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Unit - 1

Pranayams
Introduction:
Prana refers to the universal life force and ayama means to regulate or lengthen. Prana
is the vital energy needed by our physical and subtle layers, without which the body would perish.
It is what keeps us alive. Pranayama is the control of prana through the breath. These techniques
rely on breathing through the nostrils.
Prana flows through thousands of subtle energy channels called nadis and energy centers called
chakras. The quantity and quality of prana and the way it flows through the nadis and chakras
determines ones state of mind. If the Prana level is high and its flow is continuous, smooth and
steady, the mind remains calm, positive and enthusiastic. However, due to lack of knowledge and
attention to ones breath, the nadis and chakras in the average person may be partially or fully
blocked leading to jerky and broken flow. As a result one experiences increased worries, fear,
uncertainty, tensions, conflict and other negative qualities.
The ancient sages of India realized these breathing techniques. Some common pranayamas include
Bhastrika, Kapalabhati, and Nadi shodan pranayama. Regular practice increases and enhances the
quantity and quality of prana, clears blocked nadis and chakras, and results in the practitioner
feeling energetic, enthusiastic and positive. Practiced correctly under the right supervision
prananyama brings harmony between the body, mind and spirit, making one physically, mentally
and spiritually strong.

Breathing Awareness
Have an attitude of curiosity: The entire science of breath begins with awareness of what the
breath is doing. To do this means to have an attitude of being an explorer, an interior researcher. It
means cultivating an attitude of curiosity that allows you to wander around inside of yourself
noticing the way in which breath operates.
It's like the way a child might take apart a toy to see how it works, only in this case nothing is
being taken apart. You are just being still, closing your eyes and snooping around the entire
breathing apparatus, whether the gross body, or subtler aspects.
Awareness of the feel of the breath at the bridge of the nostrils is a very simple, straightforward,
and highly effective meditation practice. It is the cognitive sense of touch, as the air is literally felt
to come and go. To allow the breath to slow on exhalation is a further refinement, whereby
exhalation is as much as twice the duration as inhalation. For even finer experience, allow there to
be no pause between the breaths, with exhalation gently flowing into inhalation, and inhalation

gently flowing into exhalation. This is excellent preparation for the subtler, more advanced
practices.

Abdominal Breathing or diaphragmatic breathing:


Sit in padmasana ,sidhasana or sukhsama ( crossed-legged) with erect spine and relaxed body
.Exhale, inhale through both nostrils, completely, slowly and continuously. This is called
Puraka.The abdominal is to made continuously with the air entering especially into the lower
sections of the lungs. Before exhaling stop the breath (Antarya Kumbhaka) for a second. Now
exhale slowly, uniformly and completely. While exhaling (rechaka) the abdomen is drawn inwards
continuously and slowly. Before the breath is reserved, stop the breath (Dahya Kumdhaka) for a
second inhale. Repeat the creating cycle for several times. The diaphragm separating the thorax
from the abdomen descend during exhalation with the bulging of the abdomen. This increases the
air flow into the lower section of the lungs.it ascends during exhalation cause complete exhale.

Full Yogic Breath


In practicing basic breathing, you first learn to make the exhalation and inhalation of equal length,
and then eliminate the irregularities mentioned above.
Then, you practice making exhalation twice as long as the inhalation. For example, you may time
your breath so that you exhale for a count of 6 seconds, and inhale for a count of 3 seconds, or
about 6-7 breaths per minute.
You work with the rates of breathing to find the most comfortable speed for you. For example, 4:2,
6:3, 8:4, 10:5, 12:6, where the first number is the number of seconds of exhalation, and the second
(smaller) number is the number of seconds of inhalation. You can simply count internally for a
minute or so, and then let go of the counting so as to just practice and observe the breathing.
Two-to-One breathing has a very relaxing effect on the autonomic nervous system and is great
preparation for meditation.

ANULOM VILOMA
Introduction:
In Sanskrit, Anuloma means successive (continuous), Viloma means produced in reverse order,
and pranayama means an extension of the breath or life. When you combine, it means alternative
nostril breathing. Other names of anulama viloma pranayama are made suddhi pranayama, Nadi
shodhana pranayama and alternative nostril breathing.

Practice

technique:

Sit in
Padmasana
Keep the spine
erect and your head and neck
straight
Eyes should be
closed
Relax the
muscles of the body and become
aware the
breath
At no point
during the exercise should the
breath be
controlled or forced
If find the
Padmasana pose difficult to
maintain,
Practice Nadi
Suddhi breathing seated on a chair.
It is important
to make sure that feet are on the
floor and back
is straight throughout the time.
With one hand, let the fingers stretch and bend index and middle fingers and place them
on the palm of
the hand.
Place the thumb
on one nostril and the tip of the
ring finger
against the other nostril.
The thumb and
ring finger will be used to close
alternate
nostrils.
Begin the
exercise by blocking the left side
nostril and
breathe out with the right nostril.
Continue to
block your left nostril and
breathe in using
the right nostril.
Open the left
nostril simultaneously cover and
block the right
nostril.
Breathe out
slowly using the open left nostril.
Once these is
going ahead and breathe in with
the left nostril
that is open.
Close the left
nostril and let the air move out
through the right nostril that now leave open.
This is considered one cycle. The breathing should be slow and rhythmic.
Continue breathing this way by opening and closing left and right nostrils and complete
ten cycles to begin with.
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KAPALBHATI (Shining Skull or Fierce Breath)


Introduction:
Kapalbhati is one of the six Shatkarmas or methods of internal purification in Hatha Yoga. In
Sanskrit, Kapal means the skull and Bhati means to shine or illuminate. Kapalbhati cleanse the
cranial sinuses and hence the name.

Practice

technique:

Sit in a
with Back

comfortable crossed leg position


straight.

Hands
gyana

resting on knees in either chin or


mudra.

Face to be

relaxed.

Inhale
expanding
forceful
(Pull the
the
through

deeply through both nostrils,


abdomen and exhale with the
contraction of abdominal muscles.
abdomen in by quickly contracting
abdominal muscles and exhale
the nose).

The air is pushed out of the lungs by contraction of the diaphragm.

Step 3) After exhalation again inhalation, but inhalation should not involve any effort.

To inhale just relax and the lungs will automatically expand and filled with air.

One can begin with 15 respirations. After completing 15 quick exhalation and natural
inhalation, inhale and exhale deeply.

This is one round.

One can start the practice of Kapalbhati pranayama with 3 such rounds for practice.

Unit - 2
Surya Namaskara
If you are pressed for time and looking for a single mantra to stay fit, heres the answer. A
set of 12 powerful yoga asanas (postures) that provide a good cardiovascular workout in the form
of Surya Namaskar. Literally translated to sun salutation, these postures are a good way to keep
the body in shape and the mind calm and healthy.
Surya Namaskar is best done early morning on an empty stomach. Lets begin with these simple
yet effective Sun Salutation steps on our way to good health.
Each Sun Salutation round consists of two sets. These 12 yoga poses complete one set of Surya
Namaskar. To complete the second half, you need to repeat the same sequence of postures, only
moving the left leg instead of the right (in steps 4 and 9 given below). You might find several
versions of doing Sun Salutation. However, it is best to stick to one particular sequence and
practice it regularly for best results.
Besides good health, Surya Namaskar also provide an opportunity to express gratitude to the sun
for sustaining life on this planet, For the next 10 days, start your day with a feeling of grace and
gratitude towards the sun energy. Do 12 rounds of Sun Salutation, followed by other yoga poses
and then rest deeply in yoga nidra. You might just find that this could be your mantra to stay fit,
happy and peaceful. A mantra whose effects last through the day.

1.Pranamasana (Prayer pose):


Pranamasana or the Prayer Pose is the starting pose for Surya Namaskara or the Sun Salutation
poses. In Pranamasana, the palms are held together in the prayer pose. The word Pranam has a
Sanskrit root and it means to pay respect; and asana means a pose. Hence the name
Pranamasana.
Pranamasana is a common gesture used
countries to show respect and a popular
especially elders, seniors, gurus and
for greeting is Namaste which means
Self in you. The Self or the Jiva is said to
center. Hence the palms are brought
own heart when bowing down and
gesture with the hands is called

in India and many eastern


way to greet others
guests. In India, the word
that I bow down to the
be located at the heart
together touching ones
greeting others. This
Pranamasana

How to do Pranamasana (The Prayer Pose)


Stand erect with the feet held together.
Bring the two hands together and the palms touching each other at the chest level. Look straight
ahead. Breathe in normally. This will give a sense of relaxation. This asana is done in the
beginning and end of the Sun Salutation or Surya Namaskara. A particular mantra is also chanted
while it is practised as part of Sun Salutation. The Sun Salutation consists of 12 poses; each is
done chanting a particular mantra for the Sun God.

2.Hasta Uttanasana:
How to do Hasta Uttanasana (Raised Arms pose)?
Stand erect and raise both the hands above the head.
Let there be shoulders length
Bend the trunk and head
Raising the arms and
at the same time. Breathe in
When done as part of the
exercises) a mantra can be
Hasta Uttanasana is done as
mantra to be chanted is given

between the two arms.


backwards to create a slight curve.
bending the trunk backwards is done
deeply while raising the arms.
Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation
chanted while performing this asana.
the 2nd pose and the 11th pose. The
below:

During 2nd pose chant Om


salutations to the shining one.

Ravaye Namaha. It means

During 11th pose chant Om


to the one worthy of praise.

Arkaya Namaha. It means salutation

3.Hasta Padasana yoga:

The Hands to Feet Pose (Pada


variation of the standing forward
Extended Hands and Feet Pose
Side Hands and Feet Pose (Parshva
that normally follow. This is an

Hastasana) is the seated


bend. Strictly speaking,
(Utthita Hasta Padasana) and
Hasta Padasana), are the poses
intermediary stage the
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practitioner has to pass through on the way to another pose. Very often mistakes in a posture can
be traced back to an intermediary stage and can be corrected more easily here than in the full pose.
This pose helps improves flexibility of the spine, strengthens the legs, improves digestion and
helps blood circulation in the head. However, this pose is not for people who suffering from

4.Ashwa Sanchalanasana:
How to do Ashwa Sanchalanasana (Equestrian Pose)?
Ashwa Sanchalanasana is done immediately after the
Padahastasana pose in Surya Namaskara. So Padahastasana
is the starting pose for Ashwa Sanchalanasana. From this
position, take the left leg as far back as possible. In the
process, bend the right knee without changing its position.
Inhale while stretching the left leg backwards. Keep the
hands straight with fingers touching the floor. Arch the back
and tilt the head slightly backward. Look straight ahead.
When done as part of the Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation exercises) a mantra can be chanted
while performing this asana. Ashwa Sanchalanasana is done as the 4th pose and the 9th pose. The
mantra to be chanted is given below:
During 9th pose chant Om Adityaya Namaha. It means salutation to the son of Aditi.
During 4th pose chant Om Bhanave Namaha. It means salutations to the one who shines.

5.Dandasana (Stick pose):


The name originates from the Sanskrit words Danda
meaning stick, and Asana meaning posture.
This pose is best known as the base of all asanas in
seating position, forward bends and twists.
To get started with this asana, follow the simple steps
mentioned below:
Start in a seated position with the legs extended
forward. The palms or the fingertips (if the palms dont reach) should be rested on either side of
the body. The upper-body should be extending upward through the crown of the head, and the
back should be totally perpendicular to the ground (as though sitting against a wall).
If this is not possible, one may want to use a block underneath ones sitting bones to reduce the
intensity in the hamstring muscles. The whole core should be engaged and ujjayi breath active
throughout this asana. The legs should be squeezing together, and the toes should be pointing
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inwards toward the body. It may even be possible to create space between the heels and the ground
by activating the leg muscles.
This asana is usually followed by Paschimottanasana (forward fold).
Staff Pose beginners Tips:
If your back is rounded and/or hip flexibility is poor, or if there is any discomfort in the back or
the backs of the legs, sit on a block or folded blanket. Give more or less height depending on their
flexibility. This permits them to have a more erect spine and to sit up straighter. It also releases
tension from the hamstrings and hip flexors.

6. Ashtanga Namaskara (Salute With Eight Parts Or Points):

The Best of Surya Namaskar


Surya Namaskar has a subtle influence on you,
which may perhaps be more important than
physical benefits. It depends on your attitude. If
you are aware and totally involved with the
intonation of the mantras, the breathing and
movement, it will make you very peaceful and
completely relaxed. Doing the Surya Namaskar is
like meditating. It also helps reduce emotional
conflict and deal with stress, and depressions, anger, and hate. Surya Namaskar is a great way to
start the day and helps you prepare in every way to face new challenges with physical and mental
strength and confidence.

7.SARAL HASTA BHUJANGASANA (Cobra Pose):

Introduction:
Bhujangasana (Cobra Pose): Step by Step & Benefits In Sanskrit language Bhujang stands for
Cobra and also while practicing Bhujangasana the entire body structure looks like hooded snake
that is why it is also known as Cobra.

Practice technique
Execute

Lie down on the ground facing the ground

Forehead touching the ground

Place and feet together and pull the toes


downwards.

The arms should be bent at the knees,

Palms touching the ground below the shoulder

And the arms touching the body

Slowly raising the chin,

Bend the head and neck as backwards as possible.

Simultaneously raise the chest and stomach

The stomach will be lifted up to the navy and the portion below the navel will be touching
the ground.

Hold

Hold the posture for same times

Proper inhale and exhale

Maintain the posture

Release

Breathe in as well as breathing out,

Using the help of the vertebral column,

Start out lowering the shoulders gradually along with very first belly touching the ground
and after that chest, forehead.

Put the chin in floor as well as hands back in the initial place.

Achieve susceptible posture.

8.TADAGASANA (Pond pose):


Introduction
Mountain pose is also known as Palm Tree Pose or Tadasana in Sanskrit as in the final stage, the
Yoga pose looks like as palm tree so the name is. This is also known as heavenly stretch pose as
one stretches oneself towards the heaven.
Practice technique.;

Stand erect on the ground with 15


cm apart

With inhale, raise the arms


upward by interlocking fingers.

Try to come on the toes by raising


the heels and feel the stretching
from toes to fingers.

Hold

Maintain the pose as long as you can with slow and deep breathing.

Release

Come to the original position with deep exhale.

One can perform the number of rounds as per ones convenience after having
relaxation for a while.

Yoga, Palm tree pose is performed by raising the hands over the head or keeping them
at the sides of the legs

9.Parvatasana The Mountain Pose:


Parvatasana or the Mountain pose is part of the Sun Salutation series of asanas. It appears as the
4th pose and the 9th pose in the Sun Salutation or Surya Namaskara. In Sanskrit Parvata means
mountain. The pose looks like a mountain from the sides and
hence the name Parvatasana.

How to do Parvatasana (The Mountain Pose)?

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As part of the Surya Namaskara, Parvatasana is performed after Ashwa Sanchalanasana or


the equestrian pose. Hence Ashwa Sanc halanasana becomes the starting pose for
Parvatasana.
From Ashwa Sanchalanasana, straighten the bend leg and take it backwards. Exhale during
this process. Let the right and left foot be together.
Raise the buttocks up. Let the two arms be on the floor and support the body weight.
Lower the head to be between the two arms. The body makes the shape of a triangle when
observed from the sides. It looks like a mountain and hence the name.
When done as part of the Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation exercises) a mantra can be
chanted while performing this asana. Parvatasana is done as the 4th pose and the 9th pose.
The mantra to be chanted is given below:During 9th pose chant Om Marichaye Namaha.
It means salutation to the lord of the dawn.
During 4th pose chant Om Khagaya Namaha. It means salutations to the one who moves
in the sky.

10.Ashwa Sanchalanasana The Equestrian Pose

How to do Ashwa Sanchalanasana (Equestrian Pose)?


Ashwa Sanchalanasana is done immediately after the Padahastasana pose in Surya Namaskara.
So Padahastasana is the starting pose for Ashwa Sanchalanasana.
From this position, take the left leg as far back as possible. In the process, bend the right knee
without changing its position. Inhale
while
stretching the left leg backwards. Keep
fingers touching the floor. Arch the back
backward. Look straight ahead.

the hands straight with


and tilt the head slightly

When done as part of the Surya


exercises) a mantra can be chanted while
Ashwa Sanchalanasana is done as the 4th
mantra to be chanted is given
Om Adityaya Namaha. It means

Namaskara (Sun Salutation


performing this asana.
pose and the 9th pose. The
below:During 9th pose chant
salutation to the son of Aditi.

During 4th pose chant Om Bhanave


salutations to the one who shines.

Namaha. It means

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11.Hasta Uttanasana Raised Arms Pose

How to do Hasta Uttanasana (Raised Arms pose)? Stand erect and raise both the hands
above the head. Let there be
arms.Bend the trunk and head
curve. Raising the arms and
done at the same time. Breathe
arms.When done as part of the
exercises) a mantra can be
asana. Hasta Uttanasana is done
The mantra to be chanted is
chant Om Ravaye Namaha. It
one.During 11th pose chant Om
salutation to the one worthy of

shoulders length between the two


backwards to create a slight
bending the trunk backwards is
in deeply while raising the
Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation
chanted while performing this
as the 2nd pose and the 11th pose.
given below:During 2nd pose
means salutations to the shining
Arkaya Namaha. It means
praise.

12.Pranamasana(salutation posture)
Straighten the body and bring the hands in front if chest. Reume posture no.1.Breathing: Start
exhaling as you bring the arms forward.
Keep breathing normal in
this position.

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PRECAUTIONS

Avoid surya namaskar if you have back pain.


Do not do surya namaskar if you are pregnant.
Also avoid it during menses.
People suffering from blood pressure, arthritis, slip disc and hernia must not perform
this asana. It is better to consult your doctor if you suffer from any other kind of
ailment.
In case your breathing goes faster than normal, then either take rest or do not perform
surya namaskar that day.

BENEFITS

Tones up the digestive system by the alternate stretching and


compression of abdominal organs. It activates digestion and gets
rid of constipation and dyspepsia.
Strengthens abdominal muscles.
Thoroughly ventilates the lungs, and oxygenates the blood.
Acts as detoxifying agent, by getting rid of enormous quantity of
carbon dioxide and other toxic gases.
Promotes sleep and calms anxiety.
Tones up the nervous system and improves memory.
Normalizes the activity of the endocrine glands - especially the
thyroid gland.
Refreshes the skin. Prevents Skin disorders.

Improves muscle flexibility

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Unit -3
PADMASANA (Buddha- Tied Lotus)
Introduction
The word Padmasana in Sanskrit means lotus pose. It is so called because of the lotus-like
formation which is made by the legs. It is also known as kamalasan after the word kamal
which is Hindi for lotus flower. This is a yogic exercise or asana as they are called in which one
crosses the legs while maintaining a straight posture. It is a position which is conducive to
concentration and meditation. This pose has many benefits which we will examine later on in this
article. For the time being, let us see how this particular asana is performed.

Practice technique
Execute

Sit down on the floor with the legs


spread straight in front of you.

Do not bend the knees when you spread


the legs straight.

Now bend the right knee, lift it up with


the right hand and place it on the outer side of the left thigh.

This pose is known as Ardha Padmasana

Bend the left knee, lift it up with the left hand and place it on the outer side of the right
thigh.

This pose is known as Purna Padmasana.

Place both the hands on the thighs in Dhyana mudra position.

While practicing mudra, touch the tip of the hands index finger with the tip of the
thumb. Keep the other three fingers straight. Place it on the knees. This is the perfect
mudra while practicing pranayam or chanting OM or while meditating.

Close the eyes and try to concentrate on the breathing.

Hold

Remain steady in this pose for 5-10 minutes and then release from the pose

Release

Open the eyes slowly


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Unlock the posture

Repeat this activity every day for better results.

Benefits

Improves digestion

Reduces muscular tension and brings blood pressure under control

Relaxes the mind

Helps pregnant ladies during childbirth

Reduces menstrual discomfort

Precaution

Ankle or knee injury: Perform this pose only with the supervision of an experienced
teacher.

VAJRASANA (Thunderbolt Pose):


Introduction
Vajrasana is the simple asana which can be practiced after lunch or dinner also. Vajrasana is also
known as diamond pose which is best for practicing breathing exercises and meditation. Regular
practice makes stronger and healthier.

Practice technique
Execute & hold

Sit on the flat floor and


above image.

fold the legs as shown in the

Keep the spine straight

and close the eyes.

Keep the right palm on


knee.

right knee and left palm on left

Now start to inhale slowly

then exhale.

When you exhale try to


coming out from the nose

think that the disorders are

Release

Straight the leg first right

Breathe normally

and second left

15

Repeat these steps for 5 minutes and take a rest. You can increase the time for 15
minutes.

Benefits

calms the mind and bring stability in mind.

Cures constipation, acidity, increases digestion process.

Those suffering from gas problems can practice immediately after lunch or dinner.

Helps to get rid of back pain.

Cures stomach disorder

. Cures urinary problems. Strengthens the sexual organs.

Increases blood circulation.

It is preferred for meditation and concentration.

Helps to reduce obesity.

Strengthens the thigh muscles.

Precaution
A person suffering from joint pain should not practice this asana

VRIKSHASANA (Tree pose):


Introduction
The yoga name for Vrikshasana can simply be put as Tree Pose Yoga. This Pose belongs to the
Inverted Balancing group of poses. It is one of the most difficult, fascinating and et effective yoga
poses. It is called Tree pose because when performed correctly, it looks like a tree. In other words,
you stand still like a tree in the final position of this posture. The leg that you are standing on
looks like a trunk rooted to the ground with arms and the other leg and the head act as branches
and leaves.

Practice technique
Execute

Stand tall and straight with arms by the side of the body.

Bend right knee and place the right foot high up on left thigh.

The sole of the foot should be placed flat and firmly near the root of the thigh.

Make sure that left leg is straight.


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Take a deep breath in, gracefully raise arms over the head from the side, and bring
palms together in Namaste mudra (hands-folded position).

Look straight, at a distant object. A steady gaze helps maintain a steady balance.

Ensure that spine is straight. The entire body should be taut, like a stretched elastic
band. Keep taking in long deep breaths. With each exhalation, relax the body more and
more. Just be with the body and the breath with a gentle smile on face.

Hold

Hold the posture some time

Release

With slow exhalation, gently bring down hands from the sides.

You may gently release the right leg.

Stand tall and straight as you did at the beginning of the posture.

Repeat this pose with the left leg off the ground on the right thigh.

Benefits

This pose leaves you in a state of rejuvenation.

It stretches the legs, back and arms, and invigorates.

It brings balance and equilibrium to mind.

It helps improve concentration.

This posture has been found to relieve some cases of sciatica.

It makes the legs strong, improves balance, and opens the hips.

Helps those who are suffering from sciatica.

Precaution

The pose is not healthy for those who suffer from migraines and insomnia.

It is also not suitable for those with low blood pressure or high blood pressure.

If hypertension, do not raise arms above the head for too long as there is a risk of

getting a heart attack.

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PARVATASANA (MOUNTAIN POSE):


Introduction
Parvatasana is one of the important seated yoga postures. It has immense benefits and is one
among the yoga postures for weight loss. As the pose resembles a mountain, it is called
Parvatasana (Mountain pose).

Practice technique
Execute

Sit on the

ground with head and spine erect.

Extend the legs


placed together.

forward such that knees and heels are

With the help of


thigh and then

hands, place right foot on the left


left foot on the right thigh.

Try to touch the

knees to the ground

Turn the soles

of feet upwards.

Bring the palms


hands.

together overlapping the fingers of

Starting at the
upwards along
they are over

chest level, extend the arms slowly


the central vertical axis of the body till
the head.

Ensure that
arms touch the ears and are not bent at
the elbows. Ascertain that upper body is fully but comfortably stretched from the hips
to the fingers.

Hold

Remain in this final posture breathing deeply and uniformly with the eyes closed for
about 1-2 minutes (in the early stages) or the breakpoint.

Release

Unlock the padmasana posture

Repeat the above steps except that place the left foot on the right thigh and then right
foot on the left thigh.

This will ensure that both legs are built uniformly.


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Benefits

Parvatasana stretches the spine.

It helps practitioners below 18 years to gain some height.

The stretch in this pose reduces extra fat in the back and waist.

It tones the abdominal muscles and hence stimulates the inner organs in the abdominal
region.

It sets right respiratory disorders including asthma.

Stretch the arms straight, triceps and biceps receive good work out.

It helps to reduce back pain.

It improves the ability to stay focused.

Precaution

NAUKASANA (Boat pose):


Introduction
In Sanskrit Nauka means Boat and Asana means Pose. So this asana is called as Naukasana.
Since the posture puts the body in the shape of a boat, that is why posture has been named as The
Posture of the Boat.

Practice technique:
Execute

Lie down on the yoga mat

The arm will be sideward

Relax in this position for some time and


keep breathing normally.

Now inhale slowly and lift the both legs

Keep legs straight and should not be bent.

Raise the upper body to touch the legs with both hands.

Try to maintain the angle of 45 degrees.


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Hold

Hold the breath and the posture for 10-15 seconds.

You can increase the time of holding posture by practicing regularly.

Release

Breathe out and slowly let the body come to the ground.

Relax entire body.

Practice this posture three to five minutes.

Benefits

This is a very good way to relax the muscles and joints.

This posture results in removing compression in the stomach and hips and improves
health.

This posture is beneficial in waist pain and diabetes.

Digestive system improves and agitates the intestines and makes them active.

Precaution

Suffering from low or high blood pressure, hip joint pain, arthritis, severe headache,
migraine, hernia and ulcer patients should not practice naukasana.

Consult a doctor first before practicing any exercise and practice under expert
guidance.

Pregnant women should not practice this boat pose.

Avoid practices during periods, but if you are comfortable to practice then go ahead.

In certain cases, practicing this asana regularly can help and lessen back pain problems.

It even helps in improving the digestive system.

Precaution

This posture should be avoided in case of slipped disc or cervical spondylitis.

In cases of sciatica, guidance of an expert is a must.

This asana is mostly not recommended for those suffering from sciatica pain, slip disc
issues and spondilitis problems.

To standing position.
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CHAKRASANA (Bridge Pose):


Introduction
Chakrasana or the wheel pose is a backward bending yoga asana. Chakra in Sanskrit means
Wheel. In chakrasana, the final position looks like a wheel, hence the name. It gives great
flexibility to the spine.
Practice technique
Execute

Lie down on the back with hands on


the side.

Bend the knees and bring heels as


close to the buttocks as possible.

The heels should be about 1 foot


apart.

Now raise the hands and bring it back next to the ears.

Place the palms on the floor with the fingers pointing towards the shoulders.

Lift the body up with the support of the palms and the feet.

Rotate the head slightly, so that the gaze is towards the floor.

Stretch the thighs and shoulders.

In the final position the body looks like an arch, almost like a wheel.

Hold

Maintain this position, according to the capacity.


Release

To release the position, lower the body till it touches the ground.

Straighten the legs.

Hands can go back to the original position to the sides.

Benefits

Chakrasana strengthens the back and abdominal muscles.

It tones the organs in the abdomen including the digestive, excretory and reproductive
organs.

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Precaution

People who suffer from serious spinal column ailments, such as cervical and lumbar
spondylitis should avoid doing this pose.

It is best to do a counter pose, such as Matsyasana (Fish pose) after practicing


Chakrasana, to relieve any strain from the spine.

SHAVASANA (Corpse Pose):


Introduction
The
this
posture
and

asana is pronounced as Shuh-vah-sana


pose gets its name from the recumbent
of a dead body. It is a position of rest
relaxation, and is usually practiced
towards the end of a yoga session a
that typically begins with activity and
rest; a space or pause when deep
can take place.

session
ends in
healing

Practice technique
Execution

Spread the legs one to two feet apart,

The toes are turned outwards, the heels facing each other, a comfortable distance
apart. Bring the arms a little away from the body, palms turned upward.

Relax the neck and allow it to turn to the side if it is more comfortable.

Close the eyes and focus the attention on the body, breathing normally.

Hold

when come into proper posture of Shavasana


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Then do this posture for 1 minute and take breathing properly

dont stop breathing inhale and exhale at the time of holding.

Release

After performing 1 minute this asana then release this posture and come into initial
position slowly slowly.

Performing this asana 2 to 3 time during practise time.

Benefits

This has lots of benefits these are:-

Integrates the feeling of relaxation into the conscious and unconscious awareness.

Relaxation of entire nervous system, body and mind.

Relieves stress on the body and mind.

Precautions

Avoid going to sleep as this will prevent the decrease in nerve impulses as well as
the deep relaxation.

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Unit - 4
Bandhas

1.Mula Bandha
The word bandha has many meanings, some contradictory. For example, the word has been
translated as fetter, block, check, obstruct, restrain, lock. In this sense bandha is described as
the damming up of a river. But it also translates as bond, connect, put together, unite, combine,
join. In this sense bandha is described as bridging over a river. How are these dissimilar
meanings reconciled? If we examine the practice of mula bandha, perhaps the answer will reveal
itself.
Why Yogis Practice Mula Bandha
Mula bandha is stabilizing and calming. It also enhances the energy of concentration.

Mula bandha accompanies both pranayama and meditation, and it provides


continuity when breathing practices are completed and meditation begins.
Svatmarama, author of the authoritative Hatha Yoga Pradipika (Light on Hatha Yoga),
states: There is no doubt that by practicing mula bandha . . . total perfection is
attained. This is an impressive claim. But can it be taken seriously,

Mula Bandha Benefits:


The regular and proper practice of mula bandha bestows many benefits on physical, mental and
spiritual level. It makes apana vayu or the vital energy that is situated in the abdominal area to
flow upward and to meet with prana vayu (the energy circulating in the area between heart and
throat), which facilitates the Kundalini awakening.
It helps to maintain celibacy or Brahmacharya by sublimating the sexual energy, transferring it to
the higher chakras. It tones the uro-genital and excretory systems, as well as the intestinal
peristalsis. Asthma, bronchitis and arthritis can also be effectively addressed by this bandha.
On a spiritual lever there the realignment of the physical, mental and psychic bodies takes place. It
also helps to relieve frustration and depression.

Uddiyan Bandha:
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Uddiyana Bandha or the Abdominal Lock is one of the three main Bandhas or locks practised by
yogis. Uddiyana Bandha is described in the yogic texts Hatha Yoga Pradeepika, Gheranda
Samhita and the Siva Samhita. Uddiyana Bandha is said to activate the Manipuraka Chakra and
channels the pranic energy upwards.
Uddiyana Bandha is practiced by pulling the abdomen inwards after exhalation and holding the
breath outside. In this Bandha, the abdominal muscles presses the organs in the abdomen against
the wall behind the organ, next to the spinal column.
Uddiyana Bandha is to be practiced after the practice of asanas and pranayama and before
starting any meditation practices. The classical texts Gheranda Samhita and Hatha Yoga
Pradeepika classify Uddiyana Bandha under the section on mudras or the psychic gestures. Even
though Bandhas are technically not same as mudras, both are clubbed together as they induce a
certain channelling of energy in the body which is conducive for higher practices of dhyana and
Samadhi.Gheranda Samhita calls Uddiyana Bandha the lion that slays the elephant of death. It is
an important Bandha that aids in the achievement of liberation.Uddiyana Bandha should be
practiced after asanas and pranayama and before the practice of meditation. It may also be
practiced along with pranayama and mudras.Uddiyana bandha should be practiced after one
masters Moola Bandha and Jalandhara Bandha. Also, practicing agnisara kriya (the stomach lift)
can help toloosen up the abdominal muscles before taking up the practice of Uddiyana Bandha. It
should be done under the guidance of a teacher. Those suffering from blood pressure problems
should not do Uddiyana Bandha. Also those who suffer from heart diseases, ulcers of the stomach
and intestine should avoid Uddiyana Bandha. It should not be practiced during pregnancy.
Uddiyana Bandha can also be practiced during inverted asanas, but that needs guidance and
practice.

How to do Uddiyana Bandha (The Abdominal Lock)?


Sit in Padmasana or Siddhasana with the spine straight.
Place the palms on the knees, breathe normally and relax the whole body.
Inhale deeply and then exhale fully.
Hold the breath outside. Slightly bend the shoulders and lean forward.
Perform Jalandhara Bandha or the chin lock and press down the knees with the palm.
Contract the abdominal muscles
and pull it inside and
upwards. Feel as if there is a
suction from a point just
behind the sternum. This will
enable the abdomen to go
fully inside pressing all the
abdominal organs against
the back wall of the spine.
Hold the lock with the breath
outside for as long as you
are comfortable. One can start with
few seconds and then
gradually increase it to a minute
over a period of time.
Experts can hold the breath outside
for even two minutes or
more.
To release the lock, first release
the abdominal muscles.
Then bring the shoulders back to
normal position, release the
chin lock and inhale.

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Wait till the breathing process comes back to normal. This process can be repeated as many
times as you are comfortable.

Benefits of Uddiyana Bandha (The Abdominal Lock)


Uddiyana Bandha massages all the organs in the abdomen.It tones the adrenal glands and
balances its function.It improves digestion by increasing the digestive fire.It helps to remove
stress and tension.It improves the function of the liver and pancreas.In Uddiyana Bandha, the air
is held outside. The upward movement of the abdominalmuscles also massages the respiratory
system. Practicing of Bahir Kumbhaka (externalholding of breath) can systematically improve
the lung capacity.It also has effect on the heart and improves circulation of blood throughout the
body.Uddiyana Bandha activates the Manipuraka Chakra, the solar plexus and improves all
functions related to that nerve center.Uddiyana Bandha is practiced by yogis as a great tool for
liberation. Gheranda Samhita says that by doing the abdominal lock the great bird rises
upwards. Here the meaning of the great bird is the prana. Uddiyana bandha creates a kind of
suction that reverses the flow of apana. The pranic energy now moves upwards. Also by
performing Jalandhara Bandha(theChin Lock), the prana is blocked and made to move
downwards. Prana and Apana meet in the region of the solar plexus awakening the Solar plexus
and improving the function of all organs associated with it.Sage Gheranda says that Uddiyana
Bandha can lead to liberation. Uddiyana Bandha tries to push the pranic flow towards the
Sushumna nadi.Sushumna is associated with the central nervous system and hence enhances the
awareness which aids in higher practices of Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi.Uddiyana Bandha is
one of the main components of Maha Bandha or the great triple lock practiced by yogis.

Jalandhar Bandha;
Jalandhara Bandha or the Chin Lock is one of the three main Bandhas or locks practised by
yogis. Jalandhara Bandha is described in the yogic texts Hatha Yoga Pradeepika, Gheranda
Samhita and the Siva Samhita. Jalandhara Bandha is said to activate the Vishuddhi
Chakra.Jalandhara Bandha is practiced by bending the head forward and pressing the chin against
the throat in the gap between the collar bones. It tones the thyroid and para thyroid glands and
regulates the metabolism.Jalandhara Bandha should be practiced after the practice of asanas and
pranayama and before the practice of dhyana or meditation. In both the classical texts Gheranda
Samhita and Hatha Yoga Pradeepika, Jalandhara Bandha is classified under the section on mudras
or the psychic gestures. Even though Bandhas are technically not same as mudras, both are
clubbed together as they induce a certain channelling of energy in the body which is conducive
for higher practices of dhyana and Samadhi. Once it is mastered, it is done along with pranayama
and mudras and before the practice of meditation.

How to do Jalandhara Bandha (The Chin Lock)?


Assume the meditative pose like Padmasana or Siddhasana. Keep the spine straight.
Place the palms on the knees and make sure that the knees are firmly touching the floor.
Close your eyes and relax the body. Breathe normally.
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Now inhale slowly and deeply and then hold the breath.
Contract the throat muscles and bend the head forward so that the chin touched the chest. Adjust
the chin position so that it rests between the two collar bones in the pit of the throat.
Straighten the arms and press the knees down with the palms to create a kind of locked position.
The shoulders are slightly hunched forward to make sure the arms stay locked.
Hold this position for as long as you are comfortable. Remember the breath is held inside. Do not
strain or overdo the holding of breath. Beginners should hold the breath for just few seconds.
Later it can be increased to a minute
or more depending on your
capacity. Experienced yogis however,
can maintain the chin lock
for three minutes or more.
To release the lock bend the arms,
raise your head and exhale
out. Come back to the straight
position and take few
normal breaths.
Repeat the process as many times as
you feel comfortable.Once
you have mastered the Jalandhara
Bandha with breath held
inside, you can experiment with the
breath held outside. This
requires a little practice and should be
achieved slowly without
straining. Hold the breath outside for
just few seconds initially.
Later you may increase it to minute
depending on your capacity.
Experienced practitioners can even
hold the breath outside for
two minutes or more. But this has to
be done with caution. One
should not feel any suffocation while
holding the breath either
inside or outside. Release the lock
when you feel the slightest
discomfort and breathe normally. The duration of the practice should be increased very
gradually.Kumbhaka or holding of breath should not be practiced by those suffering from high
blood pressure. Hence they should not do the practice of Jalandhara Bandha. Also, those suffering
from cervical spondylitis and heart diseases should avoid Jalandhara Bandha. Stop the practice if
dizziness or vertigo is felt.The Gheranda Samhita says that the Jalandhara Bandha can be
perfected in a period of 6 months and that it gives psychic powers or siddhis to the practitioner.

Benefits of Jalandhara Bandha (The Chin Lock)


The Jalandhara Bandha effectively closes the air passage and blocks the flow of air. This is used in
the practice of Kumbhaka or holding of breath by yogic practitioners Jalandhara Bandha presses
against two important glands the thyroid and the para thyroid glands. These two glands regulate
the body metabolism.The throat region is the seat of the Vishuddhi Chakra. Jalandhara Bandha
helps to activate the throat chakra. When activated, it is said to give immortality. The Gheranda
Samhita says that Jalandhara Bandha gives victory over death. Here meaning of death is not the
death of the body. Rather it means that the yogi can control the physical changes that happen in the
body. It can mean that an anti-aging process is achieved by activation of the Vishuddhi Chakra.
This is the meaning of immortality in this context. It is also said that a fluid called Amrita or
nectar falls from a center in the brain called Bindu Visarga. This nectar falls through the throat and
gets burned at the Manipuraka Chakra. Yogis use the Jalandhara Bandha to prevent the nectar from
going down the throat, thereby attaining immortality.Jalandhara Bandha prevends the prana Shakti
from moving upwards. When practiced with moola bandha, it can create a lock of the prana
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(upward moving energy) and apana (downward moving energy) in the body. The two energies mix
and awakens the Navel Center or the Manipuraka Chakra.Jalandhara Bandha is one of the three
yogic locks that have to be mastered before attempting the Maha Bandha or the triple lock.

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Rao. R. (2015) Surya Namaskar Learn the right way to practice it) [Online] Available
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[Accessed 013 November,2015].

NDTV (2015) How to do Surya Namaskar: Steps and Benefits. .(by,Baba Ramdasai)
[Online] Available from:http://food.ndtv.com/health/the-ultimate-full-body-workout-suryanamaskar-769780.[Accessed 09November,2015].

Goel. A. (Date not given) Experiencing the All-round Benefits of the Sun Salutation Yoga
Pose (Surya Namaskar). [Online] Available
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Muruganandam. G. (2013) Yoga: What are the right techniques and benefits of doing
Surya Namaskar?[Online] Available from: https://www.quora.com/Yoga/What-are-theright-techniques-and-benefits-ofdoing-Surya-Namaskar [Accessed 11 November,2015].

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