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White milk
Milk is made up of about 87% water and 13% solids, such as fat and various
proteins. Chief among these proteins is something called casein, four types of
which make up about 80% of the proteins in milk. The casein protein
molecules are typically suspended somewhat uniformly throughout the milk
and are spherical, about a micrometer across. The reason they are typically
somewhat uniformly suspended in the liquid is because kappa-casein
molecules have a negative electrical charge, so they repel each other.
White objects in nature appear such when there is some level of light diffusion
going on and no part of the visible spectrum gets reflected off the object any
more than any other part of that area of the light spectrum. So as you might
guess from that, these casein proteins and some of the fats in the milk scatter
and deflect light somewhat uniformly throughout the visual spectrum. This
results in milk being fairly opaque and appearing white to our eyes. Without
the fats though, casein itself tends to scatter the blue wavelength slightly more
than red. So with something such as fat free skimmed milk, youll sometimes
see a very slight blue-ish tinge to the otherwise white milk because of this.
Milk also contains riboflavin, which can give the milk a slightly green-ish
tinge, if the concentration is large enough, such as can also be seen sometimes
in certain types of skimmed milk or whey products (the riboflavin is in the
whey portion of the milk).
Another hue youll occasionally see in milk is a slight yellow color. When
you see this, it is due to small amounts of carotene that are present in the
milk. You will see this particularly in milk from Guernsey and Jersey cattle.

Another nutritional resource is meat, which is animal flesh that is eaten as

food. Humans are omnivorous, and have hunted and killed animals for meat
since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the domestication
of animals such as chickens, sheep, pigs and cattle, and eventually their use in
meat production on an industrial scale.
Meat is mainly composed of water, protein, and fat, and is usually eaten
together with other food. It is edible raw, but is normally eaten after it has
been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Unprocessed
meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and
decomposition by bacteria and fungi.
Most often, meat refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues,
but it may also describe other edible tissues such as offal. Meat is sometimes
also used in a more restrictive sense the flesh of mammalian species (pigs,
cattle, lambs, etc.) raised and prepared for human consumption, to the
exclusion of fish, other seafood, poultry or other animals.
Meat consumption varies worldwide, depending on cultural or religious
preferences, as well as economic conditions. Vegetarians choose not to eat
meat because of ethical, economic, environmental, religious or health
concerns that are associated with meat production and consumption.

Paleontological evidence suggests that meat constituted a substantial









humans. Early hunter-

gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such

as bison and deer.

The domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the

end of the last glacial period (c. 10,000 BC), allowed the systematic
production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat
production. The animals which are now the principal sources of meat were
domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations:
Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was
established about 5000 BC, and several breeds were established by 2500
BC. Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus (European

and Bos

indicus (zebu),






extinct aurochs. The breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat
production as opposed to animals best suited for draught or dairy purposes,
began in the middle of the 18th century.
Cow diseases

Hoof and mouth


-colloquially cows-







large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the

subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are
most commonly classified collectively as Bos taurus. Cattle are raised
as livestock for meat (beef and veal), as dairy animals for milk and other dairy
products, and as draft animals (oxen or bullocks that pullcarts, plows and other

implements). Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel. In
some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning.
From as few as 80 progenitors domesticated in southeast Turkey about 10,500
years ago, according to an estimate from 2003, there are 1.3 billion cattle in
the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a
fully mapped genome. Some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth,
and cattle raiding consequently one of the earliest forms of theft.
Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals. It was borrowed
from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale 'principal sum




Latin caput 'head'. Cattle originally




movable personal


especially livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property. The word is a

variant of chattel (a unit of personal property) and closely related to capital in
the economic sense.
Cattle were originally identified as three separate species: Bos taurus,
the European or "taurine" cattle (including similar types from Africa and
Asia);Bos indicus, the zebu; and the extinct Bos primigenius, the aurochs. The
aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and taurine cattle.
Auroch is an extinct type of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia and
North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle. The species survived in
Europe until the last recorded aurochs died in the Jaktorw Forest, Poland in
Taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), also called European cattle, are a
subspecies of domesticated cattle originating in the Near East. . Taurine cattle
were originally considered a distinct species, but are now typically grouped







species, Bos

primigenius. Most

modern breeds of cattle are taurine cattle.

Genetic research suggests the entire modern stock of taurine cattle may have
arisen from as few as 80 aurochs tamed in the upper reaches of
Mesopotamia about 10,500 years ago near the villages of ayn in
southeastern Turkey and Dja'de el Mughara in northern Iraq.
Zebu, sometimes known as indicine cattle, humped cattle or Brahman, is a
species or sub-species of domestic cattle originating in South Asia. Zebu are
characterized by a fatty hump on their shoulders, a large dewlap and
sometimes drooping ears. They are well adapted to withstanding high
temperatures, and are farmed throughout the tropical countries, both as pure
zebu and as hybrids with taurine cattle, the other main type of domestic cattle.
Zebu are used as draught oxen, as dairy cattle and as beef cattle, as well as for
byproducts such as hides and dung for fuel and manure. In 1999, researchers
at Texas A&M University successfully cloned a zebu.
Zebu cattle are thought to be derived from Asian aurochs, sometimes regarded
as a subspecies, Bos primigenius namadicus Wild Asian aurochs disappeared
during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization from its range in the Indus
basin and other parts of South Asia possibly due to inter-breeding with
domestic zebu and resultant fragmentation of wild populations due to loss of
Archaeological evidence including pictures on pottery and rocks suggest that
the species were present in Egypt around 2000BC and were thought to be
imported from the near east or south. Bos indicus are believed to have first

appeared in Sub-Sahara Africa between A.D. 700 and 1500, and were
introduced to the Horn of African around A.D. 1000.
There are some 75 known breeds of zebu, split about evenly between African
breeds and South Asian ones. The major zebu cattle breeds of the world
include Gir, Guzerat, Kankrej, Indo-Brazilian, Brahman, Nelore, Ongole,







Tharparkar,Kangayam, Chinese Southern Yellow, Philippine native, Kedah Kelantan, and local Indian Dairy (LID). Other breeds of zebu are quite local,
like the Hariana of Haryana and eastern Punjab or the Rath of Alwar in eastern
The African Sanga cattle breeds originated from hybridization of zebu with
indigenous African humpless cattle; they include the Afrikaner, Red Fulani,
Ankole-Watusi, and many other breeds of central and southern Africa. Sanga
cattle can be distinguished from pure zebu by having smaller humps located
farther forward on the animals.
Zebu were imported to Africa over many hundreds of years, and interbreed
with taurine cattle there. Genetic analysis of African cattle has found higher
concentrations of zebu genes all along the east coast of Africa, with especially
pure cattle on the island of Madagascar, either implying that the method of
dispersal was cattle transported by ship or alternatively, the Zebu may have
reached East Africa via the coastal route (Pakistan, Iran, Southern Arabian
coast) much earlier and crossed over to Madagascar. Partial resistance to
rinderpest led to another increase in the frequency of zebu in Africa.
Zebu were imported into Brazil in the early twentieth century and crossbred
with Charolais cattle, a European taurine breed. The resulting breed, 63%

Charolais and 37% Zebu, is called the Canchim. It has a better meat quality
than the zebu as well as better heat resistance than Asian cattle. The zebu
breeds used were primarily Indo-Brazilian with some Nelore and Guzerat.
Many breeds are complex mixtures of the zebu and various taurine types, and
some also have yak, gaur or banteng genes. While zebu are the common cattle
in much of Asia, the cattle of Japan, Korea and Mongolia are taurine (although
possibly domesticated separately from the other taurine cattle originating from
Europe and Africa). Other species of cattle domesticated in parts of Asia
include yak, gaur, banteng and water buffalo.
Han-u is a traditional Korean taurinezebu hybrid breed.
The Braford is a cross between a Hereford bull and a Brahman cow.
Conversely, it can also be a cross between a Brahman bull and a Hereford
cow. The makeup of the Braford is 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Hereford. Even
though a true Braford meets those standards, 1/2 Brahman and 1/2 Hereford
cross are known as F1 Brafords or F1 Baldies. They carry the characteristics
of both parents. The Braford is red like a Hereford with white underbelly,
head, and feet. It is stockier than a Hereford, though, getting the stockiness
from the Brahman.
The Braford is primarily used for beef, but sometimes used for rodeo.
Brafords were developed both in Australia in 1946 and in Florida in 1947.
Brafords have heat and insect resistance because of the increased number of
sweat glands and oily skin inherited from their Brahman heritage. They are
often used in Rodeos due to their massive bulk and bone density, hardiness,
heat endurance, and arguably their ornery disposition. They do well in warm

climates though they have been raised in northern climates and seem to do
well there as well, likely due to their great bulk.
A Brangus is a hardy and popular breed of beef cattle, a cross between an
Angus and a Brahman. Their genetics are stabilized at 3/8 Brahman and 5/8
Angus. The combination results in a breed which unites the traits of two
highly successful parent breeds. The Brahman, through rigorous natural
selection, developed disease resistance, overall hardiness and outstanding
maternal instincts. Angus are known for their superior carcass qualities. They
are also extremely functional females which excel in fertility and milking
Research at Louisiana has indicated that Brangus cows increased their weights
during the summer months while Angus cows lost weight, indicating that they
were more adapted to coastal climates. Calves from Brangus were heavier at
birth and weaning and for total pounds produced per cow. The Angus had an
advantage in conception rate and calved earlier, and the calves were more
vigorous at birth and survived better to weaning.
The breed have proven resistant to heat and high humidity. Under conditions
of cool and cold climate they seem to produce enough hair for adequate
protection. The cows are good mothers and the calves are usually of medium
size at birth. The cattle respond well to conditions of abundant feed but have
exhibited hardiness under conditions of stress.

The Bos indicus commonly have low production of milk. They do not produce
milk until maturation later in their lives and do not produce much, giving it

solely to their calves. When Bos indicus is crossed with Bos taurus,
production generally increases.

Fat: A natural oily substance occurring in animal bodies, especially when
deposited as a layer under the skin or around certain organs.
Protein: Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds which have large
molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an
essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of
body tissues such as muscle, hair, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies.
Casein: The main protein present in milk and (in coagulated form) in cheese.
It is used in processed foods and in adhesives, paints, and other industrial
Kappa-casein: Is a mammalian milk protein involved in a number of
important physiological processes.

Spectrum: A band of colors, as seen in a rainbow, produced by separation of

the components of light by their different degrees of refraction according to
Skimmed milk: Milk from which the cream has been removed.
Scatter: Throw in various random directions.
Wavelength: Forms of electromagnetic radiation like radio waves, light
waves or infrared (heat) waves make characteristic patterns as they travel
through space. Each wave has a certain shape and length. The distance
between peaks (high points) is called wavelength.
-ish: having the qualities or characteristics of.
Tinge: A slight trace of a feeling or quality.
Riboflavin: A yellow vitamin of the B complex which is essential for
metabolic energy production. It is present in many foods, especially milk,
liver, eggs, and green vegetables, and is also synthesized by the intestinal
flora. Also called vitamin B2.
Whey: The watery part of milk that remains after the formation of curds.
Hue: The attribute of a colour by virtue of which it is discernible as red,
green, etc., and which is dependent on its dominant wavelength and
independent of intensity or lightness.
Carotene: An orange or red plant pigment found in carrots and many other
plant structures. It is a terpenoid hydrocarbon with several isomers, of which
one (beta-carotene) is important in the diet as a precursor of vitamin A.

Edible: Fit to be eaten (often used to contrast with unpalatable or poisonous

Plow: arar
Raw: (Of food) not cooked,(Of a material or substance) in its natural state;
Spoil: Diminish or destroy the value or quality of.
Rot: Decay or cause to decay by the action of bacteria and fungi; decompose.
Decomposition: The state or process of rotting; decay.
Fungi: Plural form of fungus which is any of a group of unicellular,
multicellular, or syncytial spore-producing organisms feeding on organic
matter, including moulds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools.
Tissue: Any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are
made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.
Ungulate: Literally, "ungulate" refers to any animal with hooves.
Offal: The entrails and internal organs of an animal used as food.
Poultry: Domestic fowl, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese.
Breeding: The mating and production of offspring by animals.
Settled agriculture: Is some form of property that could be shown to belong
to a family, village, or overseer.
Suited: Right or appropriate for a particular person, purpose, or situation.
Draught: The act of pulling a load, as by a vehicle or animal.

Dairy: A building, room, or establishment for the storage, processing, and

distribution of milk and milk products.
Widespread: Found or distributed over a large area or number of people.
Livestock: Farm animals regarded as an asset.
Leather: A material made from the skin of an animal by tanning or a similar
Dung: The excrement of animals.
Manure: Animal dung used for fertilizing land.
Mapping: An operation that associates each element of a given set (the
domain) with one or more elements of a second set (the range).
Raiding: A rapid surprise attack to commit a crime, especially to steal from
business premises.
Bovine: Relating to or affecting cattle.
Sum: A particular amount of money.
Stock: The goods or merchandise kept on the premises of a business or
warehouse and available for sale or distribution.
Tame: (Of an animal) not dangerous or frightened of people; domesticated.
Hump: A rounded protuberance found on the back of a camel or other animal
or as an abnormality on a persons back.
Dewlap: A fold of loose skin hanging from the neck or throat of an animal,
especially that present in many cattle.
Withstanding: Resistance.

Hybrid: The offspring of two plants or animals of different species or

varieties, such as a mule (a hybrid of a donkey and a horse).
Byproduct: An incidental or secondary product made in the manufacture or
synthesis of something else.
Pottery: Pots, dishes, and other articles made of earthenware or baked clay.
Pottery can be broadly divided into earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware.
Horn of Africa: A peninsula in northeastern Africa.
Imply: Strongly suggest the truth or existence of (something not expressly
Interbreed: (With reference to an animal) breed or cause to breed with
another of a different race or species.
Makeup: The composition or constitution of something.
Beef: The flesh of a cow, bull, or ox, used as food.
Gland: An organ in the human or animal body that secretes particular
chemical substances for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings.
Inherit: Derive (a quality, characteristic, or predisposition) genetically from
ones parents or ancestors.
Heritage: Property that is or may be inherited; an inheritance.
Bulk: A large mass or shape, for example of a building or a heavy body.
Ornery: Bad-tempered and combative.
Due: Having reached a point where the thing mentioned is required.
Trait: A distinguishing quality or characteristic.

Carcass: The dead body of an animal.

Outstand: To stand or endure longer than; to stay to or beyond the end of.
Excel: Be exceptionally good at or proficient in an activity or subject.
Fertility: The ability to conceive children or young.
Weight: A bodys relative mass or the quantity of matter contained by it.
Calf: A young bovine animal, especially a domestic cow or bull in its first
Wean: To accustom to something from an early age; accustom (an infant or
other young mammal) to food other than its mothers milk.
Calve: Give birth to a calf.
Solely: Not involving anyone or anything else; only.
Rinderpest: An infectious disease of ruminants, especially cattle, caused by a
paramyxovirus. It is characterized by fever, dysentery, and inflammation of
the mucous membranes. Also called cattle plague.

-Why does the milk have a white color?
-What is the makeup of Brangus breed?
-What will happen if the meat is unprocessed?
-When did begin the breeding of beef cattle?
-What do you need to cross in order to calve a Braford?
-Why do people use Braford in rodeos?

-Why do vegetarians decide to not eat meat?

-Why are Angus known for?
-What happens to Brangus and Angus during the summer months?
-Which is the difference among pure Zenbu and Sanga cattle?
-Which are the benefits that provides the domesticated cattle?
-Which breed have proven resistant to heat and high humidity?