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HEAT TRANSFER LABORATORY MANUAL

2015-2016

Department of Chemical Engineering

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, WARANGAL

List of Experiments
Cycle - I
1. Electrical Analogue for Steady State Two-Dimensional Heat
Conduction
2. Heat Transfer through Composite Wall
3. Thermal Conductivity of Metal Rod
4. Natural Convection from a Heated Vertical Cylinder
5. Heat Conduction in Thin Rod
6. Heat Transfer by Natural Convection and Radiation
Cycle - II
7. Pin-Fin Apparatus
8. Stefan Boltzmann Law
9. Emissivity Measurement Apparatus
10. Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
11. Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger

Experiment No. 1
2

ELECTRICAL ANALOGUE FOR STEADY STATE

TWO-DIMENSIONAL HEAT CONDUCTION
Aim:
1. To study the analogy between heat flow and current flow (resistance concept).
2. To draw isotherms for an L-shaped insulator from electrical analogue.

Procedure:
1. Switch on the power supply (adaptor 6V).
2. Touch the free terminal at different nodes on the grid to measure the voltage.

Observations:
Note down voltage at each node on a graph sheet.

Calculations:

Outer wall (100C)

Inner wall (1000C)

1. Average voltage on inner wall = Vmax volts =

volts.
2. Average voltage on out wall = Vmin volts = 0 volts.
3. Temperature at each node by analogy is given by
Vn

T
=10
0
C+
900
n
4.
V max
Or exactly
V max V m 900
V V
T n=10 0 C+ n min
5. Calculate temperature of every node using (4a) or (4b).
6. Plot the temperatures on a grid similar to voltages as in observations on a graph
sheet.
7. Draw isotherms (lines connecting nodes of same temperature) on the same grid.
4

Result:
1. The analogy between steady state heat conduction and current flow across
resistances is verified / studied.
2. Isothermal lines are obtained for an L-shaped insulator.

Experiment No. 2

Aim:

consisting of mild steel, bakelite and press wood.

To plot temperature profile along composite wall structure.

Procedure :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

See that the dimmerstat pointer points at zero.

Switch on the main switch of control panel.
Increase slowly the input to heater by the dimmerstat starting from zero volts position.
Adjust input equal to 60-80 Volts Max. by voltmeter.
See that this input remains constant throughout the experiment.
Wait till fairly steady state condition is reached. This can be checked by reading and

noting down the temperatures of thermocouples (1) to (8) for every 10 min.
7. Note down the readings in the observations table.

Observations:
1. Voltmeter reading (V) = volts
2. Ammeter reading (I)

= Amps.

3. Heater input (V )

watts
= 0.3 m

5. Thickness of each slab = 0.012 m

Tabular column
Thermocouple
No
Temperature(oC)

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

Calculations:
1. Power input to the heater(q) watts
Q=VI
2. Mean temperature Readings (oC)
TA=

T 1+T 2
(oC) (Heater )
2

TB=

TC=

T 3+T 4
(oC) (M . S)
2

T 5+ T 6
(oC) (Bakelite)
2

TD=

T 7+T 8
(oC) (P . wood)
2

3. Heat flux(W/m2)
q=

Q
A

Where,
Q = (Power input to the heater in W) / 2
A= d2 /4(d = Half Dia. of plates = 0.15m)
4. Total thermal resistance of composite slab (R total)(m2 C/W)

Rtotal=

TATD
Q

(m2 C/W)

5. Thermal conductivity of composite slab (K compositr)(W/mC)

K composite =

Qxb
o
TATD (W/m C)

Where,
b = thickness of the slab =0.036m

Results:
1. Total thermal resistance to found out to be ______
2. Thermal conductivity of slab to found out to be______
3. To plot thickness of slab material against temperatures

Experiment No. 3
7

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METAL ROD

Aim : To determine the thermal conductivity of given metal bar.
Experimental Procedure:
Starting:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Fill the tank with water

Connect outlet of the cooling chamber to drain
Ensure that all ON/OFF switches given on the panel are at OFF position.
Ensure that variac knob is at ZERO position, given on the panel.
Now switch on main power supply (220 V AC, 50Hz)
Switch on the panel with the help of mains ON/OFF switch given on the panel.
Switch ON the pump and start water supply at constant rate with the help of

rotameter.
8. Fix the power input to the heater with the help of variac, voltmeter and ammeter
provided.
9. After 30 minutes start recording the temperature of various points at each 5 minutes
interval.
10. If temperature readings are same for two-three times, assure that steady state is
achieved.
11. Record the final temperature and water flow rate from rotameter.

Closing:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

When experiment is over, switch off heater first.

Adjust variac at Zero.
Switch off the panel with the help of mains ON/OFF switch given on the panel.
Switch off power supply to panel.
Switch OFF the pump.
Drain the water tank.

Observations and Calculations:

d = 0.025m
= 1000Kg/m3
Cp = 4186 J/Kg.K
S.No

V
(Volts)

A
(Amp
)

T1
C

T2
C

T3
C

T4
C

T5
C

T6
C

T7
C

T8
C

F
LP
M

1.
2.
3.

A=

( )
d
4

M =(

, m2

Fx
)
1000 x 60 Kg/sec

Q=M Cp (T8-T7), W
Temp. Sensor No.
T1
T2

Distance X, m
0.035
0.075

T3

0.115

T4

0.155

T5

0.195

T6

0.235

T, oC

Plot T vs X. Draw a smooth curve through all the points and obtain the slope dT/dX
K=(

Q
)
dT
A(
)
dX

, W/m0C

Where,
K= thermal conductivity of metal bar, W/m0C.
d= diameter of rod, m
M= mass flowrate of cooling water
Cp= specific heat of water at mean temp.
T = temp rise of cooling water=(T -T )
8
7

A= cross sectional area of the metal bar

dT/dX= slope of the graph temp Vs length of the bar
T1-T6 = surface temp of rod, 0C
9

T7= inlet temp of cold water

T8= outlet temp of cold water,
F=flowarte of cold water,LPM
= density of water, kg/m3
Q= heat absorbed by cooling water,W
X= distance of temp sensor from heater side, m

Result:
Thermal conductivity of the metal rod is _________________

Experiment No. 4

NATURAL CONVECTION FROM A HEATED

VERTICAL CYLINDER
Aim:
1. To estimate the heat transfer coefficient for a heated vertical cylinder and compare it
with theoretical prediction.

Procedure:
10

T6

Heated cylinder

T5
T4
T3
T2

T1

1.
2.
3.
4.

Switch on the main power supply.

Adjust the voltage to 50 V.
Note down the current.
Note the temperatures indicated by the thermocouples placed at various locations
along the height of cylinder until steady state is reached.

Observations:
Applied voltage =
Current =
Height of cylinder =

Temperature
indicator No.
T1

t=0

Temperature(C)
t = 20 min t = 40 min

t = 60 min.

T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
Ambient temperature =

Calculations
11

1.
2.
3.
4.

Height of cylinder, H =
m
Diameter of cylinder, d =
m
Area of heat transfer, A = dH =
m2
Rate of heat supplied(Q) = Electrical power = Voltage Current = Watts.
T 2+T 3 +T 4 +T 5
5. Average temperature of cylinder surface, T w >
4
6. Average temperature,

T T 1 =

hexpt =

Q
A( T w >T )

Theoretical heat transfer coefficient has to be calculated based on Nusselt number

correlation for vertical heated cylinder with constant heat flux. Use one of the
following:

htheory H
0.2
5
11
=0.6(Gr . Pr ) 10 <Gr <10
k
5
h theory > h theory
4

htheory H
0.25
3
16
=0.17( Gr . Pr ) 2 10 <Gr . Pr <10
k
h theory > htheory

Here,
Gr=

g qw H
k

Pr=

Cp
k

The above non-dimensional numbers have to be evaluated at film temperature, Tf.

T >+T
1
, where T f =Film temperature= f
Tf
2

g=accelarationdue gravity

q w =Heat flux wallby heating=

QW
A m2

H=Height of cylinder ,m

12

W
m. C

N .s
m2

=Kinematic viscosityof air ,

=Density of air ,

m
=
s

kg
m3

Result:
1. Heat transfer coefficient for vertical heated cylinder in air is obtained from air is

hexpt =

2. Heat transfer coefficient from theory,

W
m . C for constant wall heat flux.
2

htheory >

W
m .C
2

13

Experiment No. 5
HEAT CONDUCTION IN THIN ROD
Aim:
1. To compare experimental temperature profile with theoretical prediction for a thin
heated at one end.
2. Efficiency of the thin rod assuming it to be a fin.

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Switch on the main power supply.

Adjust the voltage to 50 V.
Allow the rod to get heated.
Note the voltage of each thermocouple at various times until steady state is reached.

Observations:
Applied voltage =
Current =
Distance of
thermocouple
x, cm
7

t=0

Voltage of thermocouple
t = 20
t = 40
min

min

t = 60
min.

17
23.5
31.4
46.2

Ambient temperature =

Calculations:
14

1. Ambient temperature, T =
C
2. Calculate the steady state temperature at each location along the rod using the
correlation
T(C) = T (C) + 25.7 V
Where V is the thermocouple voltage in mV
3. Generate data for the following table:
Distance from

Thermocoupl

Temperature

Calculated

Fin efficiency

base x(cm)

e voltage

observed Eq.(1)

temperature

at x

(mV)

Tobs

Eq.(2), Tcal

0.07
0.17
0.235
0.314
0.462

4. Plot x vs Tobs.
Extrapolate to find Tobs at x = 0 as T0.
From theory, T cal=T +(T 0T )

coshm(Lx)
coshmL

hp
Parameter m= kA
Where

k = thermal conductivity of rod = 103.8 W/m. C

A = Cross sectional area of rod = d2/4
P = Perimeter of rod = d

(d = 1.24 cm = 0.0124 m)

(d = 0.0124m)

h = heat transfer coefficient

h=1.32(
Where T = Tavg - T

T 0.25
)
d
(C)
15

Tavg = Average temperature of the rod

d = Diameter of the rod = 0.0124 m
5. Plot Tcal vs x on the same graph sheet as Tobs vs x.
6. Calculate efficiency
Efficiency=

Heat transfered when entired rod is at base temperature

Heat trsnsfered actually

tanh ( mL )
mL

7. Calculate efficiency at each location, x and tabulate in the above table.

8. Plot vs x on a graph sheet.

Result:
1. The temperature profile along the rod as predicted from theory compares
with experimental data.
2. The average efficiency of the thin rod as a fin is

16

Experiment No. 6

HEAT TRANSFER BY NATURAL CONVECTION AND

Aim:
1. To obtain cooling curves for hot metal blocks placed in stationary air.
2. To estimate heat transfer coefficient (convection & radiation).

Procedure:
1. Heat the cylindrical blocks of Brass and Aluminium on a hot plate until 100C of
temperature is obtained.
2. Place the blocks aside on insulating Asbestos sheets.
3. Note the temperature Vs time for every 3C fall.

Observation Table:
Ambient temperature =
Material:

Temperature
(C)

Time
Temperature

Material:

Brass

Aluminium
Time

(C)

17

Calculations:
Brass
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Diameter of rod /cylinder (d) = 3.75 cm =

Height of cylinder (H) = 9.5 cm =
Area of heat transfer (A) = dH + d2/4 =
Density of brass, =
Specific heat capacity of brass, Cp =

6. Mass of cylinder, m = Density Volume =

T

7. Ambient temperature,

m
m
m2
kg/m3
J/kg. C
2
d H
(
) =
4
C =

kg
K

8. Experimental heat transfer coefficient

hexpt =

Q
W
( T is at time t )
2
A ( T T ) m . C

Where

Q=m C p

dT
W
dt

or J/s

Theoretical heat transfer coefficient has two parts h = hc + hr

Where hc is convection heat transfer coefficient
hr radiation heat transfer coefficient
0.25

T T
hc =1.42(
)
H
hr =

W
m . C
2

(T 4T 4 ) W
(T T ) m2 . C

where T, T in K and H in m

= 5.6710

-8

W
4
m .K
2

9. Plot T Vs t on a graph sheet.

10. Plot hexpt Vs T (T on x-axis). Plot htheory Vs T on same graph sheet.
11. Repeat the above calculations for Aluminium cylinder.

18

Time, t(s)

Temperature,
T(K)

T K
t s

T
t
hexpt =
A ( T T )

A ( T T ) 0.25
H
h c =1.42

W
m . C

W
m . C

mC p

( )

Calculate columns 1, 2, 3 for all time steps.

Calculate columns 4, 5, 6, 7 for a few time steps between initial and final time.

19

hr =

Result:
1. Rate of cooling
with decrease in temperature.
2. Heat transfer coefficient (experimental)
with decrease in
temperature.
3. Heat transfer coefficient (theory)
with decrease in temperature.
4. hexpt in comparison with htheory is same/slightly different/very different.

20

Experiment No. 7

PIN-FIN APPARATUS
Aim:
1. To estimate heat transfer coefficient for forced convection across a pin-fin.
2. To estimate the efficiency of the fin.

Procedure:
1. Switch on the main power supply.
2. Adjust the voltage to a required voltage value.
3. Note down the initial temperatures along the fin as indicated on the panel board
and after 20 min.
4. Switch on the blower for supplying air. Adjust the outlet knob such that the
manometer level difference is in the range of 3-5 cm.
5. Note down the temperatures along the fin until steady state is reached.
6. Note down the current indicated by ammeter.

Observations:
Applied voltage =
Current =
Distance

Thermocoupl

from base of

e No.

cm
Temperature
t=0

fin(x), cm
8.4
5.6
11.2
14.0
0
2.8
Ambient

t = 20 min.

t = 30 min.

t = 40 min.

No air blow

With air blow

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7

Calculations:
1. Ambient temperature,

T =

2. Generate the data for following table:

Distance from

Temperature

Temperature

Fin

base, x(m)

observed

calculated

efficiency

Tobs(C)

Tcal(C)

at x
21

0
0.028
0.056
0.112
0.140
From theory,
T cal=T +(T 0T )
Where

cosh m( Lx)
cosh mL

T0 = Temperature at x = 0, =

L = Length of the fin = 145 mm = 0.145 m

hP
Parameter, m= kA
Where k = Thermal conductivity of fin, W/m. C
A = Cross sectional area of fin = d2/4
P = Perimeter of rod = d

(d = 12cm) =

m2

To calculate h
Nu=

hd
n
0.33
=c Pr
ka

V a=velocity of air ,m/ s

aV a d
a

Pr=

C p a
ka
a

a=Density of air , kg / m3

a=Viscosity of air , N . s /m

a

Re

J
kg . C

C

W
m. C

22

0.4-4

0.989

0.33

4-40

0.911

0.385

40-4000

0.683

0.466

4000-40000

0.193

0.618

40000-400000

0.0266

0.805

All properties to be evaluated at film temperature Tf

T f=

T fin +T
T + T +T + T + T +T
; where<T fin = 1 2 3 4 5 6
2
6

Velocity of air , V a=

Q
Volumetric flow rate
=
A c Area of cross section of air duct

for orifice meter Q=C d a1 a2

2 gh m3
a (a 21a22 ) s

where Cd =0.6

dp
a1=
( d p =Diameter of pipe=4 cm=m)
4

d 2o
a2 =
( d o =Diameter of orifice=2 cm=m)
4
where w =Density of water , kg/ m3

=w a

g= Accelarationdue gravity ,=9.8 m/s 2

h=Height differencemanometer=m

3. Calculate Re, Pr, Nu and h using above formulae.

4. Calculate m.
5. Evaluate temperature (Tcal) at each location along the fin using formula (1) and
tabulate in the earlier table.
6. Calculate efficiency of fin

23

Efficiency=

heat transfered whenentire rod is at base temperaure

Heat transfered actually

mL

tanh
=

7. Calculate for each location x along the fin and tabulate in the earlier table.
8. Plot Tobs Vs x and Tcal Vs x on one graph sheet.
9. Plot Vs x on another graph sheet.

Result:
1. The temperature profile along the fin as predicted by theory compares
with experimental data.
2. The average fin efficiency is
3. The average heat transfer coefficient is h =

%.
W/m2. C.

24

Experiment No. 7

STEFAN BOLTZMANN LAW

Aim: To experimentally determine the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant
Procedure:
1. Start main switch of control panel.
2. First heat the water in the water tank with the help of immersion heater up to boiling
temperature (T6= 90-950C).
3. Then insert test disc in the backelite; If not inserted (test disc is blackened totally)
4. Drop the boilied water on the hemisphere.
5. Take the readings of thermocouples on the hemisphere. i.e T1,T2, T3,T4 upto steady
state for only ones
6. Insert test disc below hemisphere.
7. Take the readings of test disc i.e T5 when it starts increasing with the help of the stop
watch after every 10 sec. till the steady state is reached.

Observations:
Diamerter of the test discMass of the test discSpecific heat of test disc (brass)Area of test Disc

d=0.0195 m
m=0.0076 Kg
Cp=877 J/Kg.K

Tabular column:
Temperature of hemisphere
Water

T1

T2

T3

T4

temperatur
e (T6)

Temperatures of Test Disc

Time in

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

sec
T5

25

Time in

110

sec

12

13

14

15

16

170

180

19

200

T5

Calculations:
Equation for Stefan Boltzmann constant
T
W
m . K 4
dT
mCp ( )
dt
=

A d ( T a4)=

Where ,
m- Mass of the test disc in Kg

= 0.076Kg

= 877 J/Kg.K

= 2.98 x10-4m2

T=

T 1+ T 2+T 3+T 4
+273 K
4

Ta- average temperature of test disc i.e T5 + 273K

dT = Tfinal Tinitial
Tfinal = steady state reading of test disc
Tinitial = temperature of disc from which it starts increasing.
dt- Total time required for acheiveing the steady state from the time when temperature
of the test disc starts increasing in sec.

Result:
The value of Stefan-Boltzmann constant experimentally calculated is _________

Experiment No. 9

26

Aim : To determine Emissivity of non black test plate surface.

Procedure:
1. Blacken one of the plates with the help candle black (normally this is blackened at the
works, but if blackening is wiped out, then blackening is necessary)
2. Keep both dimmer knobs at zero position
3. Insert the supply pin-top in the socket (which is properly earthed) and switch on the
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

main supply.
Switch on the mains switch of the panel
Keep the meter selector switch at the black plate side position
Adjust dimmer of black plate, so that around 80-90 volts are supplied to black plate.
Switch the meter selector switch on other side.
Adjust test plate voltage slightly less than that of black plate (60-70 volts).
Check the temperatures (after, say 10 min) and adjust the dimmers so that
temperatures of both the plates are equal and steady. Normally, very minor

adjustments are required for this.

10. Note down the readings after the plates temperatures reach steady state.

Observations:
1. Diameter of test plate - (d) = 0.18 m
2. Diameter of black plate - (d) = 0.18m
3. Thickness of the plates - (t) = 0.006m

Tabular column:
Heater input for both plates
Voltmeter (V)

Ammeter (I)

Heater input
(VI)(watt)

Black plate
Test plate

Thermocouple locations

Black plate(T1)
Test plate(T2)
Enclosure(T3)

27

Calculations:
W b W T =( b T ) A (T 4s T 4E )
Where,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Wb = heater input of black plate= VxI (watt)

WT= heater input to test plate = VxI (watt)
= Stefan Boltzmann constant = 5.667x10 -8 (W/m2. K4)
A=surface area of plates =( 2. /4.d2) +(.d.t) = 0.054285m2
Ts= temperature of plates after steady state= (T1=T2)+273(K)
TE= enclosure temperature= T3 + 273(K)
b= emissivity of black plate =1
T= emissivity of test plate =which is to be determine

Result:
The emissivity of the given test plate is ______________

Experiment No. 10

DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

Aim:
1. To estimate the tube-side, shell side and overall heat transfer coefficient for one-tube
pass and one-shell pass.
2. To verify the law of conservation of energy.

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Switch on the main power supply.

Switch on the heater for generating hot water with set point as 50C.
Switch on the pumps for hot water and cold water.
Adjust the bypass valves of the pumps to maintain a moderate flow rate.

28

5. Measure the flow rate of hot water and cold water by collecting 1 litre and noting
down the time it takes.
6. Note down the temperatures of inlets and outlets from the display panel until steady
state is reached.
7. Switch off the pumps and main unit.

Observations:
Hot water flow rate
Volume collected
time

Indicator no.
1. (Hot in)
2. (Hot out)
3. (Cold in)
4. (Cold out)

Volume collected
time

Temperature
t=0
t = 5 min

t = 10 min

Calculations:
t1

T2

T1
t2

T1 = Hot fluid in (C) =

T2 = Hot fluid out (C) =
T3 = Cold fluid in (C) =
T4 = Cold fluid out (C) =
For cold fluid,

29

c = c V c =kg /s
M
t

m3

Vc = volume of cold water collected =

t = time of collection =

Specific heat capacity of cold water, CPc =

J/Kg oC
Rate of heat gained by cold water
Qc = Mc CPc (t2 t1) =

J/s

For hot fluid,

Mass flow rate of hot water,
Where,

h= h V h =kg /s
M
t

Kg/m3

Vh = volume of hot water collected =

t = time of collection =

m3

J/Kg oC

Rate of heat lost by hot water,

Qh = Mh CPh (T1 T2) =

J/s

To determine experimental overall heat transfer coefficient, assume that heat load
Q=Qc Qh

Length of heat exchanger, L = 1.6 m

Inner diameter of tube, di = 12 mm =

m2

T ln =

T 2 T 1
where T 2=T 2t 2
T2
T 1=T 1t 1
ln (
)
T1

Overall heat transfer coefficient,

30

Experimental , U o=

Q
W
= 2
Ao T ln m . C

1 1 1
+
U o hi ho

ho =Shell side heat transfer coefficient ,

W
m .C
2

W
m . C
2

calculate hi
Average velocityin tube , V avg ,t =

Reynoldsnumber , =

h
4M
=m/s
d 2i h

h V avg ,t d i
N .s
h=Viscosity of hot fluid , 2
h
m

C p h
kh
h

k h =Thermal conductivity of hot fluid ,

W
m. C

If <2100(laminar)

Nu=

hi d i
=3.66+
kh

0.668

di
RePr
Lt

1+0.04

di
RePr
Lt

( )
[( )

2
3

Lt=Length of tube , m

If >2100(turbulent )

Nu=

n=0.4 if heating
hi d i
=0.023 0.8 Pr n n=0.3 if cooling
kh
Here n=0.3

W
m .C
2

calculate ho on shell side

31

d 2s d 2o
2
Cro ss sectional area available for flow on shell side is A s=

=m
4
4
Average velocityin tube , V avg ,t =

c
M
=m/s
A s c

sectional area
{ 4 CrossPerimeter
}=m

Equivalent diameter , d e =d sd o

Reynoldsnumber , =

Prandtl number , Pr=

c V avg ,s d i
N .s
c =Viscosity of cold fluid , 2
c
m

C p c
W
k c =Thermal conductivity of cold fluid ,
kc
m . C
c

If <2100 ( laminar ) use formula ( 5 ) calculate Nuho

Nu=

ho d e
=3.66 +
kc

de
RePr
L

( ) L =Length of tube , m
d
1+0.04 [ ( ) RePr ]
L
0.668

2
3

If >2100(turbulent )

Nu=

n=0.4 if heating
ho d e
=0.023 0.8 Pr n n=0.3if cooling
kc
Here n=0.3

W
m .C
2

W
m .C
2

Effectiveness of heat exchanger , E=

t 2t 1
=
T 1t 1

Results:
1. Heat load on cold side Qc =
J/s and on hot side Qh =
They are slightly
same/slightly different/very different.
2. Tube side heat transfer coefficient, hi =
W/m2.C.

J/s.

32

Shell side heat transfer coefficient, ho =

3. Overall heat transfer coefficient, Uo, experimental =
Uo, theoretical =
W/m2.C.

W/m2.C.
W/m2.C.

33

Experiment No. 11

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Aim:
1. To find the logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) and overall heat
transfer of heat exchanger.

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Clean the apparatus and make the water bath and cold water tank free from dust.
Close the entire drain valve provided.
Fill the water in the bath and switch on the heater.
Adjust the required temperature of hot water using DTC.
Fill the water in cold water tank.
Adjust the valve. Allow the hot water to recycle in bath through by pass by switching

on the magnetic pump.

7. Start the flow through the shell and run the exchanger.
8. Adjust the flow rate on cold water side between ranges of 3 to 8 liter per minute.
9. Start the cold water pump.
10. Adjust the flow rate on hot water side between the ranges of 1.5 to 4 liter per minute.
11. Keeping the flowrates same, wait steady state conditions are reached.
12. Record the temperatures on hot water and cold water accurately.
13. When experiment is over switch off the heater.
14. Switch off the magnetic pump for hot water supply.
15. Switch off power supply to the panel.
16. Drain water bath with the help of drain valves.

Observations:
Hot water flow rate
Volume collected
time

1.
2.
3.
4.

Indicator no.
T1 (Hot in)
T2 (Hot out)
T3 (Cold in)
T4 (Cold out)

Cold water flow rate

Volume collected
time

Temperature, oC
t=0
t = 5 min

t = 10 min

34

Calculations:
T2

t2
t1
T1
1-Shell pass and 2-tube pass

T1 = Hot fluid in (C) =

T2 = Hot fluid out (C) =
t1 = Cold fluid in (C) =
t2 = Cold fluid out (C) =
For cold fluid,
Mass flow rate,

c = c V c =kg /s
M
t

m3

Vc = volume of cold water collected =

t = time of collection =

J/Kg oC

Rate of heat gained by cold water

Qc = Mc CPc (t2 t1) =

J/s or Watts

For hot fluid,

Mass flow rate of hot water,
Where,

h= h V h =kg /s
M
t

Kg/m3

Vh = volume of hot water collected =

t = time of collection =

m3

J/Kg oC

35

J/s or Watts

Length of heat exchanger, L = 1.5 m

Number of tubes = 20
Inner diameter of tubes, di = 17 mm = 0.017 m
Outer diameter of tubes, do = 20 mm = 0.02

m2

Log-mean temperature difference,

T m=

T 2 T 1
= C where T 2=T 2t 2
T2
T 1=T 1t 1
ln (
)
T1

To determine experimental overall heat transfer coefficient, assume that heat load
Q=Q c Q h

Overall heat transfer coefficient,

Experimental , U o=

Q
W
= 2
Ao F T m m . C

where F is a correction factor the graph of RP

R=

T 1T 2
t t
, P= 2 1 Ref: Fig. 10.8 P. Holman 8th Ed.
t 2t 1
T 1t 1
Range of F 0< F< 1

1 1 1
+
U o hi ho

ho =Shell side heat tra nsfer coefficient ,

W
m .C
2

W
m . C
2

calculate hi
Average velocityin tube , V avg ,t =

h
4M
d 2i h

=m/s

36

Reynolds number , =

Prandtl number , Pr=

h V avg ,t d i
N .s
h=Viscosity of hot fluid , 2
h
m

C p h
W
k h =Thermal conductivity of hot fluid ,
kh
m. C
h

If <2100(laminar)

Nu=

hi d i
=3.66+
kh

1+0.04

di
Pr
Lt

( )
[( )

0.668

di
RePr
Lt

2
3

Lt=Length of tube , m

If >2100(turbulent )

Nu=

n=0.4 if heating
hi d i
=0.023 0.8 Pr n n=0.3 if cooling
kh
Here n=0.3

W
m .C
2

calculate ho on shell side

Cross sectional area available for flow on shell sideis A s=

Average velocityin tube , V avg ,t =

d 2s d 2o
2

=m
4
4

c
M
=m/s
A s c
sectional area
{ 4 CrossPerimeter
}=m

Equivalent diameter , d e =d sd o

Reynolds number , =

Prandtl number , Pr=

c V avg ,s d o
N .s
c =Viscosity of cold fluid , 2
c
m

C p c
W
k c =Thermal conductivity of cold fluid ,
kc
m . C
c

If <2100 ( laminar ) use formula calculate Nuho

37

d
RePr
(
h d
L)
Nu=
=3.66 +
L =Length of tube , m
k
d
1+0.04 ( ) RePr
[L ]
0.668

2
3

If >2100(turbulent )
Nu=

ho d e
=0.2 0.6 Pr 0.33 Donohueequation Pg 450, McCabe 7 thed .
kc

W
m .C
2

W
m . C

Effectiveness of heat exchanger , E=

t 2t 1
=
T 1t 1

Results:
1. Heat load on cold side Qc =
J/s and on hot side Qh =
They are slightly
same/slightly different/very different.
2. Tube side heat transfer coefficient, hi =
W/m2.C.
Shell side heat transfer coefficient, ho =
W/m2.C.
3. Overall heat transfer coefficient, Uo, experimental =
W/m2.C.
2
Uo, theoretical =
W/m .C.

J/s.

38