1. Bioethics Bioethics is the philosophical study of the ethical controversies brought about by advances in biology and medicine.

Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, philosophy, and theology. The term Bioethics (Greek bios, life; ethos, behavior) was coined in 1927 by Fritz Jahr, who "anticipated many of the arguments and discussions now current in biological research involving animals" in an article about the "bioethical imperative," as he called it, regarding the scientific use of animals and plants.[1] [2] In 1970, the American biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter also used the term with a broader meaning including solidarity towards the biosphere, thus generating a "global ethics," a discipline representing a link between biology, ecology, medicine and human values in order to attain the survival of both human beings and other animal species. The field of bioethics has addressed a broad swath of human inquiry, ranging from debates over the boundaries of life (e.g. abortion, euthanasia) to the allocation of scarce health care resources (e.g. organ donation, health care rationing) to the right to turn down medical care for religious or cultural reasons. The branch of ethics that investigates problems specifically arising from medical and biological practice. These include problems of the nature and distribution of treatment; the sphere of authority of the patient, the physician, and others; the scope and limits of confidentiality; the limits of acceptable intervention and experimentation and the propriety of genetic research and its applications. 2. Nursing ethics Nursing ethics is a branch of applied ethics that concerns itself with activities in the field of nursing. Nursing ethics shares many principles with medical ethics, such as beneficence, non-maleficence and respect for autonomy. It can be distinguished by its emphasis on relationships, maintaining dignity and collaborative care. The focus of nursing ethics is on developing a caring relationship[4] and this produces some differences.

The definitions are consolidated in the notion of the social responsibility of the powerful to demonstrate concern for the powerless — but without disturbing the existing power relations. even if this is contrary to their wishes. un-coerced decision. and bioethical philosophy. Paternalism is the interference of a state or an individual with another person. Paternalism has two principal definitions: (i) the presumption that the powerful and the rich of a society are socially obligated towards the powerless and the poor. political. Autonomy Autonomy (Ancient Greek: autonomia from autonomos from αὐτο.auto."self" + νόμος nomos. and justified by a claim that the person interfered with will be better off or protected from harm. Paternalism Paternalism refers to an attitude or a policy reminiscent of the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy. that is. In moral and political philosophy.. and in medical contexts by the withholding of relevant information concerning a patient's condition by physicians. only nominally serving their interests. The issue of paternalism arises with respect to restrictions by the law such as anti-drug legislation. pater in Latin) that makes decisions on behalf of others (the "wife" and "children") for their own good. the compulsory wearing of seatbelts. It refers to the capacity of arational individual to make an informed. while in fact pursuing another agenda which is directly against the interests of the individuals. (ii) men’s informal social expectations and codes of manners and honour determining how to treat women. there is a figurehead. autonomy is often used as the basis for determining moral responsibility for one's actions.3. nor taking social reform steps that would allow the socially inferior (the powerless) to improve their places in society. 4. The term may be used derogatorily to characterize attitudes or political systems that are thought to deprive individuals of freedom and responsibility. . It is implied that the fatherly figure is wiser than and acts in the best interest of its protected figures. "law" "one who gives oneself their own law") is a concept found in moral. against their will.(literally meaning 'father like'). At the theoretical level it raises questions of how persons should be treated when they are less than fully rational.

The patient advocate may be an individual or an organization. family. 7. fairness. The terms patient advocate and patient advocacy have a broad range of usage and may be applied to the actions of many different individuals and organizatons. with initial oversight for potentially conflicting treatment modalities and medications. which includes ongoing communication and coordination with all practitioners according to each practitioner's preferred protocol. There are also governmental agencies that study and ensure compliance with government regulations or help individuals get information. Justice Justice is the concept of moral rightness based on ethics. Patient Advocate may provide medical literature research service to the patient. 6. along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics. Genetic screening Genetic screening is used to determine whether a couple is at increased risk of having a baby with a hereditary genetic disorder. the Patient Advocate is a vital instrument to both patient and physician in the optimal delivery of health care. Patient advocate Patient advocate acts as a liaison between patients and Health Care Providers to help improve or maintain a high quality of health care for the patients. or equity. Many health care professionals see themselves as advocates for their patients. Justice concerns itself with the proper ordering of things and people within a society. rationality. This may include further referral for care and support for both patients and families. The Patient Advocate often assists with family communication and issues arising from illness and injury. Some patient advocates work for the institutions that are directly responsible for the patient’s care. The actions available to an autonomous unit can be restricted by a more powerful authority. 5. such as by agreeing to follow governing laws. religion. The Patient Advocate has a responsibility appropriateness and coordination of care for and individual patient. Any couple can request . health care provider or research personnel as requested. Patient advocacy organizations are often non-profit and focus on one aspect of health care or a specific disease.Autonomy can be. law. In any case. waived to another authority. financial aid. natural law. or help with interventions to allow improved health care for the individual. and usually is to one extent or another.

incest. educational (failure to see that a child is attending school). allowing a child to witness adult substance abuse). Such information should be available only to the physician of record and other health care and insurance personnel as necessary. failure to seek needed health care). their own capacity to care for these children. guardians. Prospective parents therefore must consider these factors: 1. and scapegoating are also forms of emotional or psychological child abuse. or when partners belong to a high-risk ethnic group. Confidentiality Confidentiality is the right of an individual to have personal. 2. Child abuse It is a physical. or others responsible for a child's welfare. rape. 3. 9. Inappropriate punishment. usually inflicted as a result of a beating or inappropriately harsh discipline. As of 2003. or emotional (abuse of a spouse or another child in the child's presence. their own need to have children as the completion of their mutual love. and the risks that each particular child may suffer from grave handicaps that require special care. including the possibility that this child will be faced in its turn with the question of whether he or she should pass on defective genes to the next generation. Neglect can be physical in nature (abandonment. Some authorities consider parental actions abusive if they have negative future consequences. or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents. prostitution. when family members have a genetic abnormality. but screening is particularly recommended when one or both partners know they have a genetic abnormality. Physical abuse is characterized by physical injury. or use of a child for pornographic purposes. Sexual abuse includes molestation. identifiable medical information kept private. . sexual. Genetic screening involves assessing the couple's family history and sometimes undergoing blood tests or genetic tests. patient confidentiality was protected by federal statute. verbal abuse.genetic screening. 8.

the term missed abortion was applied to pregnancies with no uterine growth over a prolonged . occurring before the 20th week of gestation. About 90% of miscarriages occur during the first trimester (first three months. • Complete abortion is when all the contents are expelled. Types of Abortion: • Spontaneous abortion or miscarriages . the patient usually experiences vaginal bleeding with or without some cramps.is a case in which an intrauterine pregnancy is present but is no longer developing normally. a surgical procedure called curettage can also be done to remove the remaining material from the uterus. and she even may not realize that she has aborted. Pregnant women will experience lower abdominal cramping and bleeding. All of the tissues that came out should be saved for examination by a doctor to make sure that the abortion is complete. It may be spontaneous or induced. Some cases of miscarriages happen even before a woman realizes that she is pregnant. In a few cases the symptoms disappear and the rest of the pregnancy is normal. women older than 35 or younger than 17 years old and couples who have difficulty in achieving pregnancy. Bleeding may occur because part of the placenta may adhere to the uterine wall and the uterus does not contract to seal the large blood vessels that feed the placenta.Abortion is the removal or destruction of an embryo or fetus before birth. • Incomplete abortion is a name given to abortion where the uterus retains part or all of the placenta. • Inevitable abortion is when the bleeding continues and becomes heavy. About 25% of all pregnancies result in miscarriages. the goal of this treatment is to prevent prolonged bleeding or infection. Bed rest is usually the only treatment needed. and women who have had at least two miscarriages has a higher chance of experiencing miscarriage. • Threatened abortion is a condition of pregnancy. and the cervix is closed.is a type of abortion that occur without medical or other intervention. The usual treatment is a drug that induces labor by stimulating uterine contractions. There is no treatment other than rest is usually needed. it usually means that the cervix is dilating and the contents of the uterus are being expelled. Before widespread use of ultrasonography. The laboratory examination of the saved tissue may determine the cause of abortion. or 12 weeks of pregnancy). • Missed abortion .

the latter being an illegal medical procedure in some jurisdictions. Missed abortions are usually treated by induction of labor by dilation (or dilatation) and curettage (D & C). Surrogacy is a method of reproduction whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant and deliver a child for a contracted party. Intended parents may arrange a surrogate pregnancy because of : 1. A missed abortion is usually indicated by the disappearance of the signs of pregnancy except for the continued absence of menstrual periods. or she may. 3. She may be the child's genetic mother (the more traditional form of surrogacy). Alternatively. or other 2.period of time. the intended parent may be a single male or a single woman who is unable to bring a pregnancy to full term . as a gestational carrier. typically 6 weeks after its (fetus) death. A female intending parent may also be fertile and healthy. carry the pregnancy to delivery after having been implanted with an embryo. but unwilling to undergo pregnancy. medical issues which may make the pregnancy or the delivery risky. female infertility.

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