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Barnet and Southgate College

A2 level Mathematics

C3 EXAM PAPERS

School of A levels and Science


1

ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS


January 2012
2.

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows the graph of equation y = f(x).
The points P ( 3, 0) and Q (2, 4) are stationary points on the graph.
Sketch, on separate diagrams, the graphs of
(a) y = 3f(x + 2),

(3)

(b) y = f(x).

(3)

On each diagram, show the coordinates of any stationary points.


June 2010
4.

The function f is defined by


f : x | |2x 5|,

x .

(a) Sketch the graph with equation y = f(x), showing the coordinates of the points where the graph cuts or
meets the axes.
(2)
(b) Solve f(x) =15 + x.

(3)

The function g is defined by


g : x | x2 4x + 1,

x ,

0 x 5.

(c) Find fg(2).

(2)

(d) Find the range of g.

(3)

June 2009
5.

Figure 2
Figure 2 shows a sketch of part of the curve with equation y = f(x), x .
The curve meets the coordinate axes at the points A(0, 1 k) and B( 12 ln k, 0), where k is a constant and k
>1, as shown in Figure 2.
On separate diagrams, sketch the curve with equation
(a) y = f(x),

(3)

(b) y = f 1(x).

(2)

Show on each sketch the coordinates, in terms of k, of each point at which the curve meets or cuts the
axes.
Given that f(x) = e2x k,
(c) state the range of f,

(1)

(d) find f 1(x),

(3)

(e) write down the domain of f 1.

(1)

January 2010
1.

Express

x 1
1

2
3x 3 3x 1
as a single fraction in its simplest form.

(4)

January 2010
6.

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows a sketch of the graph of y = f (x).
The graph intersects the y-axis at the point (0, 1) and the point A(2, 3) is the maximum turning point.
Sketch, on separate axes, the graphs of
(i)

y = f(x) + 1,

(ii) y = f(x + 2) + 3,
(iii) y = 2f(2x) .
On each sketch, show the coordinates of the point at which your graph intersects the y-axis and the
coordinates of the point to which A is transformed.
(9)
January 2012
7.

The function f is defined by


f:x

(a) Show that f(x) =

3( x 1)
1

,
2
2x 7x 4 x 4

x , x >

1
.
2x 1

1
.
2
(4)

(b) Find f 1(x).

(3)

(c) Find the domain of f 1.

(1)
g(x) = ln (x + 1).

(d) Find the solution of fg(x) =

1
, giving your answer in terms of e.
7

(4)

June 2010
6.

Figure 2
Figure 2 shows a sketch of the curve with the equation y = f(x), x .
The curve has a turning point at A(3, 4) and also passes through the point (0, 5).
(a) Write down the coordinates of the point to which A is transformed on the curve with equation
(i)

y = |f(x)|,

(ii) y = 2f( 12 x).

(4)

(b) Sketch the curve with equation y = f(|x|).


On your sketch show the coordinates of all turning points and the coordinates of the point at which
the curve cuts the y-axis.
(3)
The curve with equation y = f(x) is a translation of the curve with equation y = x2.
(c) Find f(x).

(2)

(d) Explain why the function f does not have an inverse.

(1)

June 2012
1.

Express

2(3x 2)
2

2
3x 1
9x 4
as a single fraction in its simplest form.

(4)

January 2011
6.

The function f is defined by


f: x

3 2x
,
x5

x ,

x 5.

(a) Find f1(x).

(3)

Figure 2
The function g has domain 1 x 8, and is linear from (1, 9) to (2, 0) and from (2, 0) to (8, 4). Figure 2
shows a sketch of the graph of y = g(x).
(b) Write down the range of g.

(1)

(c) Find gg(2).

(2)

(d) Find fg(8).

(2)

(e) On separate diagrams, sketch the graph with equation


(i)

y = g(x),

(ii) y = g1(x).

(f)

Show on each sketch the coordinates of each point at which the graph meets or cuts the axes.

(4)

State the domain of the inverse function g1.

(1)

June2011
3.

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows part of the graph of y = f (x), x .
The graph consists of two line segments that meet at the point R (4, 3), as shown in Figure 1.
Sketch, on separate diagrams, the graphs of
(a) y = 2f(x + 4),

(3)

(b) y = f(x) .

(3)

On each diagram, show the coordinates of the point corresponding to R.


June 2012
4.

Figure 2
Figure 2 shows part of the curve with equation y = f(x).
The curve passes through the points P(1.5, 0)and Q(0, 5) as shown.
On separate diagrams, sketch the curve with equation
(a) y = f(x)

(2)

(b) y = f(x)

(2)

(c) y = 2f(3x)

(3)

Indicate clearly on each sketch the coordinates of the points at which the curve crosses or meets the axes.

Jan 2013
3.

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows part of the curve with equation y = f(x) , x .
The curve passes through the points Q(0, 2) and P(3, 0) as shown.
(a) Find the value of ff (3).

(2)

On separate diagrams, sketch the curve with equation


(b) y = f 1(x),

(2)

(c) y = f(x) 2,

(2)

(d) y = 2f 12 x .

(3)

Indicate clearly on each sketch the coordinates of the points at which the curve crosses or meets the axes.
Jan 2013
7.

h(x) =

(a) Show that h(x) =

18
2
4
+ 2
2
,
x 2 x 5 ( x 5)( x 2)

2x
.
x 5

x 0.

(4)

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find h(x) in its simplest form.

(3)

Figure 2
Figure 2 shows a graph of the curve with equation y = h(x).
(c) Calculate the range of h(x) .

(5)

TRIGONOMETRY
June 2009
2.

(a) Use the identity cos2 + sin2 = 1 to prove that tan2 = sec2 1.

(2)

(b) Solve, for 0 < 360, the equation


2 tan2 + 4 sec + sec2 = 2.

(6)

January 2012
5.

Solve, for 0 180,


2 cot2 3 = 7 cosec 3 5.
Give your answers in degrees to 1 decimal place.

(10)

June 2009
6.

(a) Use the identity cos (A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B, to show that
cos 2A = 1 2 sin2 A

(2)

The curves C1 and C2 have equations


C1: y = 3 sin 2x
C2: y = 4 sin2 x 2 cos 2x
(b) Show that the x-coordinates of the points where C1 and C2 intersect satisfy the equation
4 cos 2x + 3 sin 2x = 2

(3)

(c) Express 4cos 2x + 3 sin 2x in the form R cos (2x ), where R > 0 and 0 < < 90, giving the value of
to 2 decimal places.
(3)
(d) Hence find, for 0 x < 180, all the solutions of
4 cos 2x + 3 sin 2x = 2,
giving your answers to 1 decimal place.

(4)

June 2009
8.

(a) Write down sin 2x in terms of sin x and cos x.

(1)

(b) Find, for 0 < x < , all the solutions of the equation
cosec x 8 cos x = 0.
giving your answers to 2 decimal places.

(5)

10

January 2010
3.

(a) Express 5 cos x 3 sin x in the form R cos(x + ), where R > 0 and 0 < <

1
2

(4)

(b) Hence, or otherwise, solve the equation


5 cos x 3 sin x = 4
for 0 x < 2, giving your answers to 2 decimal places.

(5)

January 2010
8.

Solve
cosec2 2x cot 2x = 1
for 0 x 180.

(7)

June 2010
1.

(a) Show that

sin 2
= tan .
1 cos 2

(2)

(b) Hence find, for 180 < 180, all the solutions of

2 sin 2
= 1.
1 cos 2
Give your answers to 1 decimal place.

(3)

June 2011
6.

(a) Prove that

1
cos 2

= tan ,
sin 2
sin 2

90n, n .

(4)

(b) Hence, or otherwise,


(i)

show that tan 15 = 2 3,

(3)

(ii) solve, for 0 < x < 360,


cosec 4x cot 4x = 1.

11

(5)

January 2011
3.

Find all the solutions of


2 cos 2 = 1 2 sin
in the interval 0 < 360.

(6)

January 2011

1.

(a) Express 7 cos x 24 sin x in the form R cos (x + ) where R > 0 and 0 < <

.
2

Give the value of to 3 decimal places.

(3)

(b) Hence write down the minimum value of 7 cos x 24 sin x.

(1)

(c) Solve, for 0 x < 2, the equation


7 cos x 24 sin x = 10,
giving your answers to 2 decimal places.

(5)

June 2010

7.

(a) Express 2 sin 1.5 cos in the form R sin ( ), where R > 0 and 0 < <

.
2

Give the value of to 4 decimal places.


(b) (i)

(3)

Find the maximum value of 2 sin 1.5 cos .

(ii) Find the value of , for 0 < , at which this maximum occurs.

(3)

Tom models the height of sea water, H metres, on a particular day by the equation

4 t
1.5 cos
25

H = 6 + 2 sin

4 t

,
25

0 t <12,

where t hours is the number of hours after midday.


(c) Calculate the maximum value of H predicted by this model and the value of t, to 2 decimal places,
when this maximum occurs.
(3)
(d) Calculate, to the nearest minute, the times when the height of sea water is predicted, by this model, to
be 7 metres.
(6)

12

January 2012
8.

(a) Starting from the formulae for sin (A + B) and cos (A + B), prove that

tan A tan B
.
1 tan A tan B

(4)

1 3 tan
.
=
6
3 tan

(3)

tan (A + B) =
(b) Deduce that

tan

(c) Hence, or otherwise, solve, for 0 ,


1 + 3 tan = (3 tan ) tan ( ).
Give your answers as multiples of .

(6)

June 2012
5.

(a) Express 4 cosec2 2 cosec2 in terms of sin and cos .


(b) Hence show that

4 cosec2 2 cosec2 = sec2 .

(2)
(4)

(c) Hence or otherwise solve, for 0 < < ,


4 cosec2 2 cosec2 = 4
giving your answers in terms of .

(3)

June 2012
8.

f(x) = 7 cos 2x 24 sin 2x.


Given that f(x) = R cos (2x + ), where R > 0 and 0 < < 90,
(a) find the value of R and the value of .

(3)

(b) Hence solve the equation


7 cos 2x 24 sin 2x = 12.5
for 0 x < 180, giving your answers to 1 decimal place.

(5)

(c) Express 14 cos2 x 48 sin x cos x in the form a cos 2x + b sin 2x + c, where a, b, and c are constants to
be found.
(2)
(d) Hence, using your answers to parts (a) and (c), deduce the maximum value of
14 cos2 x 48 sin x cos x.

13

(2)

Jan 2013
4.

(a) Express 6 cos + 8 sin in the form R cos ( ), where R > 0 and 0 < <
Give the value of to 3 decimal places.
p( ) =

(b)

.
2
(4)

4
,
12 6 cos 8 sin

0 2.

Calculate
(i)

the maximum value of p( ),

(ii) the value of at which the maximum occurs.

(4)

Jan 2013
6.

(i)

Without using a calculator, find the exact value of


(sin 22.5 + cos 22.5)2.
You must show each stage of your working.

(5)

(ii) (a) Show that cos 2 + sin = 1 may be written in the form
k sin2 sin = 0, stating the value of k.
(2)
(b) Hence solve, for 0 < 360, the equation
cos 2 + sin = 1.
(4)

14

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMS


January 2010
5.

Sketch the graph of y = ln x, stating the coordinates of any points of intersection with the axes.

(3)

June 2009
3.

Rabbits were introduced onto an island. The number of rabbits, P, t years after they were introduced is
modelled by the equation
1

P = 80e 5 , t ,
t

t 0.

(a) Write down the number of rabbits that were introduced to the island.

(1)

(b) Find the number of years it would take for the number of rabbits to first exceed 1000.

(2)

(c) Find

dP
.
dt

(d) Find P when

(2)

dP
= 50.
dt

(3)

January 2010
9.

(i)

Find the exact solutions to the equations


(a) ln (3x 7) = 5,

(3)

(b) 3x e7x + 2 = 15.

(5)

(ii) The functions f and g are defined by


f (x) = e2x + 3,

x ,

g(x) = ln (x 1), x , x > 1.


(a) Find f 1 and state its domain.

(4)

(b) Find fg and state its range.

(3)

June 2010
8.

(a) Simplify fully

2x 2 9x 5
.
x 2 2 x 15

(3)

Given that
ln (2x2 + 9x 5) = 1 + ln (x2 + 2x 15),
(b) find x in terms of e.

x 5,
(4)

15

January 2011
4.

Joan brings a cup of hot tea into a room and places the cup on a table. At time t minutes after Joan places
the cup on the table, the temperature, C, of the tea is modelled by the equation

= 20 + Aekt,
where A and k are positive constants.
Given that the initial temperature of the tea was 90 C,
(a) find the value of A.

(2)

The tea takes 5 minutes to decrease in temperature from 90 C to 55 C.


(b) Show that k =

1
ln 2.
5

(3)

(c) Find the rate at which the temperature of the tea is decreasing at the instant when t = 10. Give your
answer, in C per minute, to 3 decimal places.
(3)
June2011
4.

The function f is defined by


f : x 4 ln (x + 2), x , x 1.
(a) Find f 1(x).

(3)

(b) Find the domain of f 1.

(1)

The function g is defined by


g : x e x 2, x .
2

(c) Find fg(x), giving your answer in its simplest form.

(3)

(d) Find the range of fg.

(1)

January 2012
3.

The area, A mm2, of a bacterial culture growing in milk, t hours after midday, is given by
A = 20e1.5t,
(a) Write down the area of the culture at midday.

t 0.
(1)

(b) Find the time at which the area of the culture is twice its area at midday. Give your answer to the
nearest minute.
(5)

16

June2011
5.

The mass, m grams, of a leaf t days after it has been picked from a tree is given by
m = pekt,
where k and p are positive constants.
When the leaf is picked from the tree, its mass is 7.5 grams and 4 days later its mass is 2.5 grams.
(a) Write down the value of p.
(b) Show that k =

(1)

1
ln 3.
4

(c) Find the value of t when

(4)

dm
= 0.6 ln 3.
dt

(6)

June 2012
6.

The functions f and g are defined by


f: x ex + 2,

x ,

g : x ln x,

x > 0.

(a) State the range of f.

(1)

(b) Find fg(x), giving your answer in its simplest form.

(2)

(c) Find the exact value of x for which f(2x + 3) = 6.

(4)

(d) Find f 1, the inverse function of f, stating its domain.

(3)

(e) On the same axes sketch the curves with equation y = f(x) and y = f1(x), giving the coordinates of all
the points where the curves cross the axes.
(4)
Jan 2013
8.

The value of Bobs car can be calculated from the formula


V = 17000e0.25t + 2000e0.5t + 500.
where V is the value of the car in pounds () and t is the age in years.
(a) Find the value of the car when t = 0.

(1)

(b) Calculate the exact value of t when V = 9500.

(4)

(c) Find the rate at which the value of the car is decreasing at the instant when t = 8.
Give your answer in pounds per year to the nearest pound.

17

(4)

DIFFERENTIATION
June 2010
2.

A curve C has equation


y=

3
,
(5 3 x ) 2

5
.
3

The point P on C has x-coordinate 2.


Find an equation of the normal to C at P in the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b and c are integers.

(7)

January 2010
4.

(i)

Given that y =

ln( x 2 1)
dy
, find
.
x
dx

(ii) Given that x = tan y, show that

(4)

dy
1
=
.
dx 1 x 2

(5)

June 2009
4.

(i)

Differentiate with respect to x


(a) x2 cos 3x,

(3)

ln( x 2 1)
(b)
.
x2 1

(4)

(ii) A curve C has the equation


y = (4x+1),

x > 14 , y > 0.

The point P on the curve has x-coordinate 2. Find an equation of the tangent to C at P in the form ax +
by + c = 0, where a, b and c are integers.
(6)
June 2009
7.

The function f is defined by


f(x) = 1

(a) Show that f (x) =

2
x 8
+
, x , x 4, x 2.
( x 4) ( x 2)( x 4)

x3
.
x2

(5)

The function g is defined by

ex 3
g(x) = x
, x , x ln 2.
e 2

18

ex
(b) Differentiate g(x) to show that g(x) = x
.
(e 2) 2

(3)

(c) Find the exact values of x for which g(x) = 1

(4)

January 2010
7.

(a) By writing sec x as

1
d(sec x)
, show that
= sec x tan x.
cos x
dx

(3)

Given that y = e2x sec 3x,


(b) find

dy
.
dx

The curve with equation y = e2x sec 3x,

(4)

< x < , has a minimum turning point at (a, b).


6
6

(c) Find the values of the constants a and b, giving your answers to 3 significant figures.

(4)

June 2010
5.

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows a sketch of the curve C with the equation y = (2x2 5x + 2)ex.
(a) Find the coordinates of the point where C crosses the y-axis.

(1)

(b) Show that C crosses the x-axis at x = 2 and find the x-coordinate of the other point where C crosses the
x-axis.
(3)
(c) Find

dy
.
dx

(3)

(d) Hence find the exact coordinates of the turning points of C.

19

(5)

January 2011
2.

(a) Express

4x 1
3

2( x 1) 2( x 1)(2 x 1)
as a single fraction in its simplest form.

(4)

Given that
f(x) =

4x 1
3

2,
2( x 1) 2( x 1)(2 x 1)

x > 1,

(b) show that


f(x) =

3
.
2x 1

(c) Hence differentiate f(x) and find f (2).

(2)
(3)

January 2011
8.

Given that

d
(cos x) = sin x,
dx
(a) show that

d
(sec x) = sec x tan x.
dx

(3)

Given that
x = sec 2y,
(b) find

dx
in terms of y.
dy

(c) Hence find

(2)

dy
in terms of x.
dx

(4)

June 2011
1.

Differentiate with respect to x


(a) ln (x2 + 3x + 5),
(b)

(2)

cos x
.
x2

(3)

20

January 2011
7.

The curve C has equation


y=

3 sin 2 x
.
2 cos 2 x

(a) Show that

dy 6 sin 2 x 4 cos 2 x 2
=
dx
(2 cos 2 x) 2
(b) Find an equation of the tangent to C at the point on C where x =

(4)

.
2

Write your answer in the form y = ax + b, where a and b are exact constants.

(4)

January 2012
1.

Differentiate with respect to x, giving your answer in its simplest form,


(a) x2 ln (3x),
(b)

(4)

sin 4 x
.
x3

(5)

June 2011
7.

f(x) =

2x
4x 5
2
,
(2 x 1)( x 3) x 9

f(x) =

5
.
(2 x 1)( x 3)

x 3, x

1
.
2

(a) Show that


(5)

The curve C has equation y = f (x). The point P 1,

5
lies on C.
2

(b) Find an equation of the normal to C at P.

(8)

January 2012
4.

The point P is the point on the curve x = 2 tan y


with y-coordinate .
4
12

Find an equation of the normal to the curve at P.

(7)

Next question has a bit of everything but I think it belongs here

21

June 2011
8.

(a) Express 2 cos 3x 3 sin 3x in the form R cos (3x + ), where R and are constants, R > 0 and 0 < <

. Give your answers to 3 significant figures.


(4)
f(x) = e2x cos 3x.

(b) Show that f (x) can be written in the form


f (x) = Re2x cos (3x + ),
where R and are the constants found in part (a).

(5)

(c) Hence, or otherwise, find the smallest positive value of x for which the curve with equation y = f(x) has
a turning point.
(3)
June 2012
3.

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows a sketch of the curve C which has equation
y = ex3 sin 3x,

x .
3
3

(a) Find the x-coordinate of the turning point P on C, for which x > 0. Give your answer as a multiple of .
(6)
(b) Find an equation of the normal to C at the point where x = 0.

(3)

June 2012
7.

(a) Differentiate with respect to x,


1
2

(i)

x ln (3x),

(ii)

1 10 x
, giving your answer in its simplest form.
(2 x 1) 5

22

(6)

(b) Given that x = 3 tan 2y find

dy
in terms of x.
dx

(5)

Jan 2013
1.

The curve C has equation


y = (2x 3)5
The point P lies on C and has coordinates (w, 32).
Find
(a) the value of w,

(2)

(b) the equation of the tangent to C at the point P in the form y = mx + c , where m and c are constants. (5)

Jan 2013
5.

(i)

Differentiate with respect to x


(a) y = x3 ln 2x,
(b) y = (x + sin 2x)3.

(6)

Given that x = cot y,


(ii) show that

dy
1
=
.
dx 1 x 2

(5)

23

NUMERICAL METHODS
June 2009
1.

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows part of the curve with equation y = x3 + 2x2 + 2, which intersects the x-axis at the point A
where x = .
To find an approximation to , the iterative formula is used:
xn + 1 =

2
+2
( xn ) 2

(a) Taking x0 = 2.5, find the values of x1, x2, x3 and x4.
Give your answers to 3 decimal places where appropriate.

(3)

(b) Show that = 2.359 correct to 3 decimal places.

(3)

June 2011
2.

f (x) = 2 sin (x2) + x 2,

0 x < 2.

(a) Show that f (x) = 0 has a root between x = 0.75 and x = 0.85.

(2)

The equation f (x) = 0 can be written as x = arcsin (1 0.5 x)2 .


1

(b) Use the iterative formula


xn + 1 = arcsin (1 0.5 xn )2 ,
1

x 0 = 0.8,

to find the values of x1 , x 2 and x 3 , giving your answers to 5 decimal places.


(c) Show that = 0.80157 is correct to 5 decimal places.

24

(3)
(3)

January 2010
f(x) = x3 + 2x2 3x 11

2.

(a) Show that f(x) = 0 can be rearranged as

(2)

3x 11

,
x2

x=

x 2.

The equation f(x) = 0 has one positive root .

The iterative formula xn + 1 =

3x n 11

is used to find an approximation to .


xn 2

(b) Taking x1 = 0, find, to 3 decimal places, the values of x 2 , x 3 and x 4 .

(3)

(c) Show that = 2.057 correct to 3 decimal places.

(3)

June 2010
3.

f(x) = 4 cosec x 4x +1,

where x is in radians.

(a) Show that there is a root of f(x) = 0 in the interval [1.2, 1.3].

(2)

(b) Show that the equation f(x) = 0 can be written in the form
x=

1
1
+
sin x 4

(2)

(c) Use the iterative formula


xn+ 1 =

1
1
+ ,
4
sin x n

x0 = 1.25,

to calculate the values of x1, x2 and x3, giving your answers to 4 decimal places.

(3)

(d) By considering the change of sign of f(x) in a suitable interval, verify that = 1.291 correct to 3 decimal
places.
(2)
January 2012
f(x) = x2 3x + 2 cos ( 12 x),

6.

0 x .

(a) Show that the equation f(x) = 0 has a solution in the interval 0.8 < x < 0.9.

(2)

The curve with equation y = f(x) has a minimum point P.


(b) Show that the x-coordinate of P is the solution of the equation

3 sin ( 12 x)
x=
.
2
(c) Using the iteration formula

25

(4)

xn + 1 =

3 sin ( 12 x n )
,
2

x0 = 2,

find the values of x1, x2 and x3 , giving your answers to 3 decimal places.

(3)

(d) By choosing a suitable interval, show that the x-coordinate of P is 1.9078 correct to 4 decimal places.
(3)
June 2012
f(x) = x3 + 3x2 + 4x 12

2.

(a) Show that the equation f(x) = 0 can be written as

x=

4(3 x)

, x 3.
(3 x)

(3)

The equation x3 + 3x2 + 4x 12 = 0 has a single root which is between 1 and 2.


(b) Use the iteration formula

xn + 1 =

4(3 x n )

, n 0,
(3 x n )

with x 0 = 1 to find, to 2 decimal places, the value of x1 , x 2 and x 3 .

(3)

The root of f(x) = 0 is .


(c) By choosing a suitable interval, prove that = 1.272 to 3 decimal places.

(3)

Jan 2013
g(x) = ex 1 + x 6

2.

(a) Show that the equation g(x) = 0 can be written as


x = ln (6 x) +1,

x < 6.
(2)

The root of g(x) = 0 is .


The iterative formula
xn + 1 = ln (6 xn) + 1,

x0 = 2.

is used to find an approximate value for .


(b) Calculate the values of x1, x2 and x3 to 4 decimal places.

(3)

(c) By choosing a suitable interval, show that = 2.307 correct to 3 decimal places.

(3)

26

January 2011
5.

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows a sketch of part of the curve with equation y = f(x) , where
f(x) = (8 x) ln x,

x > 0.

The curve cuts the x-axis at the points A and B and has a maximum turning point at Q, as shown in Figure 1.
(a) Write down the coordinates of A and the coordinates of B.

(2)

(b) Find f (x).

(3)

(c) Show that the x-coordinate of Q lies between 3.5 and 3.6

(2)

(d) Show that the x-coordinate of Q is the solution of

x=

8
.
1 ln x

(3)

To find an approximation for the x-coordinate of Q, the iteration formula

xn 1

8
1 ln x n

is used.
(e) Taking x 0 = 3.55, find the values of x1 , x 2 and x 3 .
Give your answers to 3 decimal places.

(3)

27