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Volume 60

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2015

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Issue 2

DOI: 10.1515/amm-2015-0149

O-H. KIM∗ , Y.C. KIM∗,]

**AN ANALYSIS OF STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR DUE TO NORMAL STRESS FOR A CRACKED PLATE REINFORCED
**

WITH A SHEET BY SEAM WELDING

**ANALIZA WSPÓŁCZYNNIKA INTENSYWNOŚCI NAPRĘŻEŃ WYNIKAJĄCYCH Z PROSTOPADŁEGO NAPRĘŻENIA DLA
**

PĘKNIĘTEJ PŁYTY WZMOCNIONEJ PŁYTĄ PRZYSPAWANĄ SZWEM

It is essential in damage tolerance design to determine the stress intensity factor theoretically. The stress intensity factor

for a cracked plate that is reinforced with a sheet by seam welding is determined theoretically and plotted as function of

the seam welding location and stiffness ratio. The singular integral equation is derived based on the compatibility condition

between the cracked plate and the reinforcement plate, and it is solved by means of Erdogan and Gupta‘s method. The theory

is verified by comparing the results of the present analysis with those of a numerical analysis. The results from the present

analysis show that the reinforcement effect improves as the welding line is situated closer to the crack and as the stiffness ratio

of the cracked plate and the reinforcement plate increases.

Keywords: Stress intensity factor, Seam welding, Singular integral equation, Reinforcement effect

1. Introduction

2. Theory

**As damage tolerance design is introduced in many different industries, including the construction of aircraft structures,
**

research on crack behavior in reinforced plates has been extensively carried out. The damage tolerance approach assumes

that cracks are initially present in the given structure. It is

essential in damage tolerance design to determine the stress

intensity factor theoretically.

Grief and Sanders solved the stresses of a reinforced

cracked plate with a stringer by an integral equation method

[1]. Liu and Ekvall investigated the variables that affect residual strength with a fracture mechanics experiment for a reinforced cracked plate with various reinforcement materials [2].

Kan and Ratwani determined the stress intensity factor for a

cracked infinite plate bonded with infinite composite plate by

adhesive showing non-linear behavior by an integral equation

method of complex function [3].

In cases where the thin plate of a jet plane has flaws,

it is reinforced by an attaching reinforcement plate [4]. With

such reinforcement, it is necessary to estimate residual life. To

this end, theoretical evaluation of the stress intensity factor is

required. A thin reinforcement sheet is attached to a cracked

plate by spot welding or seam welding. The authors theoretically solved the stress intensity factor for a cracked plate

reinforced with a sheet by spot welding [5]. In the present

study, the stress intensity factor for a cracked plate that is

subjected to remote normal stress and reinforced with a sheet

by symmetric seam welding parallel to the crack is determined

theoretically.

**2.1. Stress intensity factor of the reinforced cracked
**

plate

∗

]

**It is considered that the cracked plate is reinforced with
**

a sheet by seam welding symmetrically and remote uniform

normal stress σ0 is loaded, as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. The cracked plate reinforced with a sheet by seam welding

The cracked plate and the reinforcement sheet are assumed to be thin and homogeneous and they are in a two dimensional plane stress state. It is also assumed that there is no

residual stress by seam welding and the reinforcement forces

at bonding lines are applied uniformly through the thickness

of two plates.

DIVISION OF MECHANICAL & AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, UFICT, KONGJU NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, 1223-24 CHEONANDAERO CHEONAN-SI CHUNGNAM-DO, 331-717, KOREA

Corresponding author: yckim59@kongju.ac.kr

Fig. respectively. a) (2) where µ and t are the shear modulus and the thickness of the plate. a) = I (x. The compatibility equation of displacements at the welding line is as follows. vc (x) − vr (x) = 0 (1) where v (x) is displacement in the y-direction and the subscripts c and r denote the cracked plate and the reinforcement sheet. η) = xξ − yη − sig (ξ) a2 + rr0 cos {θ + sig (ξ) sig(η)θ0 } Fig. G) ∆L (ξ. J (x. 1. The displacement in the y-direction that is generated by applying concentrated forces Y at symmetric 4 points in the cracked plate is given by [5] v= Y H (x. y. hn on oi1/4 r0 = (x0 −a)2 +y02 (x0 +a)2 +y02 ∆ (ξ.y0 denote the location of loading point of force. y. x0 . x0 y0 ) = . x0 . x0 . x0 . x0 . the welding zone is assumed to be a straight line. I (x. y. y0 ) +J (x. 2 is a free body diagram of Fig. x0 . y0 . C. y0 . Free body diagram of the reinforced cracked plate An unknown function f (x) of the reinforcement force distribution in the y-direction is generated at the welding line. and x0 .y. y. y0 . y. 2. D. y0 .1442 To simplify the problem. a) are given as follows I (x. η)}2 . (∆ = B. y. η)}2 + {∆U (ξ. a is a half crack length. η) = {∆L (ξ. a) 4πµt H (x. y0 ). respectively.

.

.

2 2 2 2 2 κ .

.

A14 A34 .

.

.

+ α2 + α2 − α4 − α4 log .

A12 A32 .

η) θ∆ = tan ∆L (ξ. y. The y-directional displacement of the infinite plate with a crack under remote uniform normal stress σ0 is given by[5] v= J (x. a) A12 A14 A32 A34 (T ) (W ) − − − + − U + − V + − 2yy0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 A2 (κ + 1) rr r A A A 0 12 14 32 34 2 Where α42 α22 α22 α4 r r0 (Q (P ) ) (κ + 1) + − − + − P + − Q y y + 1 1 2 2 0 L(xy) = (κ + 1)y/2 A14 A34 A12 A32 r0 r . y. y) +M (x. a) = ∆U (ξ. A12 A32 A14 A34 (κ+1) 2 θ p = θ + θ0 . θm = θ − θ0 (3 − ν)/(1 + ν) (plane stress) κ= (3 − 4ν) (plane strain) where ν is Poisson’s ratio. 2) ! α1 α3 + T1= x0 cos θ p + y0 sin θ p + A12 !A34 α2 α4 + y0 cos θ p − x0 sin θ p A12 A34 U1 = Aα322 + Aα144 (y0 cos θm + x0 sin θm ) − α α3 1 (x0 cos θm − y0 sin θm ) A14 + A32 0 A32 A014 α1 α4 α3 α2 V1 = 2 − 2 cos θ p + 2 2 − 2 sin θ p A32 A14 A14 A32 0 A12 A034 α3 α4 α1 α2 W1 = 2 − 2 cos θm + 2 2 − 2 sin θm A12 A34 A34 A12 y y θ = 21 tan−1 x−a + tan−1 x+a . x < 0 ! −1 ∆U (ξ. a) 4µ 0 0 0 0 1 1 r0 F (x. η) ! ! α4 α3 k α2 k α1 Pk = + (−1) + (−1) cos θ p + sin θ p A14 A32 A32 A14 ! ! α1 α4 k α2 k α3 + (−1) cos θm + + (−1) sin θm . η) =xη + yξ + rr0 sin {θ + sig (ξ) sig(η)θ0 } . 1. a) = L (x. Qk = A34 A12 A12 A34 (k= 1. y. y. 1 −1 y0 −1 y0 θ0 = 2 tan x0 −a + tan x0 +a σ0 F (x. x > 0 sig (x) ≡ −1. y0 . x0 .

.

.

.

y G .# n o (x ) (−x ) 1 C . y 0 0 0 0 .

.

a) = κr − (x 2 + y2 − a2 )/r sin θ− (κ − 1) y (κ + 1)2 log . M (x. y.

.

.

.

x0 . y0 .3 and j =2.4) hn on oi1/4 r = (x − a)2 + y2 (x + a)2 + y2 (4) (5) From Fig. α3 = x + x0 . α4 = y + y0 Aij = αi2 + α2j . a) dx0 4µc 4πµc tc 0 Z ∞ 1 vr (x) = f (x0 ) Ir (x. the displacements at the welding lines of the cracked plate and the reinforced plate are presented in the following form. y0 . Z ∞ 1 σ0 Fc (x. −y0 ) (3) where α1 = x − x0 . A0ij = αi2 − α2j (i=1. −y0 ) D (−x0 .y0 )dx0 (6) 4πµr tr 0 . a) − vc (x) = f (x0 ) Hc (x. x0 . α2 = y − y0 . 2. 4 B (x0 .

Results and discussion The finite element method with ANSYS 5.592 0.845 0.123 0. (7). (14) and introducing Erdogan and Gupta’s method[6].5 γ = 1.0 0. (16) has been obtained with N=90.0 0. (1 − s¯0 ) Mc (τ.0 0. y0 .265 0.631 0. Table 1 provides a comparison of dimensionless stress intensity factors between the present solution and the FEM analysis. x=x/a. 2. x0 .899 0. k = 1. eq. τk = cos . y"¯0 . (6) into eq.885 0. we can obtain the stress intensity factor by reinforcement force due to the crack effect.3 is used to verify the theory and an eight node rectangular element is used for the numerical analysis where ν = 0. (10) we obtain the following equation. y¯0 ) =Hc (τk . y¯0 . The method of solving the singular integral equation Substituting from x¯ = (1+τ)/(1−τ) and x¯0 = (1+ξ)/(1−ξ) into eq. the distributed load equation is divided into two terms. (9) and (11) as follows. (1 − s¯0 ) M(c (τk . (15) into eq.411 0.171 0.258 0. (15) and eq.1%. φ(ξ) in eq. y0 dx 0 (11) 0 2 2y¯0 sin θ0 ( x¯0 cos 3θ0 + y¯0 sin 3θ 0 ) h ( x¯0 . KI √ = 1 − s¯0 − λ¯ σ0 πa (13) Substituting from eq.0 0.(14) is reduced to the following equation.384 0.453 0. 2. ξn .642 0.137 1. y¯0 ) = − 3 π r¯0 (κ + 1) r¯0 (12) Where r¯0 = r0 /a In conclusion.285 √ where λ¯ = λ/σ0 πa is the normalized stress intensity factor. the stress intensity factor is calculated by eq.280 10. y¯0 . q q¯ (ξ) = φ (ξ) 1 − ξ 2 (15) Fig. and this appears to be attributable to the reinforcement force in the x-direction. 3. y0 .243 5. y0 =y0 /a. In order to solve the problem.1443 Substituting from eq. the change of the stress intensity factor is less than 0. the term by the crack effect and the term without the crack effect. which occurs in the case of reinforcing an infinite plate without a crack.412 0. Dimensionless stress intensity factors as a function of the seam welding location and the stiffness ratio . (11).335 0. y0 d x¯0 π 0 (10) Solving the singular integral equation for q(x 0 ) and substituting from the result into the following equation[5].447 0.787 0.254 0.3 is used.896 0. f (x0 ) = q¯ (x0 ) +s¯0 σ0 tc (8) where s¯0 is related to the uniform distributed load.0 present FEM present FEM present FEM present FEM 0. x 0 . a) −" # 1 R ∞ f (x0 ) 1 Hc (x. 1 = Z h i 1 ∞ q (x 0 ) Hc x. (1).753 0. s0 = κc + 1 h κ −1 κ −1 i 1 8 γ κrr +1 + κcc +1 (9) Substituting from eq. s¯0 is presented in the following form. ξ.1 γ = 0. a) + Ir (x.512 0.903 0. 1) = # 1 2 R 1 q(ξ) ¯ Hc (τ. TABLE 1 Comparison of the dimensionless stress intensity factors between the present solution and the FEM analysis y0 /a γ = 0.188 2. we introduce the nonsingular function. we obtain the following singular integral equation. (13). and introducing the normalized factor. 1) + Ir (τ. 1) + Ir (τk ξn y¯0 ) γ The unknown function. Substituting from the results into eq. 3.491 0. as follows. N +1 2(N 1 + 1) β (τk .2. (8) into eq. the values from the FEM analysis are about 1∼10% greater than those from the present theory. y¯0 ) dξ π −1 (1 − ξ)2 γ (14) Since q¯ (ξ) is nonsingular in the case of ξ = ±1.576 0. x 0 =x0 /a. the stress intensity factor of the crack is obtained by eqs.462 0. 1) ) ! = N 1 + ξn 2 P φ (ξn ) β(τk . y¯0 . x 0 . (1 − s0 ) Mc x. ξ.234 0. As seen in the table.392 0.y0 . y¯0 ) .316 0.439 0.5 0. Z ∞ √ λ = σ0 πa q (x 0 )hc x 0 . ξn . · · · (N + 1) N + 1 n=1 1 − ξn (16) Where " # nπ (2k − 1)π ξn = cos . y0 . we obtain Fc (x. y0 ) dx0 = 0 π 0 σ0 tc γ (7) where γ = µr tr /µc tc is the stiffness ratio.622 0.907 0.223 0. φ(ξ) as follows. x0 .876 0. In the case of N=100.0 γ = 2.833 0. 1 + γ1 Ir x. ξn .637 0.

From Fig. ASTM STP 486. Mech. Fract. 15. We also see that the normalized stress intensity factor approaches 1 as the stiffness ratio declines to zero.C. 4. The reinforcement effect improves as the welding line is situated closer to the crack and the stiffness ratio of the cracked plate and the reinforcement plate increases. 29. J. On the numerical solution of singular integral equations. G. [6] F. 3. the following conclusions are obtained. Metallurgical joints. Math. Kan. Material toughness and residual strength of damage tolerant aircraft structures. which indicates that the reinforcement effect is improved. 4.D. From Fig. M. The theory is verified by comparing the results of the present study with those of a numerical analysis and the results from the present analysis are deemed reasonable. D Thesis. [2] A. we see that the stress intensity factor decreases as the stiffness ratio becomes larger and that the stress intensity factor approaches zero as y0 becomes closer to zero. [1] R. 3. 4. we see that the stress intensity factor decreases as the welding line is situated closer to the crack and as the stiffness ratio of the cracked plate and the reinforcement sheet increases. Mech. ASME. 1. 123-130 (1981).P. Dimensionless stress intensity factors as a function of the stiffness ratio Received: 20 November 2014. 525-534 (1972). 4 shows the stress intensity factor as function of the stiffness ratio. USAF (1976). Seoul Korea. Stress intensity factor for a cracked sheet reinforced with a plate by spot welding. 32(1). Engng. Gupta.F. [3] H. . J.L. The solid lines in the figure indicate the values yielded by the present theory and the spots • indicate those by the FEM analysis. This indicates that reinforcement effect improves as the welding line is situated closer to the crack. Conclusions Through a theoretical analysis to determine the stress intensity factor for a cracked plate reinforced with a sheet by symmetric seam welding. 2. Greif. Nonlinear adhesive behavior effects in cracked metal to composite bonded structures. Ratwani. 59-66 (1965).1444 Fig. February. The effect of a stringer on the stress in a cracked sheet. Appl. [4] MIL-HDBK-5C. REFERENCES Fig. Damage tolerance in aircraft structures. J. Jr. Erdogan. 98-121 (1971). Yonsei University. Sanders. Appl.M. Q. Ekvall. 1995. The stress intensity factor for a cracked plate reinforced with a sheet by seam welding is determined with the singular integral equation method. Trans. Ph. 3 shows the stress intensity factors as a function of the seam welding location and the stiffness ratio. Liu. Fig. [5] Ok Hwan Kim.

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