You are on page 1of 7

Indexed in

Scopus Compendex and Geobase Elsevier, Chemical


Abstract Services-USA, Geo-Ref Information Services-USA
www.cafetinnova.org

ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 05, No. 06

December2012, P.P.1545-1551

Ore Fluids Associated With the Metasediment Hosted Central


Auriferous Zone of Gadag Gold Field, Karnataka
M. A. MALAPUR1, S. MANJUNATHA2, B. CHANDAN KUMAR1 and A. G. UGARKAR1
1

Department of Studies in Geology, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003


2
Department of Geology, Karnatak Science College, Dharwad 580 001
Email: m_malapur@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: In Gadag gold field, three almost parallel and tabular auriferous zones, namely western, central and
eastern auriferous zones, each with a distinct lithological assemblage, occur within a sequence of metavolcanics and
a thick pile of metasediments. The western auriferous zone is hosted by mafic to felsic metavolcanics, the central
zone is hosted mainly by greywackes, just above the boundary with the metabasalt and the eastern zone is hosted by
arenite-argillites and chlorite phyllites. In this paper, the nature and composition of hydrothermal ore fluids
associated with the sediment hosted central auriferous zone are presented based on the fluid inclusion microthermometry. In this zone, gold mineralization is structurally controlled epigenetic vein type, and is invariably
associated with wall rock alterations. In addition to gold, ore minerals that occur are arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite,
chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and scheelite. The gangue minerals are quartz, chlorite, plagioclase, sericite,
carbonates and carbonaceous matter. Three types of fluid inclusions, namely CO2-rich inclusions, H2O inclusions
and CO2-H2O inclusions are recorded in the auriferous quartz veins of central auriferous zone. Due to tiny size
constraints, micro-thermometric determinations are made only on CO2-H2O inclusions. The hydrothermal fluids that
caused gold deposition in these zones were of low salinity (2.0 to 6.6 wt% NaCl equivalent), dominated by CO2H2O (about 30 mole % CO2 ) with moderate densities (0.7 to 1.04 g/cc) at a maximum depth 1.3 km, and gold
deposition occurred over a wide temperature range of 175 to 325oC. Similar to Archaean greenstone hosted vein
type lode gold deposits elsewhere, large volumes of low-salinity CO2-H2O and CO2-rich fluids were probably
produced by metamorphic devolatilization during prograde regional metamorphism at greenschist-amphibolite
facies boundary in Gadag Gold field. During retrograde greenschist facies metamorphism, interaction of gold
bearing H2O-CO2-NaCl fluids with the wall rocks at decreasing PT conditions (in the shear zone vicinity) might
have lead to fluid immiscibility and separated H2Orich and CO2-rich phases, there by significantly changing the
gold solubility and causing its precipitation. The ore fluids of sediment hosted auriferous zone are comparable with
the volcanic hosted western auriferous zone.
Keywords: Gold, Ore fluids, Fluid inclusions, Gadag Gold Field, Karnataka
I. Introduction:
Significant contribution for world gold production has
been from mesohydrothermal vein type lode gold
deposits of Archaean granite greenstone terrains. Thus
such type of gold mineralization represents an important
genetic class. An understanding of their nature and
genesis is not only fundamentally important from an
academic viewpoint, but can help to formulate
exploration strategies and better define potential areas
of mineralization. Obviously, studies of fluid inclusions
in veins deposited during the mineralizing event have
proved to be inevitable to understand the nature and
source of the ore fluid, components and genetic aspects.
Although, there are several gold deposits/occurrences
distributed in the well-known granite-greenstone terrain
of Dharwar Craton, the fluid inclusion data comes from
very few gold deposits like, Kolar (Santosh, 1986;

Mishra and Panigrahi, 1999; Solankar et al., 2006),


Hutti (Pal and Mishra, 2002), Gadag (Ugarkar et al.,
2000) and Kuchiganahalu of Chitradurga (Mukherjhee
et al., 2001). Further, as far as the data on the fluid
inclusions of gold bearing vein quartz in Gadag Gold
Field is concerned, it is restricted to the auriferous zones
hosted within the metavolcanics (Ugarkar et al., 2000).
In this paper, the nature and composition of
hydrothermal ore fluids associated with the
metasediment hosted central auriferous zone is
presented
based
on
the
fluid
inclusion
microthermometry.
II. Geological Setting:
Gadag greenstone belt, a northern continuation of the
well known Chitradurga belt (Dharwar Type) of middle
to late Archaean age (2600-2400 Ma, Swaminath and
Ramakrishnan, 1981) of Karnataka, is well known for

#02050610 Copyright 2012 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.

M. A. MALAPUR, S. MANJUNATHA, B. CHANDAN KUMAR and A. G. UGARKAR

gold mineralization. The detailed geology and map of


Gadag gold field (Fig.1) are given by Narayanaswamy
and Ahmed (1963) and Ugarkar and Deshpande (1999).
The gold mineralization in Gadag gold field is
distributed in three main auriferous zones where group
of gold bearing lode-quartz veins are found in clusters.
These auriferous zones are namely Western, Central and
Eastern auriferous zones that run in a linear pattern
almost sub-parallel to regional foliation (i.e. NNWSSE). The various litho units of Gadag gold field
include metavolcanics (metabasalt to felsic volcanics)
and metasediments (conglomerate, greywacke, argillite,

1546

arenite, arkoses, phyllite, banded iron formation and


limestone/dolomite). The entire sequence starting from
metavolcanics in the west and metasediments towards
east is well exposed on the western limb of the main
synclinal structure.
Although the central auriferous zone occurs in the
contact between metavolcanics and metasediments,
majority of the lodes of this auriferous zone are hosted
by greywacke-argillite suite of rocks, extending from
Beladhadi to NE of Kadkol passing through Nabhapur,
Kabuliyatkatti, Attikatti, Mysore mine and Sangli mine.

Figure 1: Geological Map of the Gadag Gold Field Showing the Western, Central and Eastern Auriferous Zones
(after Ugarkar et al., 2000)
Eastern auriferous zone, which lies to the southwest of
Singatrayankeri Tanda and east of Dindur Tanda, is
entirely hosted within metasedimentary rocks. This zone
occurs within greywacke-argillite assemblage.
The primary layering (bedding) in the sulphidic chert,
greywacke-argillite suite, chlorite phyllite and the
intercalated BIF bands dips towards east at angles
varying from 200 to 550. The schistosity dips at higher
angles ~700, most commonly towards northeast. The
trend of bedding varies from N200W to N400W and that
of schistosity N-S to N150W. The entire sequence is
younging towards northeast as indicated by way up
criteria like vesicular and convex surface in pillowed

metabasalt, graded bedding in greywacke. Therefore,


the volcanic unit found in the western side is considered
to be older. A thin band of thinly layered chert bed
occurs interbedded with chlorite-sericite phyllite
overlying the eroded surface of the volcanic substratum.
This chert bed acts as a marker horizon while mapping.
In the greywacke-argillite suite numerous interbedded
sequences of greywacke and argillite occur alternately.
The competent beds of greywacke and the incompetent
argillite have moved past each other due to the shearing
contemporaneous with the thrusting along the NNWSSE directions. These planes being low tension gashes
(areas) might have acted as channels for the upcoming
mineralizing hydrothermal solutions.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 05, No. 06, December 2012, pp. 1545-1551

1547

Ore Fluids Associated With the Metasediment Hosted Central


Auriferous Zone of Gadag Gold Field, Karnataka

III. Central Auriferous Zone:

IV. Fluid Inclusions:

The central auriferous zone of Gadag gold field is


hosted by shear zones within greywacke-argillite and
carbonaceous phyllites and located closer to the contact
between metavolcanics and metasediments. The
auriferous zone in the area of investigation is
characterized by hydrothermal wall-rock alterations
represented
by
chloritisation,
sericitization,
carbonatisation, carbonate spottings, quartz mylonites
and iron sulphide porphyroblasts as disseminations and
stringers. Another important character is ubiquitous
presence of carbonaceous matter with mineralized zone
especially in central auriferous zone. In general, the
rock type of central auriferous zone of Gadag gold field
can be classified based on the mineral assemblages,
texture and physical properties in hand specimen, the
crudely schistose and banded mesocratic rock. These
rocks are strongly deformed, altered, chloritised,
carbonated and silicified. At places, the carbonaceous
matter contains euhedral pyrite grains as well as veins
of pyrite. Carbonaceous matter also occurs as thin layers
along schistosity planes. Shear zones/fractures, contacts
between different litho units with competency contrast,
schistosity planes are better places for hosting the gold
bearing milky white quartz veins and lenses. About 15
cm to 1.50 m thick quartz veins with encrustations of
rusty brown ankerite patches and inclusions of
chloritised host rock are often observed to occur along
the shear zones especially between competent
greywacke and incompetent phyllite beds. This quartz
contain fine to medium grained sulphides as
disseminations which often may be invisible to naked
eyes. Quartz is medium to fine grained and deformed
which in thin sections exhibits development of quartzmylonites with elongation and orientation of grains with
undulose extinction and highly sutured grain
boundaries. Sometimes, it exhibits cherty nature. Quartz
occurs as clots of crystals as well as grains with sutured
margins and exhibits wavy extinction. It also occurs as
irregular shaped branching veins. At places, quartz
veins are seen cutting across carbonate veins. Often,
quartz and carbonates occur as filling spaces between
fractured sulphides. Occasionally, minute discrete
grains of gold are seen within the vein quartz. These
features indicate that the shear zones hosting auriferous
zone are ductile type. The different ore minerals and
gangue minerals are gold, arsenopyrite, pyrite,
pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, scheelite,
quartz, chlorite, plagioclase, sericite, carbonates and
carbonaceous matter.

Twenty doubly polished sections of 0.3 to 0.5mm


thickness were prepared from quartz samples spatially
associated with gold mineralization from the goldquartz sulphide reefs hosted within the metagreywackeargillite suite of rocks in central auriferous zone. In
some of the sections, the inclusions were too small to be
studied for microthermometry. In fact, tiny sizes of
inclusions are a characteristic feature of inclusions in
mesothermal gold bearing quartz veins (see Wilkinson,
2001). Only eight sections with good number of
inclusions and suitable for study were finally chosen for
microthermometry. Microthermometric determinations
were carried out by using Linkam THMSG 600
heating/cooling stage in the Department of Geology,
Karnatak University, Dharwad.
In the microthermometry, the density of CO2 inclusions
was calculated from the P-T plots for CO2 in the low
temperature range as suggested by Angus et al. (1976).
In case of aqueous inclusions, the degree of fill is
determined by visual estimation with the help of
standard figures (Shepherd et al., 1985) and salinity
values were calculated from the T-X plots for the low
temperature part of the system NaClH2O given by
Potter et al. (1978). The density of aqueous inclusions
was calculated from standard figure compiled by
Ahmed and Rose (1980). The trapping depths were
calculated with the help of Haas (1971) NaCl boiling
curve diagram.
Three types of inclusion namely Type I, CO2-rich
inclusions, Type II, H2O inclusions and Type III, CO2H2O inclusions are observed. Microthermometric
determinations are made only on Type III, CO2-H2O
inclusions.
Type I, CO2-rich inclusions are less in population when
compared to CO2-H2O inclusions. They occurs either as
isolated inclusions, scattered within quartz or as arrayed
inclusions indicating their primary to secondary nature.
Type II, H2O inclusions are scattered in quartz grains.
Mostly they are of primary type. Type III, CO2-H2O
inclusions occur as isolated as well as arrayed within
quartz grains and vary in size from 10 - 20 m. The
volume proportion of CO2 in these is about 30 percent.
Microthermometric determinations were carried out for
these CO2-H2O inclusions.
The results of microthermometric determinations of
H2O-CO2 fluid inclusions from auriferous quartz veins
hosted within metasediments in Central auriferous zone
of Gadag gold field are given in Table 1.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 05, No. 06, December 2012, pp. 1545-1551

M. A. MALAPUR, S. MANJUNATHA, B. CHANDAN KUMAR and A. G. UGARKAR

1548

Figure 2: Frequency Histogram of Th-Co2 from Microthermometric Data of H2o-Co2 Inclusions in the
Ore Quartz Veins from Central Auriferous Zone of Gadag Gold Field

Figure 3: Frequency Histogram of Tmco2 from Microthermometric Data of H2o-Co2 Inclusions in the
Ore Quartz Veins from Central Auriferous Zone of Gadag Gold Field
Table 1: Microthermometric Data of H2o-Co2 Inclusions in Auriferous Quartz Veins from Central Auriferous Zone,
Gadag Gold Field
Sample
No.
G1
G2
G3
G4

Tm CO2
0
C
-56.60
-56.80
-56.70
-56.70

Tm ice
0
C
-2 to -16
-3 to -17
-2 to -26
-1 to -17

Th CO2
0
C
-42.60
-42.70
-51.60
-55.20 to -57.10

Tht CO2+H2O
0 0C
293.00
325.00
185.00
175 to 185

Salinity
Wt. % NaCl
2.0 to 4.2
2.0 to 6.6
2.1 to 3.8
3.1 to 5.2

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 05, No. 06, December 2012, pp. 1545-1551

Density
gm/cc
0.88 to 0.91
1.02 to 1.04
0.72 to 0.74
0.70 to 0.74

1549

Ore Fluids Associated With the Metasediment Hosted Central


Auriferous Zone of Gadag Gold Field, Karnataka

Figure 4: Frequency Histogram of Calculated Thtco2 from Microthermometric Data of H2o-Co2 Inclusions in the
Ore Quartz Veins from Central Auriferous Zone of Gadag Gold Field
The salinity v/s homogenization temperature plot (Fig.
5) indicates an isothermal mixing trend for inclusions
homogenizing from 1750C to 1850C. However, elevated
homogenization temperatures of some inclusions
between 2930C and 3250C probably represent postentrapment changes (Mernagh and Wygralak, 2007).

Figure 5: Plots of Salinity V/S Temperature of


Homogenization for H2o-Co2 Inclusions in the Ore
Quartz Veins from Central Auriferous Zone of Gadag
Gold Field
The temperature of homogenization (Th) of CO2 varies
from -42.6 to -57.10C. In Th histogram for CO2,
maximum Th values are recorded at -51.60, -42.60, 42.70 and -57.100C (Fig. 2). The temperature of melting
(Tm) of CO2 varies from -56.60 to -56.80 0C with
maximum Tm values at -56.70 and -56.800C (Fig.3).
The temperature of melting of ice (Tm of ice) varies
from -2 to -260C.
The total temperature or final temperatures of
homogenization of CO2-H2O inclusions [(Tht)
CO2+H2O] range from 1750C to 3250C. However,
maximum numbers of investigated inclusions are found
at 1850C. It is noteworthy to point out the pronounced
skewness of the frequency histogram is closer to the
homogenization temperatures at 1750C, 2930C and
3250C (Fig. 4).

Figure 6: NaCl Curve Diagram after Haas (1971), For


the H2o-Co2 Inclusions in the Ore Quartz Veins from
Central Auriferous Zone of Gadag Gold Field
The presence of halite crystals as inclusions in the ore
vein quartz indicates that the ore forming fluids were
saline. The calculated salinity of these inclusions is low

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 05, No. 06, December 2012, pp. 1545-1551

M. A. MALAPUR, S. MANJUNATHA, B. CHANDAN KUMAR and A. G. UGARKAR

with 2.0 to 6.6 wt % of NaCl equivalent, while the


density varies from 0.7 to 1.04 g/cc. These inclusions
are mostly trapped at a maximum depth of 1.3 km
(Fig.6).
V. Discussion and Conclusion:
A review of data available on temperature, pressure and
composition of hydrothermal solution suggest that
deposition of gold and sulphide in the Archaean
mesothermal hydrothermal gold deposits in the granitegreenstone terrain principally occur between 250 and
4000C, salinity being 2 to 6 wt % NaCl equivalent
(Brown and Lamb, 1986; Groves, 1993 and references
there in).
Phase separation in a H2O-CO2-CH4-NaCl fluid system
is a mechanism which cause gold deposition in a variety
of environments and fluid inclusion studies have
demonstrated the existence of low-saline, immiscible
H2O and CO2 rich fluids related to ore in a number of
gold deposits (Robert and Kelly, 1987; Guha et al.,
1991; Wilkinson and Johnston, 1996; Mishra and
Panigrahi, 1999; Barrie and Touret, 1999).
The microthermometric measurements of fluid
inclusions in gold-quartz veins of central auriferous
zone of Gadag field indicate that the auriferous
hydrothermal fluids were of low salinity (2.0 to 6.6 wt%
NaCl), dominated by CO2-H2O (about 30 mole % CO2)
with moderate densities (0.7 to 1.04 g/cc) at a maximum
depth of 1.3 kms. Gold deposition occurred over a wide
temperature range of 175 to 3250C.
Metamorphism of volcano-sedimentary host rocks at
greenschistamphibolite facies boundary with chloritecalcite-quartz assemblage produces large volumes of
low-salinity CO2-H2O fluids, similar in composition to
those recorded in the Archaean greenstone hosted vein
type lode gold deposits in general (Groves, 1993;
Kerrich and Cassidy, 1994 and references there in).
Carbonatization is one of the prominent wall rock
alterations in the auriferous zone hosted in
metasediments in Gadag field. Gold-quartz vein type
mineralization here is consistent with a structurally
controlled (shear zone), hydrothermal epigenetic type
(Ugarkar and Deshpande, 1999). Further, it has been
suggested that there is a close relationship between gold
mineralization and retrograde greenschist facies
metamorphism
(Ugarkar,
1998).
Retrograde
metamorphism and corresponding mineral assemblages
can be maintained during metamorphism in presence of
CO2 dominance (Clark et al., 1986). Thus, CO2 seems to
be an almost universal constituent of the ore fluids
depositing gold and it forms a major constituent of most
of fluid inclusions in gold ores from the metamorphic
environment (Roedder, 1984). It has been suggested by
Hutchinson (1993) that in such environment gold might

1550

have been carried as carbonyl or carbonate complex and


that the extraction of CO2 from the ore fluids by
reaction with divalent cations in the wall rock to form
carbonates, would result in the precipitation of gold
(Roedder, 1984) within suitable structural sites (shear
zones), through a combination of decreasing
temperature and fluid-wall rock interaction. Progressive
carbonization of wall-rocks with decreasing temperature
and pressure might lead to fluid immiscibility and
separate H2O-rich and CO2-rich phases. These physical
separations of two immiscible fluids significantly
change the solubility of gold and thus cause
precipitation (Sibson and Scot, 1998; Groves and
Foster, 1993) in the form of quartz veins.
Gold appears to have been precipitated in veins as a
result of fluid immiscibility at low to intermediate
temperature range of 175-3250C in the sediment hosted
central auriferous zone of Gadag field. The
hydrothermal fluids responsible for the gold
mineralization in the metavolcanic hosted western
auriferous zone of Gadag field were also of low salinity
(2 to 6 wt% NaCl), dominated by H2O-CO2 (20 to 40
mole % CO2) with moderate densities (0.8 to 1.0 g/cc)
at temperature range of 240-2500C (Ugarkar et al,
2000), which are comparable with the sediments hosted
central auriferous zone of present study, however, with
a wide temperature range of 175-3250C.
References:
[1] Ahmed, S.N. and Rose, A.W. (1980) Fluid
inclusions in porphyry and skarn ore at Santa Rita,
New Mixico: Econ. Geol., V.75, pp.229-250.
[2] Angus, S., Armstrong, B., DeReuck, K.M., Altunin,
V.V., Gadtskii, O.G., Chapela, G.A. and
Rowlinson,
J.S.
(1976)
International
Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State, Vol.3,
Carbon Dioxide:
Pergamon Press, Oxford,
England, p.385.
[3] Barrie, I. and Touret, J.L.R. (1999) Fluid inclusion
studies of gold bearing quartz veins from the
Yirisen deposit, Sula Mountains greenstone belt,
Masumbiri, Sierra Leone. Ore Geol. Rev. V.14,
pp.203-225.
[4] Brown, P.E. and Lamb, W.M. (1986) Mixing of
H2O and CO2 in fluid inclusions; geobarometry and
Archaean gold deposits. Geochem, Cosmochim.
Acta.50, pp.847-852.
[5] Clark, M. E., Archibald, N.J. and Hodgson, C.J.
(1986) The structural setting of the Victory Gold
Mine, Kambalda, Western Australia. In:
Macdonald, A.J. (Ed) Proceedings of Gold86,
Toronto, pp.243-254.
[6] Groves, D.I. (1993) - The crustal continuum model
for late-Archaean lode-gold deposits of the Yilgarn

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 05, No. 06, December 2012, pp. 1545-1551

1551

Ore Fluids Associated With the Metasediment Hosted Central


Auriferous Zone of Gadag Gold Field, Karnataka

Block, Western Australia. Mineral. Deposita, V.28,


pp.366-374.
[7] Groves, D.I. and Foster, R.P. (1993) Archaean lode
gold deposits. In: Foster, R.P. (Ed.) Gold
Metallogeny and Exploration. Chapman and Hall,
London, pp.63-103.
[8] Guha, J., Lu, H.Z., Dube, B., Robert, F. and
Gagnon, M. (1991) Fluid characteristics of vein and
altered wall rock in Archaean mesothemal deposits.
Econ. Geol. V.86, pp.667-684.
[9] Haas, J.L. (1971) The effect of salinity on the
maximum thermal gradient of a hydrothermal
system at hydrostatic pressure. Econ. Geol. V.66,
pp.940-946.
[10] Hutchinson,
R.W.
(1993)
A
multistage
multiprocess genetic hypothesis for greenstone
hosted gold deposits. Ore Geol. Rev., v.8.pp.349382.
[11] Kerrich, R. and Cassidy, K.F. (1994) Temporal
relationship of lode gold mineralisation to
accretion,
magmatism,
metamorphism
and
deformation-Archaean to present: A review. Ore
Geol. Rev., V.9, pp.263-310.
[12] Mernagh, T.P. and Wygralak, A.S. (2007) Gold
ore-forming fluids of the Tanami region, Northern
Australia. Mineralium Deposita, V.42, pp.145-173.
[13] Mishra, D.C. and Panigrahi, M.K. (1999) Fluid
evolution in the Kolar Gold Field-Evidence from
fluid inclusion studies: Mineralium Deposita. V.34,
pp.173-181.
[14] Mukherjhee, A., Roy, G. and Tripathi, A. (2001)
Fluid inclusions associated with gold mineralization
in Kunchiganahalu banded iron formation,
Chitradurga Schist Belt, Karnataka: A preliminary
Appraisal. Jour. Geol. Soc. India. V.58, pp.533537.
[15] Narayanaswamy, S. and Ahmed, M. (1963)
Geology of Gadag gold field, Dharwar district,
Mysore State. Geol. Soc. India. Mem. 1, pp.107116.
[16] Pal, N. and Mishra, A. (2002) Alteration
geochemistry and fluid inclusion characteristics of
the greenstone-hosted gold deposit of Hutti, Eastern
Dharwar Craton, India. Mineralium Deposita. V.37,
pp.720-736.
[17] Potter, R.W., Clynne, M.A. and Brown, D.L.
(1978) Freezing point depression of aqueous
sodium chloride solutions. Econ. Geol, V.73,
pp.284-285.

[18] Roedder E. (1984) Fluid inclusions. Mineralogical


Society of America, Revs. In Mineralogy, V.12,
644 p.
[19] Robert, F. and Kelly, W.C. (1987) Ore forming
fluids in Archaean gold bearing quartz veins at the
Sigma Mine, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec,
Canada, Econ. Geol.V.82, pp.1464-1482.
[20] Santosh, M. (1986) Ore fluids in auriferous
Champion reef of Kolar, South India. Econ. Geol.,
V.81, pp.1546-1552.
[21] Shepherd, T.J, Rankin, A.H. and Alderton, D.H.M.
(1985) A practical guide to fluid inclusion studies.
Blackie, Glasgow.
[22] Sibson, R.H. and Scott, J. (1998) Stress/fault
controls on the containment and release of over
pressured fluids: Examples from the gold-quartz
vein systems in Juneau, Alaska; Victoria, Australia
and Otago, New Zealand. Ore Geol. Rev. Special
Issue, 13, pp.293-306.
[23] Solankar, S.N., Ugarkar, A.G. and Vasudev, V.N.
(2006) Characteristics of fluids associated with
polymict conglomerate hosted gold mineralization
near Surapalli of eastern part of Kolar greenstone
belt, Dharwar craton. Indian Mineralogist, V.40,
No.2, pp.156-169.
[24] Swaminath, J. and Ramakrishnan, M. (1981)
Present classification and correlation.
In
Swaminath, J. and Ramakrishnan, M. (Ed.), Early
Precambrian Supracrustals of Southern Karnataka.
Geol. Surv. India, Mem., 112, pp.23-38.
[25] Ugarkar, A.G. (1998) Implications of retrograde
metamorphism for gold mineralization in the
greenstone belts of northern Dharwar craton,
Karnataka, India. Gondwana Res. V.l, pp.215-219.
[26] Ugarkar, A.G. and Deshpande, M.P. (1999)
Lithology and gold mineralization of Gadag gold
field, Dharwar craton - Evidences for epigenesis of
gold in diversified host rocks. Indian Mineralogist,
V.33, pp.37-52.
[27] Ugarkar, A.G., Suresh, K.J. and Srikantappa, C.
(2000) Fluid inclusions in the western auriferous
zone of Gadag Gold field, Karnataka. Indian
Mineralogist, V.34, pp.91-99.
[28] Wilkinson, J.J. and Johnston, J.D. (1996) Fluid
pressure fluctuations, phase separation and gold
precipitation during seismic fracture propagation,
Geology, V.24, pp.395-398.
[29] Wilkinson, J. J. (2001) Fluid inclusions in
hydrothermal ore deposits. Lithos, V.55, pp.229272.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 05, No. 06, December 2012, pp. 1545-1551