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CORE MONITORING AND

TESTING

Stator Lamination

Stator Cores
Cores

provide low reluctance paths for


working magnetic fluxes
Support stator winding
Cores must be capable of withstanding
operating forces: mechanical and
magnetic
Provides primary heat removal from
indirect cooled stator winding

Core Assembly
Core

size determined by magnetic flux


requirements and flux density
Stator frame, core and winding are usually
factory assembled
Assembled stator is the heaviest generator
component for shipment and lifting, up to
500 tons

Core design
Stator Core
Alternating
Magnetic Flux
Conductor Bars
Stator Teeth

Building Bars

Sample Core Damage

Core Meltdown

Stator Core Tests

Stator Core Testing


Core

tightness test
Through Bolts Insulation
Core vibration test
Core loss test
Rated flux test
EL CID test
Evaluation of the condition of a core is a
major technical challenge

Core Tightness Testing

Suspected loose areas can be confirmed by a


Knife Test

This involves trying to insert a knife with a


0.25 mm (10 thou) tick blade into the core
bore (stator) or OD (rotor)

If the knife penetrates more than 5.0 mm (0.2


ins) then the core is loose

EDF Crabe

Knife Test

Core Loss Test


Core

is excited and power absorbed


measured by a wattmeter
Results are expressed as loss per mass of
core
Should not exceed about 6-10W/kg
Increase from previous test should not be
more than 5%

Rated Flux Test


Purpose and Theory

Used to check the integrity of the interlaminar


insulation

The excitation winding must have the


appropriate number of turns and a power
source capable of inducing approximately 80100% of rated flux in the back of the stator
core

The heat produced by circulating currents is


detected

Low Flux Stator Core testing

Weak link in the core is the lamination insulation


If it fails creates hot spots and can lead to core
melting and stator winding failure
Traditional test is the full flux test problems
detected by core heating at rated magnetic flux
In late 1970s the CEGB invented the
electromagnetic core imperfection detection
(ELCID) test which excites core to only 4% of
normal flux, and is much easier to perform

ELCID Evolution

Operating Principle

Any imperfections in the core produce fault


currents
Sense head coil (Chattock) detects fault
current
ELCID processor measures & displays results
Each 100 mA of detected fault current (at 4%
flux), corresponds to about a 5C temperature
rise on the full flux test

Fault Current

Accepted Test Methods


1) High Power Ring Flux Test - the LOOP test
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Large Power Supply Required ( up to 3 MVA)

Safety Concerns with High Voltage/Current

Expensive Thermal Sensing Equipment

2) ELectromagnetic Core Imperfection Detector - ELCID


z

Low Power Requirements (1-3 kVA)

No Safety Concerns due to High Voltage/Current

Accepted Test Methods-ELCID

POWER
SOURCE

Accepted Test Methods (LOOP)


Power
Cables

POWER
SOURCE

Required Excitation Levels

Loop Test

EL CID

80-100%

4%

(of rated flux density)

Understanding Fault Magnitude

4% 100mA
equates to 5-10C
on HFRT Test

Typical Turbo-generator
EL CID Excitation System

Typical Hydro-generator
EL CID Excitation System

Digital ELCID - Evolution

Method of Scanning

Reviewing Results

Interpretation of Data
QUAD signal
from fault within
Chattock span is
always opposite
polarity to
PHASE signal.

ELCID Signal and Thermal Response to Faults


Correlation of EL CID & HFRT results
700
650
600

EL CID
Signal
(mA)

550
500

Correlation boundary lines

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

HFRT values (Deg C)

From CIGRE Questionnaire 2003

40

45

50

55

60

EL CID for Rotor Bar Testing

EL CID for Rotor Bar Testing

CIGR Report 257, 2004


There seems to be general consensus that if
an EL CID test is performed and no damage is
found, then the core is defect free. EL CID has
gained good credibility in its ability to
determine and locate the presence of faults
and to verify repairs when faults are found.

EL CID Summary
z

Low Excitation Power - 4%

Fast, Portable - Easy to Setup

Low Manpower Requirements

Significant Reduction in Safety Hazards

Portability

Instant Interpretation of Test Results

Permanent Data Storage

Minimal Risk of Further Damage

Ability to Re-Test During Maintenance Cycle

Robotic Inspection Vehicle

Robotic Inspection Vehicle


-Speeds of 2, 4 or 6 meters per minute, forward & reverse.
-Can be used on slots from 65mm wide to virtually any
width.
-Has automatic guidance system and optical encoder for
distance recording.
-Magnetically self supporting on stator surface.
-Adjustable for machine curvature.
-Can be used on some machines for Rotor-in-situ testing.

Robotic Inspection Vehicle


Adjustable for
Curvature
Chattock Holders
for EL CID

Adjustable for width

RIV Mounted Wedge Tightness Detector (Optional)


X-Axis Distance Encoder
CCTV Camera Module (Optional)

RIV Summary
By running in the air
gap between rotor and
stator, the RIV can be
used to facilitate Rotorin-Place EL CID or
Wedge Tightness
testing, or visual
inspection using a
CCTV Camera.

Product Offering
EL CID

PDA/TGA/PPM/DCR

Stator Core Evaluation


z
z
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EL CID Evolution
RIV-702 Robot Inspection Vehicle
RIV-752 Video Camera

Stator Winding Evaluation


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z
z
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Wedge Tightness Detection


WTD-501 Wedge Tightness
Detector with hand-held and
robotic probes
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Portable and Continuous


ON-Line and OFF-Line
Direct Current Ramp Test
Corona Probe (PPM probe)

Shorted Rotor Turns Detection


z
z
z

RFA II S
RFA II R
Flux Trac II