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- Babai Linear Algebra 1
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April 12, 2016

1. The sets in (a) and (d) are subspaces of R2 . The set in (b) or (c) is not a subspace of R2 .

2. The sets in (b) and (c) are subspaces of R3 . The set in (a) or (d) is not a subspace of R3 .

3. Take any vectors v1 + w1 and v2 + w2 in V + W , where v1 , v2 V and w1 , w2 W , and take any scalars

a and b. Then we have

a(v1 + w1 ) + b(v2 + w2 ) = av1 + aw1 + bv2 + bw2

= (av1 + bv2 ) + (bw1 + bw2 )

Since V and W are vector spaces, we know that av1 + bv2 V and bw1 + bw2 W . Thus

(av1 + bv2 ) + (bw1 + bw2 ) V + W

Therefore, V + W is also a subspace of Rn .

4. (See Example 2.2.2) The reduced row echelon form of A is given by

1 0 1 2

U=

0 1

2

3

Solving the system U x = 0 we have that

x1 x3 2x4

x2 + 2x3 + 3x4

thus,

x1

x3 + 2x4

x2

2x3 3x4

2

1

a + 2b

2a 3b

= a 2 + b 3

x=

0

1

a

b

1

0

Thus,

N (A) = Span{[1, 2, 1, 0]T , [2, 3, 0, 1]T }

Moreover, dim N (A) = 2.

5. (See Remark in Page 43) A set including three linearly independent vectors in R3 can span R3 .

(a) Since

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

= 1 6= 0

these vectors are linearly independent, so they forms a spanning set for R3 .

1

(c) The set is not a spanning set for R3 , since these three vectors are linearly dependent:

2 2

4

1 1

2 = 0

2

2 4

(d) The set is not a spanning set for R3 , since it only contains two vectors.

6. First we can check that x and y are linearly independent.

(a) Since x, y, a are linearly independent (by computing the determinant of [x, y, a]), we have

a

/ Span(x, y)

(b) Since x, y, b are linearly independent (by computing the determinant of [x, y, b]), we have

b Span(x, y)

(c) By elementary row operation, we have

T

x

1

=

2

aT

and

yT

bT

=

3

9

2

6

3

6

4 2

2 5

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0.6

1.2

0.8

1.1

These two reduced row echelon forms are not the same, so by Theorem 2.2.4,

Span(x, a) 6= Span(y, b)

7. (See Examples 2.3.4 and 2.3.5)

(a) Since

1

1

1

0

2

5

1

3

6

=0

(b) Using the elementary row operations, we compute

1

1 1 2 4

0

3 1 2 0

3

0 7 14

0

1 2 4

3 1 2

0 0 0

There is a zero row in the resulting matrix, so by Theorem 2.3.2, the given vectors are linearly dependent.

8. If the conclusion is not true, i.e., v1 , v2 , . . . , vk are linearly dependent, then there are scalars c1 , c2 , . . . , ck ,

not all zero, such that

c1 v1 + c2 v2 + + ck vk = 0

Taking ck+1 = 0, . . . , cm = 0, we have

c1 v1 + c2 v2 + + ck vk + ck+1 vk+1 + + cm vm = 0

That means v1 , v2 , . . . , vm are linearly independent, yielding a contridiction. Thus, v1 , v2 , . . . , vk are linearly

independent.

9. We compute

y1 (v1 + v2 ) + y2 (v2 + v3 ) + y3 (v3 + v1 )

y1

= [v1 + v2 , v2 + v3 , v3 + v1 ] y2

y3

1 0 1

y1

= [v1 , v2 , v3 ] 1 1 0 y2

0 1 1

y3

Since

1 0

1 1

0 1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

y1

0 y2 = 0 if and only if

1

y3

y1

y2 = 0

y3

Therefore, v1 , v2 , v3 are linearly independent if and only if v1 +v2 , v2 +v3 , v3 +v1 are linearly independent.

10. (See Example 2.4.2)

(a) Compute the row echelon form of associated matrix:

T

x

3 3 6

1

yT = 2

2

4 0

4 4 8

0

zT

1 2

0

0

0

0

There is only one nonzero row in the resulting matrix, so the dimension of Span(x, y, z) is 1.

(b) Compute the row echelon form of associated matrix:

T

1 1 2

x

3 3 6

7

0

yT 2

2

4

1

3

T=

z 4 4 8 0

0

0

T

2

1

3

0

0

0

w

There is two nonzero rows in the resulting matrix, so the dimension of Span(x, y, z) is 2.

(c) From (b), the set {[1, 1, 2]T , [0, 1, 37 ]T } forms a basis for Span(x, y, z, w).

11. Let dim U = k and {u1 , . . . , uk } be a basis for U , and let dim V = m and {v1 , . . . , vm } be a basis for

V . Since U V = {0}, we know that there is not any nonzero element in U , which can be written as a

linear combination of v1 , . . . , vm , so u1 , . . . , uk , v1 , . . . , vm are linearly independent. From the definition of

U + V , every element in U + V can be written as a linear combination of u1 , . . . , uk , v1 , . . . , vm . This means

{u1 , . . . , uk , v1 , . . . , vm } forms a basis for U + V , so

dim(U + V ) = dim U + dim V

12. (a) Compute the row echelon form of associated matrix:

T

x1

1 2 2 3

1

xT2 = 2 5 4 1 0

1 3 2 1

0

xT3

0

1

0

2

0

0

0

0

1

There is no zero row in the resulting matrix. By Theorem 2.3.2, x1 , x2 , x3 are linearly independent.

(b) The idea is to add a row to the above reduced row echelon form so that the new 4 4 matrix is nonsingular.

We note

1 0 2 0

0 1 0 0

det

0 0 0 1 = 1 6= 0

0 0 1 0

so we can take x4 = [0, 0, 1, 0]T (transposing the row we just added).

3

1

U = 0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

(b) (See Example 2.5.5) The leading 1s occur in the first, third and fourth columns. Thus, the first, third and

fourth column vectors of A:

1

1

2

2 , 3 , 1

1

0

5

forms a basis for R(A).

(c) (See Example 2.4.3) The set {[1, 1, 0, 0]T } forms a basis for N (A).

14. (See Examples 2.5.3&4, 2.5.8&9)

(a) The rank is 2 and the nullity is 1.

(b) The rank is 3 and the nullity is 1.

(c) The rank is 3 and the nullity is 1.

15. By the definition of matrix rank,

rank(A) = dim R(A) n

and

rank(A) = dim R(AT ) m

Thus,

rank(A) min{m, n}

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