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Chapter III.

Energy and Energy Transfer


Types of Energy

Energy is defined as the capacity to do work.

Energy has a definite value for every state of the system. Hence, it is a point function
and a property of the system.

Energy
Stored Energy
(Total Energy)
Extrinsic
Energy
Kinetic
Energy

Transient
Energy

Internal
Energy

Work

Potential
Energy

Stored Energy and Transient Energy; Total Energy

Stored Energy

Contained within the mass of the system and constitute the total energy of the system.

Static form of energy.


E.g. K.E., P.E., Internal Energy, Electrical Energy

Transient Energy

Not stored within a system and crosses boundary of a system without transfer of mass.

Dynamic form of energy


E.g. heat transfer, work transfer

Total Energy
The total energy of a system is given by
E = Ek + Ep + U

Where, Ek = kinetic energy and Ep = potential energy are the macroscopic modes of energy
and U = internal energy is the microscopic mode of energy
Here, other forms of energy possessed by a system such as magnetic energy, electrical energy
and surface (tension) energy.

Energy Transfer

i.

Heat Transfer
Energy transfer without mass transfer between system and surrounding due to a temperature
difference is known as heat or heat transfer.

Heat is identified at the boundary of a system, for heat is defined as the energy being
transferred across the system boundary. Heat is not a property of the system or surroundings.

Heat, like work, is a path function and hence, an inexact differential.

=Q1-2
Where, Q1-2 = heat transferred during the given process between states 1 and 2
inexact differential
d exact differential

ii.

Work Transfer

Energy transfer without mass transfer between system and surrounding due to intensive property
difference other than temperature is known as work or work transfer or displacement work.
Similarities between Heat and Work
i.

Both are transient forms of energy.

ii.

Both are path functions and inexact differentials.

iii.

Both heat and work are boundary phenomena.


Differences between Heat and Work

Heat
i.

ii.

iii.

Work

Heat is a low grade of energy or a i.

Work is a high grade of energy or an

disorganized form of energy.

organized form of energy.

Heat is transferred between system and ii.

Work

surrounding due to temperature difference.

difference.

Heat can be transferred with or without iii. Work

is

transferred

cannot

be

due

to

pressure

transferred

without

displacement of boundary.

displacement of boundary.

Displacement Work

Let, the piston moves forward due to the pressure P created by the gas. Suppose that the small
displacement be ds and A be the area of cross section of the cylinder.
Small work done by gas, W = F.ds = P.A.ds = P.dv
Integrating both sides,
Total Work done = W1-2 =

Polytrophic Process
n

PV = constant
n = polytropic index
0

1. If n = 0, PV = c P = c Isobaric Process
1

2. If n = 1, PV = c PV = c Isothermal Process

3. If n = , PV = c Adiabatic Process

4. If n = , PV = c

V =

V=( )

/$

=(

)%

V = c Isochoric Process