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Hydrogen Energy

Author(s): P. P. Edwards, V. L. Kuznetsov and W. I. F. David
Source: Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 365, No
. 1853, Energy for the Future (Apr. 15, 2007), pp. 1043-1056
Published by: The Royal Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25190487
Accessed: 18-08-2015 10:16 UTC
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ac. Dorian Solomon & Banerjee. 1. Rutherford Appleton Chilton. sustainability and energy security. A (2007) 365. Oxfordshire0X11 0QX. Hydrogen is now widely regarded as one key element of a potential in issues of of assisting energy solution for the twenty-first century. any transition from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a involves hydrogen-based economy significant scientific.uk).1098/rsta. vector. South Parks Road. economic prosperity. distributed heat and power generation and energy storage systems with little or no impact on the environment. L.oxford. Kuznetsov1 1 University of Oxford. David2 V. Laboratory.212. Hydrogen: The principal the need to ? drivers behind energy energy. Edwards1'*. it But is the of environmental growth 2006). F. However.97 on Tue. R. energy cells. ensure security of energy supply and move towards the use of sustainable local and energy resources. a versatile a sustainable fuel storage. This journal is ? 2007 The Royal This content downloaded from 210. 2006. I. ? ? All modern-day assessments of global energy futures take the view that the in must demand met be growth increasingly by a diverse energy mix. production. including sources renewable or sustainable et al. Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory. 2005. safety carrier energy vision of our future centre on reduce global carbon dioxide emissions and improve local (urban) air quality. among these concerns is the issue of the release and accumulation into the atmosphere of * Author One for correspondence contribution (peter. energy (Johnston et al. P. UK The problem of anthropogenically driven climate change and its inextricable link to our global society's present and future energy needs are arguably the greatest challenge facing our planet. of 13 to a Discussion Meeting Issue 1043 'Energy for the future'. create a new industrial and technological crucial for future energy base. Soc. This brief report aims to outline the basis of the growing worldwide interest in hydrogen energy and examines some of the important issues relating to the future of hydrogen development Keywords: as an hydrogen. 1043-1056 THE ROYAL/* doi:10. UK 2ISIS Facility.edwards@chemistry.2006. capable environmental emissions. both locally and globally. Hydrogen has the potential to provide for energy in transportation. tangible concerns?now one of the is providing surely more evident than ever?which forces towards sustainable Foremost major driving energy development.1965 SOCIETY l\ Published online 1 February 2007 energy Hydrogen By P. Oxford 0X1 3QR. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Society . technological and socio-economic barriers. and W.PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS _OF__4 Phil Trans.23.

only by-product cells. there will be potentially disastrous concerns our are for climate. energy generally placed (Muradov & Veziroglu 2005). fossil fuels of The of replace point ability hydrogen being one of the environmental sector could address world's major transportation et al. solar. However. a potential increased energy carrier has in to cell fuel advances technology. major thereby provides namely the vexing problem of intermittency of supply. gases. and of fuel cell the advancement for with specific numerical hydrogen targets in the avenue has been of R&D A main activity hydrogen technologies. Such consequences global undoubtedly transforming the way we assess and use energy and its carriers. Edwards et al. wave. (coal. it is a genuinely 'green' fuel. Automotive exhaust emissions are among the problems (Jacobson in urban areas. many countries are now compiling roadmaps. A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. as a can used It be stored and natural and fuel non-renewable gas nuclear). solar. The importance of such developments inmany cases is rapidly increasing. operating using hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuels. and also contribute significantly to the world's can also be used as a storage medium from for electricity generated Hydrogen wave as it and tidal such renewable resources. produced renewable the of allows for introduction energy to the locally produced hydrogen economic and energy security sector. gas or oil.212. wind. Soc. Hydrogen and biomass and both renewable resources. primary energy hydrogen must which first be of electricity as a secondary produced using 'energy carrier'. and methods multiple hydrogen production as an energy carrier is obviously the of hydrogen attractions the principal can resources. in transportation and distributed heat and power generation systems using fuel or at the with the internal combustion turbines. intermittent.97 on Tue. major transportation in fuel cell vehicle R&D programmes. is an attractive unlike coal. one to of sustainable of the issues the solution energy. shifting the balance away from sources or sustainable our traditional base towards renewable hydrocarbon carbon dioxide of energy. geothermal) (hydro. investing heavily of role 1 central the illustrates hydrogen as an energy carrier linking Figure One of various end-user applications. As long as the hydrogen is from non-fossil fuel feedstock. These emissions are now (C02) and other climate-changing are deemed to be responsible far above levels and pre-industrial unquestionably for raising the world's the now-famous green temperature through (average) in the amount of carbon dioxide there are drastic reductions house effect. Hydrogen a more closely that source. R. have the potential the transition to a future sustainable factors in catalysing become major energy The of hydrogen importance over last decade. provides transport potentially large on distributed based infrastructure and the benefits of a new advantages It is this key element of the energy storage capacity of hydrogen that generation. not its mirrors is role Rather. for future use where its latent energy from another source and then transported can be obtained from diverse chemical energy can be fully realized.1044 P. especially largest single sources of air pollution carbon dioxide emission. 2005). in the world today. are manufacturers vehicle most the world's where of sector. engines use in the to water. power. Unless that we release from our activities. alternative fuel. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .23. a of from methods of Hydrogen variety production diversity Phil Trans. Moreover. P. the significantly as system with low carbon dioxide emissions. the energy technologies and a sustainable potent link between sustainable provides of 'hydrogen economy' the umbrella under economy. rapid owing to Fuel cells. wind.

production hydrogen can involve carbon substantial through dioxide generation. Trans. Such a diversity thermochemical cycles. pyrolysis | | plasmareforming ^^ solar energy (withCQ2 capture) 4| stationary/ v I-^s. technological economy hydrogen-based of hydrogen as the clean energy source economic barriers to the implementation of the future. Soc. on either fuel cells or combustion?where at an end-device?centred utilization be to power. I_I bbhM ^^ i-1 . Perhaps. (fossil fuel) energy system to and socio involves significant scientific. Research Council States National In 2004. a report published by the United 'The entitled of and National economy: hydrogen Engineering Academy Research Council needs' costs.97 on Tue. A typical energy chain for hydrogen will comprise production. natural gas and other hydrocarbons by a variety of produced or from water by electrolysis.212. waste. of renewable balancing electricity production electronics hydrogen hydrogen storage utilization production as an generation | ZZZ^^ZZZZZZl I locally ponaoie . and R&D opportunities. hydrogen to carbon reduce emissions. A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. vision of the the economy hydrogen achieving Phil. oiltransport I naturalgas steam reforming (with C02 gasification applications oxidation _ partial capture) | . . \^ ^\^^^^s^^ ofwater electrolysis ofwater^^^^ splitting photolytic thermalsplittingofwater I_v W &_I / ^^w "^T . from biomass and even municipal sources contributes of production significantly to the security of energy supply. / ^^^^ ^^ i .^_-~-?' ^-^r ofwater | I*electrolysis wind. Hydrogen to various /domestic / electricity/heat fermentationi i of water hydrogen X?I ^| ^/* ^ \ f "^^^v ^"^ \ ^^ I IVHbiomassI?v_-1 I Figure energy 1045 energy end-users.Hydrogen Icoal.23. -H-0^m hydro. (US National to hurdles that four stated of and National major Engineering Academy 2004) as are follows. together with enhanced security the most telling argument for a sustainable of energy supply. carrier Shaded linking multiple routes production methods. R. is the potential economy drastically (globally) a from a carbon-based the transition However. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . barriers. hydrogen its and and distribution storage ultimately through hydrogen delivery involve The utilization. photolytic splitting high-temperature techniques. energy would energy chain for sustainable hydrogen as the to yield hydrogen of sunlight or other energy sources the harvesting to its of this energy carrier and distribution the storage energy carrier. from coal.pyrolysis (sustainable) 1. it is converted confer The ultimate realization of a hydrogen-based economy could potentially enormous environmental and economic benefits.gasification 1-' storage (by-product) storedenergy _^ N. wave ^j{ ^ fission/fusion electrolysis thermal splitting of water .

be produced such as electricity or heat. However. liquefaction.1046 P. hydrogen to a situation where hydrogen is produced economy. Soc. In the following sections we outline just some of the challenges facing the transition to the hydrogen economy. biomass and pyrolysis (decomposition into hydrogen and (solid) carbon black accompanied solid waste municipal by its is industrial use and/or easy sequestration. Hydrogen production is the third most abundant Hydrogen it is invariably bound up in chemical from other therefore. To develop the infrastructure to provide hydrogen for the light-duty-vehicle user. it is clearly unsustainable that the safety and use. among principal (Turner 2004. promising without is carbon dioxide the release production hydrogen high-temperature in the absence of oxygen) of hydrocarbons.97 on Tue. Carbon processes gasification always yields carbon dioxide dioxide emissions. Edwards ? ? ? ? et al. sources using energy. At present. are our to and energy sequestration intensive. To reduce sharply the costs of hydrogen production from renewable energy sources over a time frame of decades.23. At present. we must clearly move these being water from non-fossil resources. or geological all the operations associated with However. P. of Phil. and chemical distribution element with compounds hydrogen-containing in the Earth's crust. can be efficiently at facilities the so-called dioxide carbon managed large-scale through which involves the and sequestration. costly potentially damaging The environment. the cost of this process steam than of that of natural gas. hydrogen is produced in large quantities from fossil fuels by steam reforming of natural gas and partial oxidation of coal or heavy hydrocarbons (see can take advantage also the article by Sigfusson methods of 2007). Trans. the principal cause of global climate change. storage. They can be used in the techniques term to meet hydrogen fuel demand and enable the proving and short to middle related to hydrogen testing of technologies production. To develop and introduce cost-effective. extended) which would also be used to fuel hydrogen fuel cell or internal combustion vehicles. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. These economies of scale and are currently the cheapest and most established for the large-scale production of hydrogen. key risk results from the uncertain long-term ecological carbon dioxide route of A more consequences sequestration. is driven by hydrogen derived from hydrocarbons. hydrogen economy The manufacture of hydrogen from fossil fuels using reformation and as a by-product. The 2.g. To capture and store the C02 by-product of hydrogen production ('sequester') from coal and natural gas. capture. distribution.212. transportation of carbon in dioxide natural and oil wells gas storage underground depleted (e. formations). significantly higher reforming to achieve the benefits of a truly sustainable energy However. R. but other elements. vision of such an integrated energy system for the future would combine and small fuel cells for domestic and decentralized heat and electricity large with local (or more power generation hydrogen supply networks. in the long term. It must. safe and environmentally desirable fuel cell systems and hydrogen storage systems. durable.

Soc. growth of more biomass (thereby counted a if fertilizers are used to grow be made.212. This of power of the Sun. current The for delivering conventional fuels to transportation system consumers cannot be easily transformed for use with hydrogen. The commercial and photo-biological temperature decomposition an efficiency of 75%. resource could be a good source of a clean. local hydrogen for trans initially supply refilling stations as the first inroad into the portation use?widely regarded major hydrogen the components of a national economy. expensive significantly to the cost of hydrogen for end-users. and entirely new design concepts. but certainly will not meet the volumes use as the new energy source. and this ammonia synthesize from hydrocarbons. chemical process power. A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. wind. International Energy Agency from renewable derived energy resources (e. A recent US Department is of water report suggests that the solar photodecomposition Energy (DoE) to a C02-free route for the the only major?but long-term?solution probably mass production if the hydrogen economy is to of the huge volumes of H2 needed of Energy.Hydrogen energy 1047 can be produced by splitting water 2006). of hydrogen by electrolysis of water achieves production however. abundant and carbon-free for hydrogen production. Hydrogen processes.23. point must cautionary a is used to incur this will of necessity 'C02 cost' since ammonia crops/biomass. Ewan & Allen 2005. but this can be recycled by the hydrogen. novel synthetic techniques emerging physical phenomena. wave. R. Electricity tidal) might provide local hydrogen needs. However. of hydrogen required globally for its widespread reformation of biomass of hydrogen via biological Production using micro ifone could indeed demonstrate is clearly attractive organisms and fermentation the necessary huge volumes of could be used to produce that such an approach releases carbon dioxide. hydrogen delivery and Phil. without the use of into its constituents. photo-electrolysis. Current nuclear electricity that can be used to (fission) technology generates reactors are of water. The present gas (200 bar) in steel tube options for transporting hydrogen include compressed a tanks and few of local networks of cylinders. high including water splitting. Advanced nuclear produce hydrogen by the electrolysis water also being developed that will enable high-temperature electrolysis (with or thermochemical less electrical energy needed) cycles that will use heat and a to dissociate water. the cost of hydrogen is currently several times higher than that produced et al. nitrogen. various through Sherif Penner from fossil fuels (Dutton 2002. Achieving low-cost emerge (US Department of hydrogen and efficient solar energy production of requires development innovative materials. Trans. hydrogen directly route therefore harvests the 'solar hydrogen'. Fusion if successfully developed. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . direct conversion of process that uses solar energy to split water sunlight through a photocatalytic and oxygen. is synthesized and from hydrogen fertilizers. This method as a carbon dioxide neutral activity). Office of Science 2003). to split water from our oceans. ideal production electricity. New concepts will be needed to reduce costs while standards from the of delivery retaining high safety point production through to refuelling end-users. 2006). the former currently produced The holy grail of hydrogen production will be the efficient. 2005. Subsequently. electrolysis.97 on Tue. liquid hydrogen examples are All these and contribute options hydrogen pipelines.g. The basic components of a hydrogen delivery infrastructure therefore need to to be developed.

it also has a very low energy density per unit volume (table 1). However. 4 that (less bar). or or wind from biofuels. Hydrogen storage by many as one of the crucial and the most use of hydrogen as an effective to the widespread technically challenging barrier et carrier al. localized) and on centre stations would small-scale generation hydrogen fuelling plants with new for areas etc. solar.23.97 on Tue. and safety under operating cost of hydrogen storage system of less than ?15/kg. sensors and controls.212.1048 P. The construction of a new hydrogen network would require investment and development of new significant accompanied by research low-cost compressor materials. ? ? Phil Trans. effective (small-scale) or other advanced hydrogen production methods. refilling stations households reformation units using electrolysis of water. but C02 sequestration might not be as effective as for large-scale centralized production. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Viable storage hydrogen is considered and constrains. as well technology. production entirely cost. energy any weight-for-weight Unfortunately. seals. hydrogen production might fit better with accessible fuel distribution. temperature operating fast kinetics of hydrogen uptake/release. hydrogen locally. and volumetric hydrogen densities high gravimetric (greater than or equal to 9 wt% and greater than or equal to 70 g of H2 per litre of storage system). in the range from ?50 to 150?C. the high penetration ideal long-term option for hydrogen distribution will be a grid of hydrogen centralized facilities with stationary pipelines connecting hydrogen production users and mobile filling stations. The transportation sector is believed to be different requirements user of hydrogen in the future hydrogen the first high-volume economy. providing supply of low-cost hydrogen. natural gas is not available. as refilling stations' infrastructure required to ensure the safety of any hydrogen delivery system. in some areas. The hydrogen economy will require two types of hydrogen storage systems. itmight still be cheaper to produce or at remote for example. Localized e. contains more energy 2004.e. When rates of hydrogen in energy sector are reached.g. conditions and public acceptance. In those where requirements size. P. since it is the lightest chemical element of the periodic table. distribution a reliable network should be constructed. R. Edwards et al. 3. Hydrogen on a basis than other substance. or ammonia. et Harris al. one for transportation and another for stationary Both have applications. A model of decentralized for local power hydrogen production (i. A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. Soc. hydrogen could be best produced on-site from water. The are far more for storage requirements transportation applications hydrogen than those for These stringent stationary applications. methanol via electricity?ideally from renewable energy sources. (Crabtree 2004). requirements operating for the 'ideal' hydrogen include storage system for transportation applications the following: ? ? multicycle reversibility pressure low-operating ? ? ? of hydrogen uptake/release (not less than 500 cycles).

at the moment.and long-term targets set for transportation hydrogen of Energy. R.3 0. storage stationary hydrogen and pressures and systems can occupy a large area. with gravimetric hydrogen density of up to 10 wt%.2 7.55 1.6 13. Even with the best available insulation.53 liquid hydrogen hydrogen (200 bar) liquid storage hydrogen are excluded). 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .16 4. hydrogen gas storage options have centred upon high-pressure or cryogenically containers cooled fluid Traditional steel hydrogen. hydrogen For and volume restrictions of hydrogen stationary applications. the boil-off rates are not less than 1% per day use. Nevertheless.69 set of stringent (and coupled) scientific represents a major requirements a for of for the development viable hydrogen storage transportation challenge there are simply no hydrogen use. operate at high temperatures to compensate have extra capacity for slow kinetics. that the density of water. especially At present. these high-pressure cylinders are costly and require complex and expensive filling equipment. Office of Science storage systems (US Department 2003). Gravimetric and energy (specific) sources and (note: volumetric weight and energy 1049 energy volume content of fuels. One aspect of the problem of storing simultaneously in figure 2.23.8?C and 1 bar.3 13.8 gl_1 at this density is still 14 times less 252.0 LiBH4 6.6 8. as well as the mid.9 natural gas (200 bar) petrol diesel coal 12.0 0. challenge.37 33. of the container fuel specific energy (kWhkg-1) natural options energy density (kWhdm-3) 2. However.Hydrogen Table 1. since the density of liquid hydrogen gravimetric density than compressed ? is 70. However. hydrogen use also a major for stationary scientific and technical storage represents This in the area of storage materials. as a cryogenic of hydrogen Storage liquid offers a significantly higher gas.8 9. A serious Phil Trans.6 4.2 3.3 33.97 on Tue. Recently developed grade carbon fibre can store hydrogen at a pressure in the region of 700-1000 bar. 5. where is illustrated the volume and weight of hydrogen on-board is shown for different storage methods storing of 4 kg of hydrogen (4 kg of is enough to drive a fuel cell car for 500 km).212. weight storage are less critical than those for vehicles. A (2007) This content downloaded from 210.5 methanol wood electricity (Li-ion battery) 4. tanks for transportation for small While with compressed and liquid storage options hydrogen is easily accessible for use. these storage methods cannot meet many of the requirements summarized above.9 gas 2. (liquefied) at 200 bar and have a gravimetric cylinders can store hydrogen density of 1 wt% (1 wt% of stored hydrogen is equal to 186Wh kg-1 of stored approximately ultra-high density composite cylinders made of high energy).5 12. storage systems that could meet all these criteria.45.6 10. Cryogenic liquid vessels require very efficient in order to keep the hydrogen insulation in the liquid phase. Soc.

It is seen that neither hydrogen chemically can meet the mid-term storage options cryogenic nor high-pressure hydrogen use DoE of Energy. Another crucial issue that confronts the use of high-pressure and cryogenic on centres and with associated the use of storage public perception acceptability containment. represents magnesium (or some combination the only method enabling one to achieve the necessary gravimetric and volumetric 2003). preparation low-energy poisoning by impurities. boron. for the ideal storage material. (b) At normal a a 4 size of of of volume 48 the volume medium balloon. Edwards ^HP^ ^m^ ^BB^ et al.212. be safe on exposure to air and have the ability to be regenerated and reusable and a set be readily recycled. using a resistant to trace be method. at present.23. the transition to hydrogen economy (Crabtree In figure 3. and this ismost likely to occur in the most viable alternative to compressed and or in the of solids The storage liquid hydrogen. Harris et al. namely liquids. hydrogen of new solid-state hydrogen could herald a step storage materials development downside of these methods energy content of hydrogen impact on change in the technology of hydrogen storage and would have a major a et al. (a) The volume of 4 kg of hydrogen in different ways. conditions. and aluminium of these elements).1050 P. A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. 2004. no single material requirements.97 on Tue. using target densities. in charged and uncharged have a good thermal conductivity conditions. such as lithium. ^^BiHBP^ Mg2NiH4 H2 (liquid) H2 (200bar) MgH2 l^Hl^^P^BHli^ /?F *-^8 MMHMK||^^^ 2. For transportation should be able use. and gas pressurized liquid hydrogen It is clear that hydrogen storage requires a major technological breakthrough. a suitable solid-state storage material to store a high weight per cent and a high volume density of hydrogen and at?or to?room absorb and desorb close and temperature rapidly hydrogen a such material should be made from materials pressure. we display the gravimetric and volumetric of energy densities stored using various storage methods. Soc. Trans. Figure compacted together with the weight are of hydrogen and volume of a container storage material (note: weight excluded). P. sodium. cheap Ideally. R. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions meets all . kg occupies m3. This of clearly represents particularly challenging credentials of these Phil. Office of Science targets for transportation (US Department It is becoming that solid-state storage accepted increasingly hydrogen ionic-covalent hydrides of light elements. hydrogen is also a significant energy penalty?up to 20% of the is required to compress the gas and up to 30% to liquefy it. 2004).

studied.23. hydrogen storage represents material. storage target' options (note: weight of the US Department are Metal hydrides etc.212. and dissociation) chemical characterized the formation of 'chemical by distinct hydrides' covalent bonding. Phil. Gravimetric Figure of the storage and volume for 2015 target Energy conventional. R. is the weakest of the hydrogen bindings. The hydrogen adsorption Physical on a that a material the surface. oetrol of the hydrides light^ chemcalelements W ^^ S ****** density toQtid hydrogen l^^^^K^^^^^^^^^^^r a 40 h ^4^^^^^^ 20 compressed H2 (700bar) [. in addition. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Hydrogen energy 1051 14of diesel sTinnL <n ^ <T 120r . (2007) This content downloaded from 210. of hydrogen storage materials intrinsic properties and behaviour depend the precise nature of the interactions of hydrogen with the host material. low temperature in carbon ball-milled is achieved (? 196?C) are to for 50 effective and high pressure storage in required hydrogen bar) (up carbon. metal-organic including and various carbons._r_ 15 10 5 H2 density (wt% ofHj) gravimetric and 3. Several classes of high surface framework have been materials zeolites. now focus on a detailed of the efforts worldwide Substantial understanding nature of the and physical chemical processes hydrogen-material governing in as a prelude advances to the required interactions necessary 'step-change' this area. Trans. 'ideal* hydrogen such as LaNir). of hydrogen by the material chemical absorption hydrogen (and concomitant chemical formation of with the bonds.97 on Tue. However. The upon There ? ? ? metal heavy volumetric container set for hydrides densities are an of various 'DoE included).^Q^^P 0 i__1-_i_ tank hydrogen liquid ?_. Soc. which means form molecules monolayer usually with a very high surface area is required to achieve anything coming close to an area attractive hydrogen storage capacity (figure 4). are several types of such interactions. A the ball-milling process is long and energy intensive. The highest hydrogen storage capacity of 8 wt% compounds in hydrogen. which are as follows: on the surface (exterior or interior) of the of H2 molecules physical adsorption material.

are a class of ionic-covalent The most promising hydrogen storage materials as formed such and lithium. Hydrogen under controlled heating of the solid. more to much is fundamental research understand the required 2006). the exception appears to be NaAlH4. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . tion). FeTiHx hydrides (e. LaNi5H6. Soc. converting hydrogen and other hydrogen-bearing A fuel cell is a device akin to a continuously recharging battery. arguably. boron. to and chemical the and release and processes physical hydrogen storage governing in the of characteristics this class improve hydrogen absorption/desorption to meet hydrogen storage requirements.212. a fuel cell reaction of hydrogen and oxygen generates electricity by the electrochemical store energy.g. which can function as a reversible new chemical routes have been developed store with suitable catalysts. clean and economic for its utilization and techniques to electricity /heat. Hydrogen utilization use of hydrogen as an energy carrier will depend significantly on The widespread the availability of efficient. which until recently were believed to be solid-phase high-temperature irreversible. sites in the metallic dissociated and occupies interstitial (alloy) matrix. Though the hydrogen volumetric density in is higher than that in liquid hydrogen these materials (figure 3). magnesium hydrides by light elements. for activating hydrogen uptake/release under mild conditions (Johnson 2005) and novel promising hydrogen storage materials have been discovered (Chater et al. R.97 on Tue. Recently.1052 P. fuels into electricity. hydrogen chemisorption. (b) ? % 4. in aluminium. adsorption. sodium. P. Schematic of hydrogen and (a) adsorption (physisorption) (b) absorption In remain in molecules molecular intact. Higher materials for on-board of storage hydrogen can be therefore achieved gravimetric hydrogen density only using hydrides of the light chemical elements of the periodic table. Edwards (a) et al.23. MgNiH4). materials 4. An important difference is that batteries Phil Trans. the weight of the is unpractical in vehicles. Figure (chemisorp hydrogen is In conventional metal the 7. maximum is of around absorbed hydrogen storage capacity chemically hydrogen 4 wt%. these materials involves Hydrogen usually absorption/desorption transitions. The synergistic complementarity conversion of hydrogen and routes to a sustainable energy electricity represents one of the most appealing most and fuel cells the efficient conversion device for future. A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. while fuel from the air. provide. Such metal hydrides can safely and effectively store hydrogen within their is first 'sorbed' into the material and is released crystal structure. However.

23. Unlike across most of their cells demonstrate output power range. Trans. energy applications or electrodes and separated by a solid or liquid electrolyte cathode) (anode are a membrane and oxygen hydrogen-containing (or fuel) (figure 5). A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Soc. operating Phil. When heat and power systems. Schematic of a fuel cell (figure drawn by Karl Harrison. heat low emissions Figure 5. as long as fuel and air are supplied. hydrogen engines. The electrolyte or membrane enables the transport of ions between the electrodes while the excess electrons flow through an external circuit to provide electrical current.212.97 on Tue. compared present-day efficiency in fuel cells is also used in combined heat generated driven car engines. cells can produce electricity continuously Several types of fuel cells operating on a variety of fuels and suitable for different but all share the basic design of two have been developed. Because fuel cells are not subject to the intrinsic limitations of the Carnot than double the efficiency of cycle.Hydrogen energy 1053 1 water. University of Oxford). even nitrogen oxides. Hydrogen reactions fed into the anode and cathode of the fuel cell and the electrochemical assisted by catalysts take place at the electrodes. an overall efficiency in excess of 85% can be (CHP) achieved internal combustion engines or turbines. virtually no pollutant Hydrogen only range of emissions. because they operate in the temperature is of which much lower than the normal temperature 60-120?C. This high efficiency a of from mobile phone makes fuel cells ideal for applications variety scalability or decentralized to vehicle centralized batteries applications through large-scale stationary power generation. they convert fuel into electricity at more In fuel cell engines internal combustion transportation. R. fuel (Duttons 2002). an to to at for of 25% up operate petrol 65%. Fuel cells are now emerging as a leading technology to replace more polluting in vehicle combustion and distributed internal energy stationary engines water emit have fuel cells and applications.

Hydrogen (Winter & Brodd that of electric batteries could also deliver much lifetime than longer operational and the same energy as traditional provide simultaneously high specific combustion engines.212. which can contribute to a in emission and local reduction both pollution. owing high efficiency of inevitably fuel cells. A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. of presently available with very high pressures and low temperatures associated high-pressure and cryogenic hydrogen storage methods. hydrogen must be considered of fuel-cell-powered have concerns about the safety and dependability equipment. significant greenhouse gas to replace a large proportion of current Fuel cells have the very real potential energy systems. clean and quiet energy conversion. at least twice as much useful energy for a given amount of hydrocarbon in fuel cells than using direct combustion of the fuel. R. Despite has an as other fuels and as a chemical component 'merchant hydrogen') (so-called extraordinary safety record during many decades of use in industrial applications. However. storage materials. devices new dispensing etc. just as they had about other modern technology. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . seen as an attractive are fuel cell vehicles also increasingly Hydrogen-fuelled to other zero-emission alternative vehicles such as battery-driven electric cars. Many solid-state hydrogen like metal hydrides. currently the focus of intense development activity applications.97 on Tue. worldwide.1054 P. in theory. P. a internal combustion fuel cell vehicles engines. fuel can be produced even fuel cells fuelled by hydrocarbon to provide much fuels do have the potential more efficient. the chemical energy density of hydrogen is significantly higher than that because fuel cells found in electric battery materials 2004).23. They offer a very attractive technology evolution path delivering on available fuels. a technological and not is issue. 5. fuel can be used in different types of fuel cells (employing an Any hydrogen-rich fuel external or internal fuel reforming process). or new an materials and in of intensive the research improved development requires in and mobile of fuel both cells commercial could provide stationary viability Fuel cell cars. or indeed beyond. but also the major psychological only Safety To be of the the issue economy. complete fuel could be sourced from renewable routes. accepted hydrogen adoption facing sociological will undoubtedly safe. hydrocarbon today's commercially significant efficiency gains an becomes while also offering high efficiency in the future when hydrogen hurdles must still alternative energy carrier. to real (i. are not expected to reach mass market until 2015. Therefore. are inherently safer for hydrogen storage. Apart hydrogen flammability. Soc. but using a hydrocarbon-based a a to to leads carbon emission. Consumers by the public. Phil Trans. Hydrogen-powered provide if the hydrogen life cycle) zero emissions route. as petrol or natural gas poses safety risks of the same order ofmagnitude Hydrogen and like other fuels hydrogen can be used safely with appropriate handling and concerns are also there from safety system design. The key scientific and technical challenges facing fuel cells are cost reduction and increased durability This of materials and components. Hydrogen safety of barrier to the early introduction Safety concerns will present a potential its perceived reputation. hydrogen is at least as safe hydrogen technologies. Edwards et al. dioxide However.e. various major technological be overcome before fuel cells can compete effectively with conventional energy conversion technologies..

F. building custo where and residential applications. An important of and adoption factor in promoting public confidence will be the development Education standards. Chem. challenges transportation. Commun. and P. transportation. development hydrogen production. and residential industrial However.. our of carbon-based the transition global energy economy ultimately The of and sustainable renewable economy. have unknown hydrogen of molecular emissions to increased due mental effects hydrogen to anthropogenic that is et It al.1039/ Phys. I. (Tromp and various chemical in stratospheric gases and a greenhouse cycles of H20 in to lead in its concentration increase substantial equilibrium changes might accurate More of the stratosphere. 2439-2441. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 2006 Synthesis (doi: 10. 2004). Counterbalanced to the environment against damage with are associated real concerns the for C02 very dangers hydrogen potential emissions?now occurring^.. A (2007) This content downloaded from 210. P.Hydrogen energy 1055 for is necessary confidence The introduced. V. Li4BH4(NH2)3. P. M. on one no carbon new centres a that energy economy?and longer creating and scientific breakthroughs and substantial fuels?are significant require a and continued social with political coupled developments technological is still a long road to travel before a true hydrogen energy There commitment.97 on Tue. Conclusion factor in catalysing for becoming a major potential Hydrogen has an outstanding to a clean. S. crystal David. G. & Buchanan. structure b518243c) Crabtree. A. R. of course. R. Trans.. 6. and codes product projects. of Johnson.212. 23.. accepted internationally in order to facilitate a successful should be developed and marketing exposure of hydrogen as an alternative fuel (Schulte et al. S. A. & Anderson. communities We have 10-20 years before hydrogen is widely used as an energy carrier to take when were they and prevent its possible environmental impact. portable stationary. W.23. Hydrogen security availability vector and key as an alternative countries in many energy important in the sustainable for future power. mers will interact directly with hydrogen and fuel cell technology. M. Dresselhaus. the atmosphere hydrogen participates recognized 2003). revolution can occur?but exciting journey! References Chater. this will be a compelling. necessary actions to understand in the past when the from those occurring different is This situation radically harmful effect of freon and other chemicals was understood only after significant these had been done. cells are considered and fuel of and energy supply. W. 39-44. Phil. Edwards. is set to play a central role in addressing technologies storage and utilization as well as the future growing concerns over carbon emissions and climate change. introduction and acceptance environ use of The widespread could. 57. Soc. Today . P. of constituent concentration components as of several as well better of the understanding stratospheric processes modelling on its microbial in and effect soil as such factors other uptake hydrogen is required to assess potential adverse effects of hydrogen economy. energy systems stationary technologies the of sectors. 2004 The hydrogen economy.

2005.2003. M. Tyndall Centre of merit figure of routes the to hydrogen.1016/j. with hydrogen fuel-cellvehicles. K. 809-819. Sz Edwards. 2004 Allen. production.1126/ (doi: 10. 1109157) et al..uk/publications/working_ A 2005 Energy P. Policy http://www. Z. P.enpol. Hydrogen Energy 29.sc.1126/science. grand 1. Washington.1016/j..1098/rsta. Muradov.1016/j.. 240. A. Solar Energy 78.solener. W. Available 7.033) Penner. S. T. J.97 on Tue. Sz Banerjee. 33-43. Council costs. Barbir. D. R.pdf.1960) B. 2003 Potential 30. the J. 225-237.060) der Vorst. P.1016/j.03.2004.ijhydene. Fuel P. Dorian. Ewan.1021/cr020730k) Phil Trans. C. policy. Anderson. hydrogen Y. 2006 Global in energy.tyndall. of the technology. Department on Hydrogen Sciences of the Basic Production. M. Colella.. Sz Allen. and National Academy barriers. M.. 2005 activation Chemical a new of MgH2. 18 Aug 2015 10:16:16 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions The National Chem. (doi: 10.. Hart. the air and improving health 2005 Cleaning Johnson. L. 972-974.1016/j. R. A. Chem. impact science.007) Tromp.1016/j. 1901-1905.2004. Book.11. G. the hydrogen towards Steps 2004. International D. T. for Climate Change.212. Mayo. 2006 A survey global of hydrogen energy research. (doi: 10. P. 2004 What and R&D are batteries. Z. R. 781-792.1056 P. Solomon. and development environmental (doi: 10.enpol. 647-660. Phil.005) N. D. Jacobson. (doi: 10.doe. 2002 Hydrogen energy technology. 569-585. Sz Yung. B.energy.technovation.006) (doi: 10. Sz Veziroglu.2005. Sz van D. and storage. 677-685. N. et al. 2006 I. A. N.1039/b503085d) Johnston. R.ac. Energy Policy 34. Issues 31. T. and Report US National Research economy: Academies Winter. Edwards J. Sz Simbeck. Sz Brodd. 104. 1103197) US for the hydrogen research needs Office of Science 2003 Basic of Energy. Washington. J. M. route to superior materials. A. Franssen. 1984-1991.ijhydene. (doi:10. R&D and 2006 Hydrogen priorities Energy Agency production from: http://www.09. of hydrogen fuel. From 2005 to hydrogen to hydrogen-carbon hydrocarbon economy.003) R. Soc. (doi: 10. R. Hydrogen Energy SO.02. opportunities.2005. 2004 the storage: Hydrogen Int. Science Science 305.23. Sz Khare. 2005 the energy Hydrogen: source hydrogen storage for the 21st century. 1025-1042. Hydrogen Energy SO.002) as an energy A 365.1016/j.-L. 22. Int. Int. J. T.org/Textbase/papers/2006/hydrogen. Commun. I. available DC. (doi:10. Use. from: K. on economy Sustainable Eiler. S.ijhydene.010) Dutton A. R. M. Sz Golden. Soc. . S. stratosphere. 2004 economy. R. Harris. challenges 34. Science 308.html. 4245-4269. available gaps. 17-23. papers/wpl B. to hydrogen carrier. Shia.iea. energy and the hydrogen economy?review Sherif. R. 1740-1742. Storage Workshop Energy from: http://www.. 2005 Wind F. Technovation 25. R.2006.pdf. G. economy. Schulte. M. 2007 Pathways Sigfusson. Cell A.. C. of Engineering 2004 The hydrogen p.gov/bes/reports/list.. Rev.1126/science. and DC: supercapacitors? (2007) This content downloaded from 210.. (doi:10. Energy the acceptance affecting J. (doi:10.04.08.Tyndall Working Paper TWP 30.1016/j. (doi:10.2003. fuel cells. 2823-2825. S. Press.03. A needs. Trans. Sz Veziroglu. T. (doi:10. 17. (doi:10. of a hydrogen 1085169) J. p. H. Turner. W. Rev. The challenge.01.