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SureCheck Cessna 150

From Whitts Flying: whitts.alioth.net

Contents
Late Model C-150
Nose-wheel (Instructor)
C-150 flaps
Trim and the C-150
Basic Maneuvers
Climbing turns
Descents
Descending Turns
C-150 as a glider
Pre-crash
Consolation
Precision Slow-flight
No Flaps Slow-Flight
Exercise
Standards
C-150 Procedures
C-150 POH
Fuel Consumption
Fuel Gauges
Building a Checklist
Aircraft Basic Knowledge Sheet
Finger-Flow Checklist
Checklist Errors
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Landing Distances
Performance Synopsis
Landing the C-150
Rudder Jamming Problems
C-150 Glide

Late Model C-150


A 1975 C-150M flies essentially the same as do 152s. The horsepower difference between the Lycoming and
Continental is not really noticeable. The engine TBO is significant. Late model 150s are about the same as the 152
except for the different engine, 40 degrees of flap (150) vs 30 degrees maximum deflection on the 152, a different
flap switch and indicator, 14 volt vs 28 volt electrical system, and 22.5 vs 24.5 gallons of useable gas (same 26
gallon total). The 150M has the same rudder as the 152.
Nose-wheel (Instructor)
Conventional gear aircraft fly much the same as tricycle aircraft. It is the landings that require special instruction
and endorsement. This is because of the predilection to ground loop. Tricycle aircraft will align with the direction of
travel if weight is kept off the nose wheel. There is a significant design difference of the nose wheel between
Cessna and Piper. On the ground, Piper steers heavily and positively; Cessnas have springs that will gradually pull
the wheel into the turn. The left and right turning springs of the Cessna are usually of different tension. This means
that more differential toe braking will be required in one direction than in the other.
In the air, a Cessna nose wheel will hang down about a foot. This frees it from the socket that has the turning
springs. The Cessna nose wheel will face forward and not move with the rudder. In a cross-wind landing the
Cessna nose wheel is aligned with the direction of aircraft motion. The nose remains so aligned even in a crosscontrol landing. Again, the nose wheel should not be allowed to touch down during the initial landing but only
because it is not designed to with stand such shock. The turning springs of the Cessna will not function until the
nose wheel strut is sufficiently compressed. If you make a landing that seems to prevent steering except through
differential braking, apply the brakes to compress the nose strut. The nose wheel geometry of Piper aircraft is
completely different. (See nose-wheel landings and Piper)
The Cessna's nose steering is coupled to springs, and it's only movable 10 degrees) either side, unless differential
braking is used. Braking will then caster the wheel to 30 degrees.
C-150 flaps
The C-150 has slotted Fowler "barn doors" that, along with inadequate instruction, caused the C-152 to be
"improved (?)" with only 30 degrees of flap extension. Flap speeds should never be exceeded since they put
structural strain on the wings' rear spar. In most Cessna a 10-knot buffer below the high end of the white arc has
much to recommend it. Any parasitic drag caused by flaps increases as the square of the speed. In some cases 10
degrees of flap may be used for takeoff but they should be removed at a safe altitude to improve climb
performance.
C-150 flaps have evolved from the Piper like Johnson bar through various flap switches and indent levers. Be
careful, some switches work 'backwards'. The later models of the C-150 have electric flaps with indicators marked
in 10 degrees to 40 degrees. There is a flap-shaped switch, which applies power to an electric motor and a worm
gear to the flap-actuating rod. Extension takes about nine seconds and airstream assisted retraction takes about
five seconds. Any count system used to move flaps should be figured accordingly. The flap indicator works on a
cable + pulley system which has variations in accuracy. Different year models of the C-150 and all other models
have different modes of switch operation. Be sure to check method of operation before flight and during checkouts.

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A C-150 after landing with full flaps will be trimmed for level flight and will require 1 trim down for climb. The C-172
will be trimmed for climb and will require 1 trim+ for leveling off. Most Cessnas do not recommend flaps for short
field takeoff where Vx is required to get over an obstacle. Getting off the ground early will not help you get UP. The
C-150 can have an abrupt pitch up when full power is applied in a full flap configuration. This could result in a
departure type stall. The nose must be prevented from rising above the horizon by locking the elbow before
applying any power. See "Go Around.
Trim and the C-150
From cruise trim to best rate climb is one full trim down not be pinching but finger tip at very top to very bottom..
From cruise to 1500 rpm four finger tip trims down and then back to 2000 rpm gives no flap minimum controllable.
The same operation with only three trims down gives no flap slow flight at 60 knots. The same operation again but
leaving the power at 1500 gives a 60 kt descent. The transition from pattern slow flight to descent requires only a
reduction of power, easy.
Every 10 degrees of flap has a one to one relationship to a full finger tip turn of trim from the above configuration.
From the 60-kt 1500-RPM power glide an application of 10 degrees flap lowers the speed to 50 kts. A full finger tip
trim movement up returns the speed to 60 kts. 20 degrees does the same, as will 30/40 degrees. When doing this
process with a student for the first time be sure to bring to their attention that you are in a descent. Demonstrate
how the addition of power can stop at any given point. Descents are an early source of student anxiety as are
clouds, mountains, bumps, water, etc, etc.
A Cessna 150 has nearly the same trim setting for level cruise flight as is needed at 1500 RPM, full flaps and 60 kts
descent. Thus, the full flap short approach requires no change in trim unless power is off. This setting is constant
for nearly every loading. The instructor will help the student determine this initial setting. If the C-150 has been
landed with full flaps it will be near the correct setting for level cruise but not for takeoff climb. From this starting
point of the trim wheel the following apply:
1. For a takeoff climb at 65 kts, the C-150 trim wheel must be moved down one full finger tip turn from the full flap
landing/level cruise position.
2. To level off from this climb it must be moved up one full finger tip turn.
3. Three full down finger tip turns from level will give descent at 60 kts at 1500RPM.
4. Trim down four finger tip turns for a no flap glide at 60 kts with power off.
5. Trim full down four finger tip turns for minimum controllable without flaps. About 2000 RPM no flaps.
6. For full flap slow flight or minimum controllable trim up one finger tip turn. Full power.
7. Most Cessnas have one full finger tip turn of the trim between level and climb settings.
8. In each case fine trim movement may be required.
Removal of the flaps during the go-around finds you trimmed for level cruise. One full finger tip trim down will give
Vy climb at 65 knots. This same procedure can illustrate why, when making a short approach, reduction of power to
1500 and application of full flaps at the white arc will give you a hands-off approach speed of 60 knots.
Basic Maneuvers
Climbs are initiated by simultaneous power. Pitch change and right rudder. Always anticipate that power and pitch
will require right rudder so as to avoid those annoying 10-degree heading changes to the left. After initial pitch
change and trim application, adjust pitch and trim for desired climb airspeed or rate. A constant airspeed over
several thousand feet of climb will result in a gradually lower rate of climb. A constant rate climb in the same climb
will result in a gradual decrease in airspeed.
Climbing Turns require that you anticipate
1. More right rudder in right turns
2. Less right rudder in left turns.
3. Lower ias at same pitch variable with bank angle and power available.
4. Lower climb rate at same pitch variable with bank angle and power used.

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Leveling off is best done by leading the selected altitude by 10% of the climb rate. Anticipate additional climb by
trimming a full turn and hand-holding altitude during the acceleration phase before power reduction. Failure to
reduce power on reaching level cruise speed is guaranteed to give altitude and airspeed oscillations that are going
to be difficult to correct.
Descents during approach and cruise are nearly the same
1. Lower power and decrease pitch. Watch heading.
2. Expect ias to increase. Reduce power.
Descending turns.. anticipate
1. Higher bank angle will cause increase in descent rate at same airspeed.
2. Required left rudder to increase in left turns.
3. Less left rudder in turns to right.
4. Airspeed will increase at same pitch attitude.
5. Same airspeed and power increase will reduce descent rate.
C-150 as a glider without hope of restarting engine:
Immediately
1. Airspeed to best glide-near best rate climb
2. Below gross glides are 5 knots slower
3. Determine field and wind
4. Mixture out, fuel off
5. Magnetos off
6. Stop the prop
Pre-crash
1. Master off
2. Unlatch doors
3. Seats all the way back and locked
4. Tighten belts
5. Cover panel with padding
Consolation
1. Few controlled accidents result in fatalities (5.2%)
2. Panic will not solve anything
3. Upslope landing if possible
Precision Slow-flight C-150
Slow Flight--Any speed below normal cruise. Precision exists where you chose to place it. An airspeed 1.3
of power off, flaps up stall speed is one such speed used for landing approaches. Where the POH states a
range of speeds, you should always practice at the lower number. Select a speed above and below the
POH speeds for approach and practice maneuvers at these speeds. Excess speed is very common on
landings. Trim is the basic control of flying precision. Any change in power, speed, or configuration requires
a trim adjustment. As a student you should strive for certain standards. 10-degrees of heading, 10-knots of
airspeed, and 100-feet of altitude, as a pilot you should maintain 5, 5, and 50, and as a precision flyer you
should reach 2, 2, and 20. The more you practice changing through the range of slow-flight speeds the
better you will be able to anticipate the trim changes and power setting required. The sound and feel of the
aircraft are a good indicators to notice and learn.
No flap slow-flight
Clearing turns
Carburetor heat
Power to 1500
Use yoke to prevent any sink during deceleration
Set power to 2000
Trim four finger tip turns for minimum-controllable at 45 knots.
Trim three finger tip turns for slow flight at 55 knots.
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Fine trim for airspeed


100 rpm gives one-knot airspeed change
Retrim for all power airspeed changes.
Exercise:
1. Select a level altitude slow-flight speed of 60-knots
2. Set power and finger tip trim for hands-off flight
3. Add 10-degrees flaps. Help plane stabilize at 50 knots with yoke.
4. Power stays, finger tip trim one full turn up for hands-off at 60-knots.
5. Go to 20-degrees flaps.
6. Power increased, finger tip trim one full turn up for hands-off at initial speed
7. Go to 30-degrees flaps
8. Power and trim for hands-off initial speed if possible.
9. Reverse process in 10-degree increments.
Standards:
50-5-and 5
You should tape record how much power and trim is used in each change. Make a record for reference.
Note that each addition of power will require additional right rudder at the same time.
The following are designed as a talk/think through series of steps specific for the basic maneuvers of a C150. Very slight variations are required for the C-152, C-172, and other Cessna models. When you go on a
practice flight make a copy of several of these procedures and take them with you for review. An unplanned
practice session wastes money. An explanation for certain specifics is included.
C-150 Procedures
TAKEOFF/CLIMBS ...........LEVEL CRUISE #1 ..............LEVEL CRUISE #2
Plane is trimmed ..........From normal climb ......From normal climb
for cruise or has........... LEVEL WINGTIP ................CLIMB 100' HIGH
landed full-flaps. ..........HOLD NOSE LEVEL ...........DIVE TO ALTITUDE
CLIMB ATTITUDE ...........1 FULL TRIM UP .................1 1/4 TRIM UP
FULL POWER..................... ACCELERATE .....................REDUCE TO 2550
1 FULL TRIM DOWN ........2450 RPM ..............................FINE TRIM
RIGHT RUDDER REQD. ....FINE TRIM ...........................2450 RPM
FINE TRIM 65KTS........................................................... Takes 20 seconds
CLIMBING LEFT TURNS ..............CLIMBING RIGHT TURNS.................. LEVEL TURNS
"clear left" ............................"clear right" ................................."clear r-l"
LITTLE/NO RUDDER.................... LEAD R-RUDDER.................................. LEAD R-RUDDER TO RIGHT
YOKE-SLIGHT FWD. ....................YOKE-SLIGHT FWD .............................30 DEGREE BANK
30 DEGREE BANK......................... 30 DEGREE BANK ..................................LEAD R-RUDDER FROM
LEFT
ONE FINGER ...................................ONE FINGER ..........................................30 DEGREE BANKS
BACK PRESSURE 65KTS............. BACK PRESSURE 65KTS...................... LT BACK YOKE/CRUISE
LEAD +15 DEGREES ......................LEAD +15 DEGREES ...............................LEAD + 15 DEGREES
R-RUDDER/LEVEL ........................RELAX R-RUDDER/LEVEL ....................YOKE-RELAX/CRUISE
YOKE FWD. 65KTS ......................YOKE-SLIGHT FWD. 65KTS ..................LITTLE/NO RUDDER
R-RUDDER AS REQ. .....................R-RUDDER AS REQUIRED
60 KT DESCENT ...........................60 KT DESCENT W/FLAPS .....................TURNS IN DESCENT
From cruise........................ From 60 kt descent ........................LEAD R-RUD. TO RIGHT
CARB HEAT................................. 4 COUNT FLAPS-10 DEG. .........................LEAD R-RUDDER FROM
LEFT
1500 RPM .......................................ANTICIPATE w/ FWD YOKE ..................HEAVY RUDDER REQD.
HOLD HDG. & ALT..................... HOLD HEADING ........................................AS FLAPS ADDED
3 FULL TRIM DOWN .................1 FULL TRIM UP .........................................GREATER FWD/BACK YOKE
FINE TRIM 60 KTS...................... FINE TRIM 60 KTS REQD.
w/MORE FLAPS
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REPEAT FOR EACH 4 COUNT TO HOLD AIRSPEED


ANTICIPATE W/FWD YOKE
NO FLAP SLOW FLIGHT ..............RT SLOW FLIGHT TURNS ...............LFT SLOW FLIGHT TURNS
CARB HEAT..............................."clear right" .............................."clear left"
1500 RPM ..........................................LEAD R-RUDDER............................... L-AILERON/LT R-RUDDER
HOLD HDG. & ALT........................ BK PRESSURE/+POWER................... BK PRESSURE/+POWER
4-TO FULL TRIM DOWN ..............LEFT AILERON ...................................10-30 DEGREE BANK
2000 RPM .........................................10-30 DEG. BANK ................................1/2 ANGLE RECOVERY
R-RUDDER .......................................1/2 ANGLE RECOVERY ......................LEAD R-RUDDER
50 KT TO MIN.CONTROL............. L-AILERON TO LEVEL ......................AILERON TO LEVEL
RELAX R-RUDDER......................... POWER TO HOLD ALT.
POWER TO HOLD ALT.
Can lead to cross-control stall
NO FLAP RECOVERIES
FULL POWER
R-RUDDER
LOWER/HOLD NOSE
REMOVE TRIM
HOLD HEADING & ALT.
SPIN RECOVERY
POWER OFF
DIRECTION OF SPIN
FLAPS UP
OPPOSITE RUDDER (TURN COORDINATOR GIVES SPIN DIRECTION.)
YOKE FORWARD
GENTLE RECOVERY
LEVEL/CLIMB
FAA REQUIRES SPIN KNOWLEDGE BUT NOT PERFORMANCE
UNIVERSAL SPIN RECOVERY
POWER TO IDLE, FLAPS UP, TRIM NEUTRAL, LET GO OF EVERYTHING.
FF-SLOW FLIGHT................ F-F SLOW FLIGHT R TURNS .................F-F SLOW FLIGHT L TURNS
CARB HEAT.......................... "clear right" .................................................."clear left"
1500 RPM ...............................LEAD HEAVY R-RUDDER .......................LEAD LEFT AILERON
WHITE ARC/F-F ...................LEFT AILERON FOR BANK ....................R-RUDDER NO OVERBANK
YOKE FWD THEN BK ........10-30 DEGREE BANK ................................10-30 DEGREE BANK
HOLD HDG. & ALT. ............+POWER REQ.FOR ALT. ..........................+POWER REQ. FOR ALT.
FULL PWR/R-RUDDER .......1/2 ANGLE RECOVERY ............................1/2 ANGLE RECOVERY
1 FULL TRIM UP .................+L-AILERON TO LEVEL ........................... LEAD R-RUDDER
40 KTS MIN. CONTRL........ RELAX R-RUDDER ....................................LEVEL w/AILERON
+-POWER FOR ALTITUDE
FINE TRIM
F-F SLOW FLIGHT RECOVERY......................... 45 DEGREE STEEP TURNS
FULL POWER ..........................................Begin from level cruise
R-RUDDER LEAD.................................................HEAVY R-L RUDDER
MILK FLAPS TO 20 DEGR. ................................QUICKLY TO 45 DEGREE BANK
HOLD ALT. & ACCELERATE ...........................BACK PRESSURE TO HOLD NOSE
CLIMB SPEED-FLAPS UP ..................................LOCK ELBOW TO HOLD YOKE
1 FULL TRIM DOWN ..........................................LOCK HORIZON/NOSE POSITION
CLIMB OR LEVEL CRUISE................................. NOISE & VSI BEST CUES FINE TRIM
.................................................................................2 FULL TRIM DOWN OPTIONAL
................................................................................+-POWER WAKE TURBULENCE 2ND 360
.................................................................................IF WAKE TURB, BACK PRESSURE/DECREASE BANK
During the proficiency phase + 5 DEGREES OF BANK if training all slow flight + 50' ALTITUDE should be
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transitional into minimum controllable and back STEEP TURN RECOVERY to slow flight as a training 22
1/2 DEGREES EARLY
exercise in holding altitudes SHARP FORWARD YOKE and headings. CENTER BALL ...TRIM IF
REQUIRED
..........+ 10 DEGREES OF HEADING
POWER-OFF STALL ....................POWER-ON STALL .........................DEPARTURE STALL
CLEARING TURNS ......................CLEARING TURNS ..........................CLEARING TURNS
CARB HEAT ..................................CARB HEAT .....................................CARB HEAT
PWR TO OFF .................................PWR TO 1500.................................... PWR TO 1500 HOLD
HOLD HDG. & ALT. .....................HOLD HDG. & ALT.......................... HOLD HDG. & ALT.
R-RUDDER AS REQD. .................R-RUDDER AS REQD .......................R-RUDDER AS REQD.
BUFFET OR STALL .....................SLOW TO 55 KTS ..............................SLOW TO 55 KTS
YOKE RELAX FWARD ...............PWR UP 2000/FULL ...........................PWR UP 2000/FULL
NOSE TO/BLOW HORIZON .......R-RUDDER .........................................20 DEGREES-CENTER BALL
LEVEL WINGS ..............................BUFFET OR STALL ...........................BUFFET OR STALL FULL
POWER-CLIMB 65 KTS ..............YOKE FORWARD ........ ....................YOKE FORWARD
R-RUDDER/HOLD HDG. .............NOSE TO/BLOW HORIZON............ NOSE TO/BELOW HORIZON
LEVEL WINGS ............................. LEVEL WINGS ............................The power-on/departure Stalls
F-POWER-CLIMB 65K ................F-POWER-CLIMB 65K .................should be with full power
R-RUDDER TO HOLD HDG. .......R-RUDDER TO HOLD HDG. .........during the proficiency phase
DUTCH ROLLS IN A CLIMB
YOU ARE ALREADY HOLDING RIGHT RUDDER.
PICK A POINT OR A HEADING
BANKS MUST BE THE SAME TO EACH SIDE
TAP LEFT RUDDER
START TO BANK TO LEFT OF 10, 20 OR 30 DEGREES
USE RIGHT RUDDER BEFORE NOSE CAN MOVE
REVERSE DIRECTION OF BANK
RELAX RIGHT RUDDER BEFORE NOSE MOVES RIGHT
TAP LEFT RUDDER AND USE LEFT AILERON
START BANKING LEFT
10-30 DEGREE BANK
R-RUDDER BEFORE NOSE MOVES LEFT ..........Pilots usually take two lessons
BEFORE NOSE MOVES L ................................Students take five lessons.
KEEP BANK CHANGING................................ This is a required skill for crosswind
HOLD R-RUDDER...........................................landings.
RELAX R-RUDDER
APPROACH STALL ...............ACCELERATED STALL...................... FULL FLAP GO AROUND
CLEARING TURN ................ ..CLEARING TURNS.............................. FULL POWER
CARB HEAT ...................... ....45 DEGREE STEEP TURN .....................HOLD NOSE LEVEL
PWR TO 1500 ................... ......CARB HEAT/YOKE BACK ..................R-RUDDER-HOLD HDG.
HOLD HDG. & ALT. ...............REDUCE PWR/YOKE ..........................BACK FLAPS UP 20
WHITE ARC ............................REDUCE PWR/YOKE BACK.............. MILK BELOW 50KTS
FULL FLAPS ...........................REDUCE PWR/YOKE BACK ..............60-65 KTS
HOLD HDG. & ALT............... PWR OFF/YOKE FULL BACK ...........FLAPS UP
20 DEGREE L-R BANK ..........IF ANY LOSS OF ALT. CLIMB
HOLD ALTITUDE ..................START OVER R-RUDDER-HOLD HDG.
BUFFET OR STALL............... BUFFET OR STALL
YOKE FORWARD ..................USE AILERONS TO LEVEL
LEVEL WINGS ........................FULL POWER
FULL POWER .........................R-RUDDER TO HOLD HDG.
FLAPS UP TO 20 DEGREES .(Not FAA required)
CLIMB SPEED 60-65 KTS
FLAPS UP
CLIMB 65 KTS
R-RUDDER TO HOLD HDG.
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EMERGENCY CHECKLIST
CHECKLIST PRE-CRASH
BEST GLIDE 60 KTS BELTS/HARNESS
HOLD NOSE UP FUEL OFF
3-4 DOWN TRIM CRACK DOORS
FIELD AND WIND ELECTRIC OFF
RE-START(Guages,Fuel,Mixture,Magnetos)
121.5/7700
MAYDAY ETC X3
FLAPS WHEN CERTAIN
FULL STALL LANDING
Side Notes:
Pilots do not usually have the best-glide numbers available. A short cut is just to trim the aircraft full noseup without flaps and go for the ride. You can gain more distance if you decelerate slowly. Once fully
trimmed, fly with just rudder.
....................SOFT FIELD PROCEDURES .......................SHORT FIELD PROCEDURES
TAKEOFF.......................... LANDING ... ...........................TAKEOFF .......................LANDING
10 DEGREE FLAPS......... ..60 KTS/1500 RPM ..................ROLLING or ....................FINAL 55KTS
YOKE WELL BACK......... FULL FLAPS........................... LOCKED BRAKE........... FULL FLAPS
KEEP IT ROLLING ...........FLARE LEVEL......................... 60K FULL POWER .........1500 RPM
RWY HDG/F-POWER..... REDUCE POWER-OFF.......... HOLD LEVEL ....................AIM SHORT
RAISE NOSE-MORE....... ROTATE 50-55........................ ROTATE SHARP
MAX.ANGLE LIFTOFF...R-RUDDER-HDG.................... HOLD OFF W/YOKE.
CLIMB 60 KTS ................ POWER BACK
CLOSE TO GRND. ...........PWR 1300 RPM .................,......10 COUNT for 50' .............BRAKES ON
LOWER NOSE,.................NOSE HIGH ...............................CLIMB 65 KTS .................FLAPS UP
60-65 KTS CLIMB........... MAIN GEAR ONLY
200' FLAPS UP................. FLAPS UP
CLIMB 65 KTS ................HOLD YOKE BACKKKKK
TRIM
...............................................................................................GO AROUND #2
GO AROUND #1.................................................................. AIRSPEED BELOW 60 KTS
SPEED 60 KTS UP ................................................................FULL POWER/CH OFF
FULL POWER/CH OFF .......................................................LOCK ELBOW ON DOOR
FLAPS UP ............................................................................ MILK FLAPS UP 20 DEGREES
CLIMB ATTITUDE .............................................................HOLD LEVEL/ACCELERATE
R RUDDER/TRIM ................................................................AT 60 KTS CLIMB
LOCK ELBOW ON DOOR ..................................................R RUDDER/TRIM
SHORT APPROACH .......................................SHORT-SHORT APPROACH
Abeam numbers ................................Abeam numbers
C.H./1500 RPM.................................................. C. H. POWER OFF
FULL FLAPS .....................................................FULL FLAPS
Fine trim 60 kts.................................. IMMEDIATE TURN TO BASE
BASE TURN 45 DEGREES ......................Fine trim for 55 kts
C-150 POH
1976 Cessna 150 Required Information
Conditions are standard, and weight at gross unless otherwise stated.
Maximum Range and endurance with 45 minute reserve
@ 7000' 340 NM for 3.3 hours Clean stall 48 KIAS
Sea level climb 670 fpm .......Flap stall 42 KIAS
Service ceiling 14,000'
Service ceiling is the maximum altitude at which an aircraft can continue to climb 100 fpm. The safety
margin between the highest terrain and the service ceiling should be at least 5000'.
Absolute ceiling is the maximum altitude an aircraft can attain. At this point the cruise speed, best climb
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speed and stall speed all equalize. The aircraft becomes unstable and controls are unable to stabilize
flight.
T.O. S.L. Ground Roll 735 Fuel 26 total 22.5 useful
......Over 50' 1385 Oil maximum 7 with filter
Landing Ground roll 445 6 maximum indicated
.....Over 50' 1075 4 minimum indicated
Maximum Gross Weight 1600 lbs
Wing Span 32? Prop length 69"
Wing Loading 10.0 lbs per squat. ft.
Power Loading 16.0 lbs per horsepower
Va (Maneuvering speed) 97 KIAS @ 1600lb 88 KIAS @ 1300 lb.
Vfe 85 KIAS
Vno Structural cruise speed 107 KIAS
Vne 141 KIAS
Vs Minimum controllable
Vso Minimum controllable (with forward C. G.)
Vx best angle 56 all altitudes
Vy best rate S. L. 68 to 62 @ 10,000'
White arc 42 to 85
Green arc 47 to 107
Yellow arc 107 to 141
The bottom of the yellow arc represents the airspeed where the airframe can sustain a specific design gust
without exceeding the limit load. This means the plane will not fold, spindle or mutilate if the gust is less
than the maximum design gust of 50 feet per second (30 on older planes).
Red line @ 141 KIAS
Chandelles, lazy-eights, steep turns and spin entries 95 Kts. Spins are prohibited with flaps down.
The red panel light on the far right indicates high or low voltage. The split switches can act as a circuit
breaker to protect the system Reset by operating switches off and back on. Do this only one time.
Maximum glide speed is 60 KIAS and windmilling prop
What if prop is stopped?
Power off landings: Without flaps @ 65 KIAS
With flaps @ 55 KIAS
Ground fire procedures?
Electrical fire procedures?
Glide range (no wind) at 60 KIAS
@6000' 8 NM
@3000' 4.5 NM
Altitude required to execute power off 180 degree turn.
Altitude required to execute power off 240 degree turn.
Carburetor Ice as affected by application/removal of carb heat.
Short field approach speed with 40 degrees of flaps is 52 KIAS
Maximum crosswind component is 13 Knots.
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Figure fuel remaining in C-150 for flight from CCR to RNO.


What is the maximum weight authorized for the luggage compartment.
At gross weight the allowed C.G. travel is only five inches.
Fuel Consumption
Fuel consumption will vary widely from those of the aircraft manual. Cessna 150's have been known to consume
up to 9 gallons per hour. A PA-28 180 can be out of fuel in 3 1/2 hours, from full tanks, if the carburetor is out of
adjustment. Failure to know the current, as loaded, fuel consumption is just as dangerous as not checking the
tanks in the first place. The psychological readiness of a pilot is in a large part made up of his intellectual
awareness of aircraft and his own capabilities. Be on the ground after three hours.
For a Cessna 150, with a 100HP Continental O-200.
Climb. 100/10 = 10 gallons per hour. Leaned 8.3
Cruise 75/10 = 7.5 gallons per hour. Leaned 6.3
Descent 50/10 = 5 gallons per hour. Leaned 4.0

Fuel Gauges
By FAR the fuel gauges are required to read accurately only when the tanks are completely full OR empty.
When the gauge reads at the quarter full marker on both tanks the manufacturer says there are only three
gallons of fuel left. At best this is about 20 minutes worth.
Building a Checklist
The AFM checklists are skimpy without radio procedures and settings. Just as we update the weight and
balance forms so should the checklist be updated to account for changes of procedure and addition of
switches
and instruments in the cockpit.
Single pilots are most prone not to use checklists in familiar airplanes. Pilots are likely to use the checklist
when things are easy. A distraction is the most likely reason for a pilot to neglect using the checklist. When
there is too much to do and too little time to do it. A checklist that is unavailable, too long, and inefficient is
the one most likely never to be used.
The single pilot should develop a flow pattern which is more organized than is the 'reading the checklist'
method. The flow is a planned series of actions that begins at one point and proceeds through a preselected number of items to the last point. The number of items should never exceed the fingers on both
hands and ideally uses only one hand. The flow and numbering insures that everything is done in an
efficient manner. The items and flow are aircraft specific.
Aircraft Basic Knowledge Sheet
Dimensions: Height_____ Length_____Wingspan_____ Propeller_____Tires_____
Full fuel_____Grade_____POH endurance______TRUE endurance_____
Oil type_____Maximum_____Minimum______
Cockpit l switches, knobs, lights and sounds:
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
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Gross weight _____Empty weight_____Full Fuel weight_____Cockpit load available_____CG Range_______


Speeds: Va_____Vx____Vy____Vfe____ Vne____Vno____Vg____
Gross aircraft performance parameters in standard conditions:
Normal-Speed____
S.L. takeoff_____Over obstacle_____ Landing______ Over obstacle______Configuration ______________
Procedures__________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
_
Short field-Speed____ Takeoff___Over obstacle ___Landing_____Over obstacle______Configuration_________
Soft field-Speed____ Takeoff___ Over obstacle___Landing_____Over bstacle______Configuration__________
Density Altitude Performance at Gross
Conditions: Level Cruise a 65% power, 7500' Standard Temperature.
True air speed______Fuel used____per hour
Takeoff at Gross Weight, 5000' 100 F, over obstacle Ground run______Rate of Climb_____ Total distance to 50'
Finger-flow checklist:
1. Every required item must be included along with a finger.
2. Flows are best during the 'busy' times.
3. Flows should be segmented for areas of flight.
4. Flows should be logical and items should be touched.
5. Flow should be verbalized (Say aloud what you are doing)
6. A flow checklist is not for the infrequent flyer.
7. A flow checklist is not a substitute for a written checklist.
The transition to a higher performance aircraft will bring into the situation the good, bad, and ugly habits
that have been learned while in training. Essential to any transition is use of trim, throttle, and airspeed
control.
The POH checklist is designed to remind the pilot of the minimums required for safe operation. It is a
memory aid used to overcome short-term memory loss. The checklist places in order a number of actions
or procedures that require action or verification. A checklist is not a "how-to" manual. A checklist is a
roadmap of what is to be checked.
A checklist has items ranked in importance. Critical items affect safety, non-critical items affect efficiency
and convenience. A checklist title for a given phase of flight would identify when the critical items are to be
checked, list them in an orderly sequence, and provide for verification. This touch and verify method is
recommended by the FAA for single pilot operations. The non-critical item list should be triggered by the
completion of the last critical item.
Checklists should be done when they will least cause flying problems. A heads-up positioning of the list is
best. The closer you are to making the landing approach the less likely will be the completion of a checklist.

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I suggest checklist "triggers" such as being established on an assigned particular heading, on the 45 entry,
at pattern altitude, etc. to help you decide "When". The initiation of a checklist should be keyed to a specific
event common to your flying.
Most important that you develop habit of use unless you plan to limit your operations to most simple of
aircraft. Using the POH you should develop your own checklist to fit your method of operation. You should
no more use someone else's checklist than wear their shoes. I have found several ideas convenient.
--Since preflight is longest make it on a 3x8 card hung around the neck. Use backside for emergency
checklist in red.
--3X5 card with pre-takeoff ground lists on one side and post-landing ground operation on the other.
--Use different colors of ink for different but similar aircraft. Use different colors of ink for preflight, ground
operations and air operations.
--Flight operations card with climb, cruise, and checkpoint
--..Lists on one side and descent, pre-landing, and landing on the other.
--Make yoke clip using broom clip and wide notebook clip. Bolt them together using four nuts to prevent
movement.
--To make your own checklist use a tape recorder to record everything you do for a given operation. Use
recording to make a rough draft. Cross-check your draft to include every item from the POH.
I have found that it takes up to five revisons before a list should
be considered suitable for lamination. (See checklist)
Checklist errors are of at least five types.
1. The list is ignored
2. A critical item is omitted
3. Verification is falsely noted
4. Use of the list is delayed
5. The list is not completed
Once you have developed a complete checklist, you should begin to refine and systematize the material
over and over. The list of items should be shortened, combined, and revised until it actually fits into your
flying as something you usually do, in the order you do it, and when you do it.
The emergency checklist should be a memorized for immediate action. Do what you need to do and then
use the list to verify that nothing has been omitted. An inaccessible emergency checklist is useless.
Sample recommendations:
1. Use laser or jet printer if possible
2. Extended text should be in lower case.
3. Limit to 2 types of font for emphasis
4. Use black on white except for emergency
5. Avoid multi-colors except for different aircraft types
6. Laminate (after fifth revision) with non-glare plastic
7. Print size should vary with age of pilot.
Short field landing distances
C-150 Take Off 735' /50' 1385 Landing Distance 445 /50' 1075
C-172 Take Off 945 /50' 1685 Landing Distance 550 /50' 1295

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C-182 Take Off 795 /50' 1625 Landing Distance 545 /50' 1285
An airplane should not be expected to get out of a space where it has landed.
Performance Synopsis
Cessna-back of front cover:
Weight, speed, range, climb.
Service Ceiling, take-off, landing, stall
Empty weight, useful
Fuel, oil, propeller, engine
OPERATION:
Checklists
Preflight to post-shutdown
Fuel system-cautions/operation
Electrical system-cautions/operation
Gear system-cautions/operation
Engine system-cautions/leaning/operation
PERFORMANCE:
Take-off/landings/flap settings/gear
Climb/cruise/cold/hot
C-150 Take Off 735' /50' 1385 Landing Distance 445 /50' 1075
EMERGENCY:
Engine/fire/electrical/gear
LIMITATIONS:
Gross/load factors/speeds/engine
Weight-balance chart/graph
OPERATIONAL DATA:
Airspeed corrections
Stall speeds
Takeoff/climb/landing charts
Cruise/glide
1. Don't try to climb to 9,500 in a C-150 unless you must. A C-150 flight to Las Vegas can be a 12 hour
roundtrip regardless of wind direction.
2. Select an altitude appropriate to the distance. Avoid 3000'. Remember local flights tend to stay below
3000. No need to go high for short distances. Most pilots tend to fly at even 500s even below 3000.
Choose a unique altitude so as to avoid traffic. Above 3000 AGL you must fly according to the hemispheric
rule. Fly at 7,500 or 8,500 to minimize traffic conflicts but be aware when you cross, parallel or fly airways.
Be sure to check with FSS prior to flight or with Flight Watch if your flight will cross military training routes.
3. Choose an altitude appropriate to the terrain and airports. This means that route selection may be
predicated on several factors.
4. Select an altitude appropriate to the winds. Winds usually increase in velocity with altitude. Plan
accordingly.
1. Select an altitude with reference to special airspace restrictions, local hazards and cloud layers. (It is more
likely to be a rough flight below clouds.)

LANDING (C-150)
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Prelanding check(Go-around procedure)


Abeam the numbers:
Cruise power/IAS
Carb Heat
Pwr 1500/1700
Hold heading/alt
Trim Down 3
Fly 60/70
10 degree flaps 1-2-3-4Yoke forward
Trim UP 1
Fly 60/70
Pwr 1500
Clear
Turn base
20 degrees 1-2-3-4
Yoke forward
Trim UP 1
Fly 60/70
Pwr 1500
Clear
Turn final
Full flaps 1-2-3-4-5-6Yoke more forward
Trim up l (172 no change)
Fly 60/60
If any weakness in the skills required for landings is detected by the instructor they must be retaught. Basic skills
must be practiced and mastered now, before we get into landings. I look for such things as use of trim, airspeed
control, traffic awareness, coordination, area orientation, personal attitude, application of power and flaps. Landing
requires application of every skill taught and learned to this point. One advantage of practice at neighboring airports
is that any basic deficiencies can be re-taught and practiced while returning home.
During the landing training period the following situation is likely to occur. If it doesn't, it is important that the
instructor create it. Set up the situation where you slow to 55 knots. Do this both with and without flaps. Fly close in
downwind to show effect of a short base. Make a downwind landing. Have the student remove flaps while holding a
constant airspeed.
Rudder Jamming Problems
According to the FAA, a CFI and Student were killed when they were unable to recover from a training spin due to
rudder horn jamming. During a 50-hour check the day before the accident, the right pedal rudder bar return spring
and its lever arm were found to be broken on the accident airplane.
These broken pieces of the rudder control system were removed without replacement. On completion of the 50hour checks, the airplane was returned to service with no reference to the outstanding defect, recorded in the
logbook. On the surface this accident would appear to be more a result of the missing prts than a design defect, but
the FAA believes it is possible for similar jams to occur, even when the rudder control assembly is complete and
intact. We have been unable to verify the specifics of this accident as the details do not appear in the NTSB record.
According to the Cessna Pilots Association, the accident in question occured in 1998, leaving us wondering why it
has taken until 2000 to issue an alert.
C-150 Glide
Weight has no effect on best glide ratio. However, the speed to be used will vary by weight. The lighter the aircraft
the slower the best glide speed. For every 10% of weight reduction, reduce the glide speed by 5%. Ground speed
should be increased by at least 1/3 of any headwind to improve penetration distance. When distance is unimportant
you should glide at a minimum sink speed. 50 mph will give a sink rate of only 600-fpm. You will get an additional
twenty seconds in the air for every thousand feet of altitude.

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From 12,000' a C-150's 70 mph indicated is only 84 true air speed. Power off sink rate is 870 fpm reducing to 725
at sea level. Another 20% of glide distance can be obtained by pulling into a near stall and stopping the propeller.
To restart the propeller without using the battery will take a dive speed in excess of 120 mph. I have done this.

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