V
B
Kislinsky
and
VI
Yukalov
In
the
present
paper
we
investigate
acrossover
of
the
typewhere
Hamiltonian
parametersarechanging
so
that
itundergoesacontinuoustransformation
between
the
short
and
longrangeforms.
A
combination
of
short
and
longrangepotentials
is
quite
realistic
forsome
materials.Magneticalloys
inwhich
there
exists
aspinorbital
interaction,
besides
thespinspininteraction,
mayserve
as
an
example
[13].
The
appearance
of
magnetic
links
withdifferent
interaction
radii
can
be
also
dueto
the
presence
ina
magnetofdefects
or
boundaries
[
141.
Letus
consider
the
onedimensional
Isingmodel
with
the
Hamiltonian
N
rv
H
=
4ijsj~j
1
S,
si
*l
iJ=
1
i=l
inwhich
the
exchangeintegral
is
divided
into
twoterms:
4lj
=
I#]
+
(2)
where
one
termcorresponds
to
theinteraction
of
nearest
neighbours
Z
i,j
adjacent
0
otherwise
IiJ
{
(3)
and
the
otherterm
isthe
socalled
longrangeinteraction
whichLebowitz
and
Penrose
[
151
namedthe
Kac
potential,
satisfying
the
properties
lim
$,,
=
0
NCC
In
(3)
and
(4)
I,
$
(CO,
The
constant
I
describes
(4)
+a).
(5)
an
input
of
theshortrangeinteraction.When
SI,
0,
only
nearest
neighbours
are
interacting;
when
I
=
0,
the
system
ispurely
of
the
longrange
interaction
type;
for
I
#
0,
$,,
#
0
an
intermediatevariant
isrealised.
We
shall
consider
herethe
case
I
<
0
as
well,when
thelongrangeinteraction
is
ferromagnetic
and
the
shortrange
one
is
antiferromagnetic.
Several
similar
models
havepreviouslybeen
considered.Thus,
Baker
[
161
intro
duced
an
anisotropic
Ising
model
with
an
infinitely
longrange
force
in
one
direction
and
nearestneighbourinteractions
in
the
other
directions.
He
examinedasimple
quadratic
lattice
and
asimplecubic
lattice
forjust
one
case,
whenthe
intensitiesof
theshortrange
and
longrangeinteractions
have
equal
signs
and
strengths.
Baker
gave
an
approximatesolutionexpandingthepartitionfunction
aboutthe
Weiss
field
and
certifying
the
phasetransition
of
thefamiliar
Bragg
Williams
type.Suzuki
[
171
men
tioned
that
alinear
Isingmodel
of
the
Baker
kind
could
be
solvedexactly,but
hedid
not
analyseconsequences
of
this.Nagle
[
181
analysed
the
existence
of
critical
points
for
an
Isingchain
with
positive
shortrange
and
negative
longrangepotentials.Later
Nagle
and
Bonner
[19]
continued
the
consideration
ofsuch
an
Ising
chain
with
competinginteractions
and
with
aterm
representing
astaggered
field
acting
in
opposite
directions
on
even
and
odd
latticesites.
Theumann
and
Hoye
[20]
discussed
the
onedimensional
Isingmodel
with
avery
longrangeferromagnetic
interaction
and
first
and
secondneighbourantiferromagneticinteractions.
Hoye[21]
alsostudied
the
Crossover
between
short
and
longrangeinteractions
229
linear
Ising
model
with
nearestneighbour
repulsion
and
infinitely
longrangeattraction
actingonly
on
evennumbered
sites.
Lapushkin
and
Plechko
[22]
treatedthe
Ising
chain
with
a
positive
longrangeinteraction
whenthere
is
no
phase
transition.
Substituting
(2)
into
(1)
we
obtaintheHamiltonian
For
I
<
0,
slJ
>
0
we
return
to
the
Nagle
situation
[
181,
while
for
I
>
0,
PIJ
<
0
tothe
LapushkinPlechko
case
[22].
We
calculate
the
dimensionless
thermodynamicpotential
1
y
=

lim
In
Tr
exp(HI@)
=f/@
NCC
N
in
which
0
isthetemperature,
f
isthe
freeenergy
and
the
Boltzmann
constant
kB
=
1.
We
takeintoaccount
that
in
thethermodynamic
limit
thelongrangepart
of
the
Hamiltonian
becomes
equivalent
to
the
meanfield
form.
More
correctly,
the
following
rigorousequality
[
15,23251
is
valid:
1
y
=
NCC
lim

N
In
Tr(Happ/@)
(7)
where
the
approximatingHamiltonian
contains
the
average
spin
and
where
thetranslational
invariance
hasbeentakenintoconsideration.
The
thermo
dynamicpotential
(7)
is
valid
for
arbitrary
space
dimensionalities.
In
whatfollows
we
dealonly
with
theonedimensional
case.
Then,
using
thetransfermatrixtechnique,
we
obtain
7
y=Tln
ga
[
cosh
(

2c;
)
+
sinh2(
y)
+
exp(
$)]2}
where
For
theorder
parameter
(9)
we
obtain
(+
sinh(
y)
+
exp(
$)I
I
sinh
2a+
h
T
The
critical
temperature
satisfying
theconditions
ac
=
0,
h,
=
0,
is
defined
by
the
equation
(13)
Tc
=
2
exp(2g/
Tc)
which
may
be
written
as
0,
=
28
exp(21/0,).
230
V
B
Kislinskyand
VI
Yukalov
In
the
shortrange
limit
the
critical
temperature
is
0,=0
9=0
0,
=
29
I=O.
as
itshould
be.
In
the
meanfieldcase
itis
From
equation
(13)
it
follows
that
nontrivial
solutions
forthe
critical
temperature
exist
if
T,>
2/e
g
>
l/e
(14)
which
yields
TC+2g>0.
Therefore
and
thus
the
critical
temperature
is
a
monotonic
function
of
g.
Under
g
>>
1
this
temperaturecan
greatly
surpassthe
meanfield
transition
temperature
Under
negative
valuesof
I
the
ferroparamagnetictransition
can
become
of
first
order.
Thechange
of
transition
order
takesplace
at
T
=
T,
defined
by
theequation
Such
apointseparating
the
firstorderline
from
the
critical
line
has
beencalled
the
tricritical
point
by
Griffiths
[26,27].
Theappearance
of
this
point
isdue
to
the
presence
in
the
Hamiltonian
of
competinginteractions
having
different
signs.
Thereareother
exampleswhen
tricritical
pointsoccur,againbecause
of
the
competition
of
twosign
potentials.
Thus,
Krinsky
and
Furman
[28]
haveconsidered
aspin1
Ising
model
containing
a
biquadratic
exchange,
anonsymmetrictripleexchange
and
aonesize
anisotropy
as
well
as
astandard
exchangeinteraction.
Tricriticality
has
been
found
and
analysed
by
Sarbach
and
Fisher
[29]
for
a
manycomponent
system
with
a
Hamiltonian
including,
in
addition
to
the
usualexchange
and
external
field,
onesize
anisotropies
of
second,
fourth
and
sixth
orders
in
powersof
spin,
and
acubic
field
term.An
excellent
review
on
the
theoryof
tricritical
points
has
been
given
by
Lawrie
and
Sarbach
[30].
In
our
case
(15)
gives
for
the
tricritical
point
T,
=
2/~3
g,=
In3/2&.
(16)
At
the
tricritical
temperature
the
critical
exponents,as
is
known
[30],
have
jumps.
We
can
check
this
by
calculating
the
asymptotic
behaviour
of
thermodynamic
characteris
tics
for
~=(0@,)/0,=(T
T,)/T,+O.
Thebehaviour
of
the
specific
heat
is
given
by
Crossoverbetween
short
and
longrange
interactions
For
the
order
parameter
(12)
we
find
where
the
critical
amplitude
isgiven
by
A,
=
6(
T,
2g)/
(3
Tf

4).
For
the
susceptibility
we
obtain
~'A*(T)'
vg
where
A,
=
T,/4(
T,
2g).
23
1
(18)
Therefore
atthe
usual
critical
point
the
critical
exponents
a,
and
y
forthe
specific
heat
C,
T)~,
theorder
parameter
U
(TI',
and
the
susceptibility
(
T)'
have
their
classicalvalues:
cy
=o
p=;
y=l.
At
the
tricritical
point
(16)
theseindices
change
by
jumpingtothe
classicaltricritical
exponents:
y,
=
1.
(20)
=1
a+2p+
y=2=a,+2p1+
y,.
t4
cy
=i
I2
The
Rushbrooke
inequality
always
holds
as
the
equality
The
analysis
given
above
for
zeroexternal
field
shows
that
there
are
two
limiting
values
of
the
parameter
g:
go
=
l/e
=
0.368
and
g,
=
In
3/2fi=
0.317.
When
g
S
go,
there
is
no
ferromagnetism
in
the
system.
In
the
region
go
<
g
<
g,,
the
ferroparamagnetictransition
is
of
first
order.
The
point
g
=
g,
is
the
tricritical
one.
If
g
>
g,
the
usual
secondorder
transition
occurs.
The
critical
behaviour
of
the
model
considered
may
also
be
investigated
by
means
of
theLandau
expansionfor
thethermodynamic
potential
(10):
y=y(g,
T,
U)=y(g,
T,O)+a(g,T)U'+b(g,
T)u4+c(g,
T)a'++o(~*)
inwhich
a(g,
T)='(')'[
4T
T2erp($)]
b(g,
T)
=
L(
4!
&)'
T
exp(
$)
3exp(
$)
11
c
(g,
T)
=
!
('>
'
exp(
$)
[

30ex
p(
$)

45
exp(
:)
1.
6!
T