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Partial Fraction Exercise

x2

1.

Resolve the expression

2.

Let g(x) be a quadratic polynomial and a, b, c distinct constants.


If

(x

g(x )
( x a )( x b)( x c)

+ 1)( x 1)

x a

xb

where A, B, C are constants, express A in terms of a, b, c and g(a).

x c

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

into partial fractions.

Prove that, if a, b, c are unequal,


a2
bc(a b)(a c)

4.

x2

Hence or otherwise resolve


3.

into simplest partial fractions.

b2
ca ( b c)(b a )

c2
ab(c a )(c b)

1
bc

1
ca

1
ab

Find the coefficients of A, B, C, D so that the following equation may be true for all values of x,
1+ x2

(x 2 4)(2x 2 + 5)

A
x2

B
x+2

Establish the identity:

6.

Resolve into partial fractions:

(a b )(a c)

2 x 3 8x 2 + x + 6

(b)

( x 3) 4

(x a)4

By expressing

8.

If

9.

Express as a sum of partial fractions:


(a)

(d)

(g)

ab
( x a )( x b)

as

, express y and y2

3x 2 + 4 x + 7

(b)

x 2 3x + 2

9
(1 2 x )(1 + x ) 2

Cx + D
2x 2 + 5
+

b 2 ( x c)( x a )
( b c)(b a )

c 2 ( x a )( x b)
(c a )(c b )

(e)

x2

5x 2 4 x + 16
( x 3)( x 2 x + 1) 2

(x + a 2a)4 , or otherwise, express

7.

y=

a 2 ( x b)( x c)

5.

(a)

(x a ) 4
(x + a ) 4

into partial fractions.

in partial fractions.

1 + 3x
(1 + 2 x )(1 x ) 2

5 7x
2x 3 x 2 2x + 1

(c)

(f)

x2
1 x4
x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x 14
( x + 3)( 4 x 2 )

x
(1 + x )(1 + x ) 2

10.

Express

11.

Resolve

12.

Express

1
x ( x + 2)

in partial fractions. Hence find the sum of n terms of the series:

1
x ( x 2)( x 1) 2 n
2x + 3
x ( x + 1)( x + 2)

1
1 3

1
2 4

1
3 5

+ .....

into partial fractions when n is a positive integer.

into partial fractions.

13.

14.

Resolve

into partial fractions. Hence find the sum of

( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3)

n
( n + 1)( n + 2)( n + 3)

n =1

Using partial fractions, find the sum of:


(a)

(b)

15.

(a)

1 2 3

1
2 3 4

2 3 4

7
3 4 5

1
3 4 5

+ +

10
45 6

1
n ( n + 1)(n + 2)

+ +

4n + 1
( n + 1)( n + 2)( n + 3)

Write down the formula for the sum of the coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x)m,

where m is a positive integer.


(b)

16.

17.

Deduce

Prove that

1!( 2n )!

2!( 2n 1)! 3!( 2n 2)!

( x 1)( x 2) ( x n )
( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x + n )

= 1+

r =1

x ( x + 1) ( x + n )

19.

Express in partial fractions the function:

takes the value zero when

y
21.

Given that
(a)

c1
y +1

c2
y+2

r =1

ar

x ( x + 1) ( x + r )

( 1) s A s

s=0

= 1 ( 1) n .

n!( n s)!( x + s)

2p

1! ( n 1)! 2! ( n 2)!

p = 0, 1, 2, ., n-1,

x cos

in the two cases

( x + 1) ( x + n )
1p

2 cos

2
2

x cos

2 cos

5
5 .
5
5 +

+
5 x 1 5 x 2 2 x cos 2 + 1 5 x 2 2 x cos 4 + 1
5
5

xp

.... + ( 1) n

cn
y+n

f (x) = (x a1) (x a2) . (x an)

Prove that

f '(x )
f (x )

(b)

Prove that

(c)

If

If

( r!) 2 ( n r )!

(a)

( 1) n 2 ( n 1) p

+ +

and find its value when

1 p n 1 ,

( n 1)!1!

(b) p = n.

( 1) n 1 n p
n!

p = n.

(1 + x)n = c0 + c1x + . + cnxn, then

Prove that if

( 1) r +1 ( n + r )!

and show that

with integral coefficients.

Hence or otherwise prove that the expression

c0

( 2n + 1)!

( n r )!r!( r 1)!( x + r )

when expressed in partial fractions is

Prove that

20.

n!( n + 1)!

2 2 n 1 1

r =0

18.

x5 1

in partial fractions. Hence, show that

where the As are polynomials of degree n in

( 1) n r +1 ( n + r )!

+ .... +

Express

(x)

r =1

1
x ar

n!
y ( y + 1)( y + 2)....( y + n )
and

where y is not zero or a negative integer.

a1, a2,. , an are unequal.

1
[f ' ( x )]2 f ( x )f " ( x ) n
.
=
2
[f ( x )]
(x a r )2
r =1
is a polynomial of degree < n, prove that

( x )
f (x)

r =1

(a r )

f ' (a r ) x a r

f(x) = (x ar)gr(x), show that the above result can also be put in the form

( x )
f (x)

.
=

r =1

( a r )

g r (a r ) x a r

.
2

22.

where a0, a1, ., an are all distinct, and (x) is a polynomial of degree

Given that f(x) = (x a0) (x a1) . (x an),

(a r )

not greater than n + 1, show that

is the coefficient of xn in (x).

f ' (a r )

r =0

ax + bx + c
2

23.

Given that for all x,

( x )( x )( x )

B
x

C
x
3n + 1

find the condition that

A + B + C = 0.

Hence or otherwise, evaluate

n ( n + 1)( n + 2)

n =1

24.

(a)

Find the values of

A, B, C, D so that

3+ x2

(1 x ) (1 + x )
2

(b)

Prove that when

1 x

(1 x )

-1 < x < 1,

1 x

x6 x2 +1

25.

Resolve the expression

26.

Determine the constant A in the identity:

( x 1) 3

C + Dx

becomes an identity.

1+ x2

x2
1 x

x4
1 x

+ ... =

x
1 x

into partial fraction.


2

x
x + 2y
x

x
A 2 .
+ 1 2 2
y
x+y
y

Using this identity, prove:

27.

that the irrational number

(ii)

that

(b)

(c)

(a)

br+2 = ar + 2ar+1 + ar+2


n!
x ( x + 1)...( x + n )
a0
x ( x + 1)( x + 2)

m+n

and
if

than to

m
n

and

m + 2n
m+n

ar, br the coefficients of xr in (1 + x)n and (1 + x)n+2 respectively.

Prove that:

0 r n 2.

( 1) r a r
x+r

r =0

2 lies between the positive rational number

m + 2n

2 is closer to

Let n be any positive integer,


(a)

28.

(i)

a1
( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3)

+ ... +

( 1) n a n
( x + n )( x + n + 1)( x + n + 2)

( n + 2)!
2 x ( x + 1)...( x + n + 2)

Let A(x) be a polynomial of degree n in x, with real coefficients and n real roots x1, x2, , xn.
n

Prove that

i =1

1
x xi

A' (x )
A(x )

, where A(x) is the derivative of


n

Hence or otherwise, prove that

i =1

(b)

Resolve

(c)

Let

2x 1
( x 1) 2

x1, x2, x3, x4

( x x i )2

A(x).

[A' ( x )]2 A ( x ) A" ( x )


[A( x )]2

into partial fraction.


be roots of the polynomial

B(x) = x4 10x2 + 1.

(You may assume that all the roots of B(x) are real.)

Using (a) and (b) or otherwise, evaluate the sum:

2x i 1

i =1

( x i 1) 2

(For Q.29 34, the concept of Binomial series is needed.)

29.

Resolve

7 8x
(1 x )(2 x )

into partial fractions. Hence find the expansion of the function in ascending powers of x.

State for what range of values of x the expansion is valid and prove that, from the fourth terms onwards, the coefficients
are all negative.
30.

Resolve into partial fractions

1+ x
(1 + 2 x ) 2 (1 x )

For what range of values of x can this function be expanded as a series in ascending powers of x?
Write down the coefficient of xn in this expansion.

31.

Resolve into partial fractions

2
(1 2 x ) (1 + 4 x 2 )
2

and hence obtain the coefficients of x4n and x4n+1 in the expansion of

this function in ascending powers of x.


State the range of values of x for which the expansion is valid.

32.

Resolve into partial fractions

x2 +1
( x 3) 2 ( x 2)

and hence obtain the coefficient of xn in the expansion of this function in

ascending powers of x.
For what range of values of x for which the expansion is valid?

33.

Resolve into partial fractions

2 + x2
(2 x ) 2 (4 + x )

and expand the function in a series of ascending powers of x. Find the

coefficient of xn and state the range of values of x for which the expansion is valid.

34.

Express

3x + 4
( x + 1)( x + 2) 2

in partial fractions. Hence obtain the expansion of the given expression in ascending powers

of x as far as the term in x3, stating the necessary restrictions on the value of x.