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English Language

Marshall

Cavendish

Teachers
Guide
6
Appendices

Dr Cheah Yin Mee Tan See Keen


Project Advisor: Dr Beverly Derewianka

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Appendix 1A

WRITING TEXT FRAMES


THE NARRATIVE TEXT FRAME

Title:
Reading: Use this text frame to gather the main ideas of the story.
Writing: Use this text frame to plan the ideas for your story.
Orientation
Introduces the
people involved
(characters), where
and when the
incident happened

Problem
Introduces the
problem the
character(s) face

Resolution
Describes how the
problem is solved

Ending
Ends with the
characters
reflections or the
moral of the story

Appendices

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Check!
I have used:
Past tense
Rich, descriptive words
Direct speech

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Appendix 1B

WRITING TEXT FRAMES


THE RECOUNT TEXT FRAME

Title:
Reading: Use this text frame to gather the main ideas of the recount.
Writing: Use this text frame to plan the ideas for your recount.
Orientation
Introduces the
people involved
(participants),
where and when
the incident
happened

Sequence of
Events
Records a series
of events in
the sequence
in which they
happened
Provides details
to help the reader
visualise what
happened and
how

Ending
Reflects on what
happened the
writers comments
or feelings about
the recount

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Check!
I have used:
Past tense
Descriptive words
Connectors (e.g. of time)

Appendices

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Appendix 1C

WRITING TEXT FRAMES

THE EXPLANATION TEXT FRAME

Title:
Reading: Use this text frame to gather the main ideas and details of the explanation.
Writing: Use this text frame to plan the main ideas and details for your explanation.
Introduction
A description about
the topic

Paragraphs about
the topic
More information
is given about the
topic using main
ideas and details.

Conclusion
A general
statement about
the topic

Appendices

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Check!
I have used:
Present tense
Passive voice
Connectors (e.g. of
reason, cause or purpose)
Technical terms

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Appendix 1D

WRITING TEXT FRAMES

THE INFORMATION REPORT TEXT FRAME

Title:
Reading: Use this text frame to gather the main ideas and details of the information report.
Writing: Use this text frame to plan the ideas and details for your information report.
Introduction
A general
statement about
the topic

Paragraphs about
the topic
More information
is given about the
topic using
subheadings, main
ideas and details

Conclusion
Key points and a
general statement
about the topic

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Check!
I have used:
Present tense
Vivid description of facts
Connectors (e.g. compare
or contrast)

Appendices

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Appendix 1E

WRITING TEXT FRAMES


THE EXPOSITION TEXT FRAME

Title:
Reading: Use this text frame to gather the main arguments and evidence of the exposition.
Writing: Use this text frame to plan the arguments and evidence for your exposition.
Introduction
Establishes the
authors position or
point of view

Paragraphs
stating the
arguments
A series of
arguments and
evidence to support
the position taken

Conclusion
A short summary
of the arguments
and a concluding
statement to
restate the
position taken

Appendices

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Check!
I have used:
Present tense
Strong verbs and
adjectives
Emotive words
Facts

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Appendix 2

WRITING CHECKLIST
How can you produce good writing? Use the checklists below to help you plan and write
your composition well. Add a tick (), cross () or question mark in the boxes where
relevant. Then make the necessary revisions to your composition.
1. Ideas
The heart of any piece of writing is the topic. You need to select a topic or decide how you
will deal with the assigned topic. You should have relevant ideas based on your knowledge
or experience to support your topic. You must also have enough details to make your writing
come alive.
1.

Are my ideas clear and focused?

Are my details relevant and interesting?

3.

Do my details support my topic?

4.

Do my ideas engage the reader?

2. Organisation
Organisation is the structure of a piece of writing. Effective organisation should begin with a
solid introduction, a body comprising paragraphs in a logical order and a conclusion that ends
the writing well.
1.

Does my writing begin with an introduction that grabs the readers


attention?

Do I develop my ideas in a logical manner?

3.

Do I use connectors to show how ideas are connected ?

4.

Does my conclusion wrap up my ideas well and satisfy the reader?

3. Word Choice
For your writing to stand out, you must choose the right words at the right time.
1.

Have I used words that are specific and add meaning to my writing?

Have I used words that are well-suited to the type of text I am writing?
Narratives and Recounts (lively verbs, vivid adjectives, similes,
metaphors)
Explanations and Information Reports (passive verbs, precise nouns,
technical terms)
Expositions (strong verbs, persuasive and emotive words)

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Appendices

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4. Sentence Fluency
This trait refers to the writing of sentences in varied lengths using language that is a pleasure
to read. It means beginning sentences in different ways and writing with rhythm. Sentences
flow smoothly, adding meaning and interest to the writing. One way to ensure sentence
fluency is to read your sentences aloud.
1.

Does my writing flow smoothly from one idea to another?

Do my sentence beginnings provide a useful focus for the reader?

3.

Do my sentences vary in length (short and long sentences)?

4.

Do I use connectors to join my ideas?

5.

Are there any parts of my writing that are difficult to read aloud?

5. Conventions
The conventions are the finishing touches to your writing. This is when you check for spelling,
grammar and punctuation errors. Editing for conventions is a final but important step in
preparing a piece of writing for a reader.
1.

Are my words spelt correctly?

Is my grammar and usage correct?

3.

Are my punctuation marks accurate?

4.

Is my paragraphing sound and does it reinforce the organisation of


my writing?

6. Voice
This trait is probably the most challenging to deliver. Your writing should sound like there is a
real person behind it. Your purpose of writing and the type of readers you are writing for will
determine the voice you should use.

1.

Does my writing sound like me?

2.

Is my voice appropriate for my purpose? Does it suit my purpose to


inform, entertain, persuade or motivate readers to take action?

3.

Is my voice or tone appropriate for my target readers? Have I made a


connection with the reader in my choice of ideas and words?

Appendices

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Appendix 3

WRITING RUBRICS
Rubrics are statements that can help you evaluate a piece of writing.
Evidence
Ideas

Showed some
relevant ideas

Organisation

No clear introduction Showed the use of an Showed an effective


or conclusion
introduction, body
introduction, body
No evident structure
and conclusion
and conclusion
Used a few
Ideas well-linked by
connectors to link
connectors
some ideas

Word Choice

Used a limited
vocabulary

Words are used to


Showed a good
communicate clearly,
choice of words that
but writing lacks
are specific to the text
variety
type and helped to
add meaning to the
writing

Sentence
Fluency

Sentences are
awkwardly
constructed,
repetitive, or difficult
to understand

Most sentences are


well constructed,
have a similar
structure and/or
length

Conventions

Several grammatical Few grammatical


errors that
errors which do not
interfere with the
interfere with the
understanding of the
understanding of the
text
text
Spelled some words Spelled most words
correctly
correctly
Used punctuation
Used punctuation
correctly sometimes
correctly most of the
time

Used grammar
accurately and
appropriately
Made no errors
in spelling and
punctuation

Voice

Purpose of writing is
unclear
No evidence of
any attention to
audience

Purpose of writing is
very clear
Strong evidence
of attention to the
audience

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Showed some
relevant, interesting
and focused ideas

Purpose of writing is
somewhat clear
Some evidence of
attention to the
audience

Showed interesting,
clear and focused
ideas
Ideas are well
developed, complex
and relevant,
illustrated by rich and
unusual detail

Sentences are well


constructed and ideas
flow smoothly
Showed a good
variety of short and
long sentences

Appendices

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Appendix 4

READING ALOUD RUBRICS


Rubrics are statements that can help you evaluate the performance in a reading aloud task.
Evidence

10

Pronunciation
/ Enunciation

Read parts of the


passage clearly with
several errors in
pronounciation

Fluency

Some false starts


Fluent, occasional
Fluent and expressive
and extended
breaks in smoothness
with small breaks,
pauses, slow and
Difficulty with
but they are quickly
jerky reading of
specific words and
resolved
words
structures
Multiple attempts to
read some words

Volume

Read inaudibly

Some variation in
volume

Appropriate volume

Tone

Read monotonously
with little expression

Some variation in
tone

Suitable tone
variation

Pace

Read slowly and


hesitantly

Read smoothly, but


with some uneven
pace

Read consistently,
well-paced

Appendices

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Read the passage


quite clearly with
a few errors in
pronunciation

Read the passage


clearly and
consistently with
good pronunciation

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Appendix 5

RUBRICS FOR STIMULUS-BASED CONVERSATION


Rubrics are statements that can help you evaluate the performance in a
stimulus-based conversation.
Evidence
Response

Appeared to
understand what
was said, but only
gave occasional
responses, even with
repeated prompting

Responded and
made simple
interpretations by
answering simple
questions

Showed a good
understanding of the
topic by giving a full
response

Fluency

Expressed ideas in a
hesitant manner

Articulated ideas
quite fluently

Articulated ideas
clearly and fluently

Pronunciation
/ Enunciation

Several errors in
in grammar and
pronunciation

A few errors in
grammar and
pronunciation

Used good grammar


and pronunciation

Body
Language

Established eye
contact occasionally
and was shy and
inhibited

Established eye
contact most
of the time and
was generally
confident during the
conversation

Established eye
contact all the time
and displayed
self-confidence
during the
conversation

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Appendices

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