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Analysis of space trusses by difference equations


The middle of 20 Century was the beginning of wide applications of prefabricated, metal elements in
structural design. Large span roofs, composed of thousands of elements, radio and television masts and
telescope supporting systems are examples showing this tendency. With a limited, those times,
computational possibilities, I undertook the research aimed on analytical solutions of mentioned
structures by means of difference equations. Results, in this field, were summarized in 1973, in series of
lectures, given by leading scientists in the field, in International Center for Mechanical Sciences ( CISM)
in Udine , in 1973.
Representative publications:
The stability of lattice struts in ZAMM, vol.43, pp 284-286, 1963
A generalized micro approach to two-dimensional latticed structures ( co-author C. Ugarte) in
proceedings of EMD Special Conference, Raleigh, USA, 1967
On the Analysis of Polar Lattice Plates ( co-author J. Bauer) in Int. J. Mech. Sci., vol. 12, pp 949958,1970.
Discrete Field Analysis of Structural Systems (co-authors I.D. Achenbach, D.L. Dean) and in CISM
Course, Springer Verlag,1976.
Mechanical problems of elastic lattice structures, in Progress in Aerospace Science, vol.15, pp 230-263
D. Kuchemann (ed.) 1974, Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Discrete structural optimization
The engineering design of structures and machines consists often in finding the best solution among a
finite number of feasible decisions. The design consists of looking for appropriate set of elements, from
commercially available prefabricated parts, which is giving an optimum solution. However, with very
large numbers of possible combination, ranging ten to the power ten, search for optimum solution,
applying simple enumeration, is impossible. I undertook, with my co-workers, a series of works to this
complex and important, from the practical point of view, problem. Three different approaches are
discussed. The first one is based on controlled enumeration method. In the second approach, genetic
algorithm with controlled, by stresses, mutation is proposed. The third one, and the simplest one, is
based on removing redundant material, in succeeding iterations .
Representative publications:
A discrete method for lattice structures optimization ( co-authors; J. Bauer and Z. Iwanow ) in
Engineering Optimization Vol. 5, pp. 121-128, 1981.
Controlled enumeration with constraints variations in structural optimization in ZAMM, Vo. 72, T447-452,
Support number and allocation for optimum structures (co-authors J. Bauer, Z. Iwanow) in Discrete
Structural Optimization . Proc. Symp. IUTAM W. Gutkowski, J. Bauer eds. pp.168-177. Springer, 1993.
Structural Optimization with Discrete Design Variables, in Euro. J. Mech., A/Solids, vol.16, 1997, special
issue, 107-126
An effective method for discrete structural optimization ( co-authors J.Bauer, J. Zawidzka) in
Engineering Computations, 17, 4, 2000, 417-426
Controlled mutation in evolutionary structural optimization (co-authors Z. Iwanow, J.Bauer) in Structural
and Multidisciplinary Optimization 21, 5 , 2001, 355 360
Discrete minimum weight design of steel structures using EC3 code (co-authors G.Guerlement, R.
Targowski, J.Zawidzka, J. Zawidzki) in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 22, 2001, 322
Continuous structural optimization
In the last three decades, a lot of attention has been paid to structural optimization. Due to the
complexity of the problems, most research has been performed under an assumption of one loading
system acting on the optimized structure. It is, however, commonly known that in the most cases,
structures and machines are subjected, during their service life, to several loading conditions. A number
of my works was then devoted to structural optimization problems under multiple loading conditions. It
was possible to accomplish this task by applying Kuhn-Tucker necessary conditions for an optimum
problem, combined togathwr with Finite Element Method. The research was conducted for trusses,
frames and for shape optimization of 2D bodies.

Representative publications:
Discrete structural optimization ( co-authors J.Bauer, Z. Iwanow) in Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng.
Vol.51, pp. 71-78, 1985
Explicit formulation of Kuhn-Tucker necessary conditions in structural optimization (co-authors: J. Bauer
and Z. Iwanow) in Computer and Structures Vol.37,No.5, pp. 753-758, 1990
Minimum weight design of structures under nonconservative forces( co-authors O. Mahrenholtz, M.
Pyrz) in NATO/DFg AS1, "Optimization of Large Structural Systems",Berchtesgaden, Sept.23
Optimal design of a truss configuration under multiloading conditions ( co-author K. Dems), in Struct.
Opt., Vol. 9, 3/4 , pp. 262-265, 1995.
Shape optimization of 2D elastic structures using adaptive grids ( co-author J. Zawidzka) in Engng.
Trans. Vol. 43, 1-2, pp137- 150, 1995.
Shape optimization of a 2D body subjected to several loading conditions (co-author K. Dems), in Eng.
Opt., Vol. 29, pp. 293-311, 1997.
2D shape optimization with static and dynamic constraints ( co-author K. Dems) in Eng.Opt., Vol. 30,
3/4, pp.201-207, 1998.

Manufacturing tolerances in structural optimization

Application of structural optimization is often limited by designers concern about possible variation
between the manufactured structure and the intended optimum design. The differences come from
technological imperfections which may cause dangerous violations of imposed constraints on
performance measures. The aim of works in this subject , was aimed to give a relatively simple tool to
designers, enable them to include manufacturing imperfections into their designs. The probabilistic
problem was brought to a deterministic one, however, assuring the solution on a safe side.
Representative publications:
Structural optimization with sensitivity constraints(co-author J. Bauer) in Comput. Struct. Vol. 52, pp.
121-125, 1994
Manufacturing tolerance incorporated in minimum weight design of trusses(co-author J. Bauer)
Engineering Optimization, 31, pp. 393-403, 1999
Manufacturing tolerances and multiple loading conditions in structural configuration optimization( coth
author K. Dems), presented at 20 ICTAM, 27August-2September, Chicago, 2000
Manufacturing tolerances of fiber orientation in optimization of laminated plates (co- author J. Latalski),
in Engng. Opt. 2003.
Controlled excavation processes
Recently, there are increasing possibilities for enhancement of a large spectrum of human efforts in
excavation processes. This is mainly through control of repetitive processes, such as trenching and
drilling, requiring constant attention of machine operators. The basic attention, in research, is paid to
excavation along prescribed trajectories subjected to varying soil environment. The aim of research was
to investigate the possibilities of controlling excavation trajectory by hydraulic module composed of a
pump and load independent valves. Other words, to investigate a system free of sensor cells mounted
at the excavator attachment, combined with a feedback controller, included in the hydraulic unit of the
Representative publications:
Multi-arm mechanism design minimizing hinge reaction between arms ( co-authors: J. Bauer, Z.
Iwanow, J. Putresza) in Mech. Mach. Theory Vol. 30, No. pp. 829-836, 1995.
Load-independent control of a hydraulic excavation ( co-authors E.Budny, M.Chosta) in Automation in
Construction vol. 1-10, 2002
Sensitivity of the bucket motion in controlled excavation (co-author M. Chosta) in ANC 8 Int. Topical
Meeting on Robotics and Remote Systems, 1999,CD Proceedings.
Optimal control of an excavator bucket positioning (co-authors E.Budny, M. Chosta) in Proc. of 19 Int.
Symp. On Automation and robotics in Construction, National Institute of Standards and Technology,
USA,23-25 Sept.2002