of sale. When she received the document for her signature, she
read that “the party of the first part agrees the shell to the party of the second
part the tenement located at the southeast corner First Ave and Drysdale Blvd.”
She quickly telephoned her attorney to point out no building at all. Her attorney
had to point out that the word tenement in the law means only” a holding of
3. A British manager of a large retail conglomerate was working in the United
States for the first time. In order to bring himself up to date on his
department’s activities, he looked over the minutes from the last staff meeting,
which he had not attended. He saw with satisfaction that the group had tabled
his proposal to decrease allowable travel expenses. He was upset later,
however, when he found that his staff had put the proposal off until the next
meeting. In Britain, to table a proposal means to act on it.
Reaction to Denotations, Connotations, and Euphemisms:
On occasion many of us have been surprised that a remark intended as a
compliment, a matter of fact statement, or a joke was interpreted as an insult
because words have both denotative and connotative meanings and because the
sender has not considered the receiver’s probable interpretations and reactions,
miscommunication can occur.
1. Denotations most people agree on denotative meanings. It often is the
dictionary definition. Denotative meanings inform the receiver, naming
objects, people, or events without indicating positive or negative qualities.
Such words as car, desk, book, house, and water convey denotative same
meanings, provided, of course, that the communicators are using the same
language and provided that the receiver has a similar understanding of the
context in which the word is used.
2. Connotation is an implication of a word or a suggestion separate from the
usual definition. The connotative meanings for words are also affected by the
communicator’s different backgrounds and interests. Word such as amnesty,
speed, grass, crack, coke, gay, feminist may arouse mixed feelings and
arguments, depending on people’s associations with them.
Perceptions of Reality
Complex, infinite, and continuously changing, the material world provides a special
reality to each individual. Also, human beings sensory perceptions tough, sight,
hearing, smell, taste are limited, and each person’s mental filter is unique. We make
various abstractions, inferences, and evaluations of the world around us.

Communication Problems in Perceptions of Reality

Abstracting: Focusing on some details and omitting others in a process called
abstracting, in countless instances, abstracting is necessary. However, you should be
cautious about “slanted” statements.
Inferring: conclusions made by reasoning for evidence or premises are called
inferences. Every day most of us find it necessary to act on some inferences. We
make assumptions and draw conclusions even thought we are not able to
immediately verify the evidences. Some inferences are both necessary and desirable;
others are risky, even dangerous.
Necessary, Desirable Inferences
For business and professional people, inferences are essential in analyzing materials,
solving problems, and planning procedures. Systems analysts, marketing specialists,
advertisers, architects, engineers, designers, and numerous others all must work on
various premises and make inferences after they have gathered as much factual data
as possible. Even our legal procedures allow inferences from experts as acceptable
evidence. In our everyday activities, we make inferences that are necessary and
usually fairly reliable.
Risk of Inferences
As intelligent communicators, we must realize that inferences may be incorrect or
unreliable and anticipate the risks before acting on them.

Values, Attitudes, and Opinions

A receiver’s attitude toward a message can determine whether it is accepted
rejected, distorted, or avoided. Communication effectiveness is influenced also by
the value, attitudes, and opinions the communicators have in their mental filters.
People react favorable when the message they receive agrees with their views
toward the information, the facts, and the sender.

Nonverbal messages often contradict the verbal. The preceding sections about the
communication process focused on verbal communication written or spoken
syllables, usually words. We also communicate nonverbally without words.
Sometimes nonverbal messages contradict the verbal often the express feelings more
accurately than the spoken or written language.
a) Appearance
b) Body language
c) Silence, time, and space
How Appearance communicates
Appearance conveys nonverbal impressions that affect receivers’ attitudes toward
the verbal message even before they read or hear them.
Effect on Written Messages
The format, neatness, and language of a written message send a nonverbal message
to the reader. Finally the language itself, aside from its content, communicates
something about the sender. Is it carefully worded and generally correct in
mechanics such as spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
Effect on Oral Messages
Whether you are speaking to one person face to face or to a group in a meeting
personal appearance and the appearance of you surroundings convey nonverbal
stimuli that affect attitudes toward your spoken words.
Personal Appearance
Clothing, hairstyles, neatness, jewelry, cosmetics, posture, stature and part of
personal appearance. They convey impressions regarding occupation, age,
nationality, social and economic level, job status, and good or poor judgment,
depending on circumstances.
Appearance of surroundings
Aspects of surroundings include room size location, furnishings, machines,
architecture, wall decorations, floor (carpeted or bare?) lighting, windows, view,
and other related features wherever people communicate orally. Surroundings will
vary according to status and according to country and culture.

How body language communicates

Included under body language are facial expressions, gestures, posture and
movement, smell and touch, and voice and sounds.
Facial Expressions
Conventions of eye contact are specific to each culture. Eye contact and facial
expression can help or hinder your verbal message. They eyes and face are
especially helpful means of communicating nonverbally, they can reveal hidden
emotions, including anger, confusion, enthusiasm, fear, joy, surprise, uncertainty,
and others. They can also contradict verbal statements. Always get additional facts
before judging a person’s facial expressions conclusively.
Gestures, posture, and Movement
Posture, gestures, and body movement convey a message and add to or subtract
from your oral message. In some occupations, actions speak louder than words.
Gesture and movements are culture specific. The meaning of a gesture in the United
States may be completely different in Europe or Asia.
Smell and touch
Various odors and fragrances sometimes convey the emotions of the sender and
sometimes affect the reactions of the receiver, especially if the receiver is sensitive to
scents. Also, touching people can communicate friendship, love, approval, hatred,
anger, or other feelings.
Voice and sounds
Your voice quality and the extra sound you make while speaking are also a part of
nonverbal communication called paralanguage. Paralanguage includes voice
volume, rate, articulation, pitch, and the other sounds you may make such as throat
clearing and sighing. A loud voice often communicates urgency while a soft one is
sometimes calming.

How Silence, Time, and Space Communicate

Silence, time, and space can communicate more than you may think, even causing
hard feelings, loss of business, and profits. It pays to know these differences across
Consider how you feel when you make an oral request that is met with silence.
Or think about the confusion you feel when you written message generates no
Concepts of time and space are culture specific. Effective communicators adapt to
senders and receivers expectations.
Effective communicators must learn to adopt to both senders and receivers
expectations regarding space. The key to success is to be aware of the differences.