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2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 T. Bartlett Quimby

Introduction to

Welding

Section 5.5

Finding Forces

in Welded

Connections

Effective Areas

and Size

Limitations of

Welds

The only strength based limit states associate with a properly designed

(i.e. meets all the applicable limitations) welds are the strength of the weld

and the strength of the base metal that the weld is attached to. The

computation of these limit states is presented in section J2.4 of the SCM

specification.

Effective Areas

of Base Metal

Strength Limit

State

As with all strength based limit states in the specification, the limits are

expressed as:

LRFD

ASD

Designing Welds

Pu < fRn

Pa < Rn/W

Chapter

Summary

Req'd Rn = Pu / f < Rn

Req'd Rn = Pa W < Rn

Example

Problems

Homework

Problems

References

Report Errors or

Make

Suggestions

Purchase Hard

Copy

Make Donation

The values of Pu and Pa are the LRFD and ASD factored loads,

respectively, applied to the bolt. These forces are computed using the

mechanics principles discussed in Section 4.3.

In this case Rn is the nominal shear strength of the weld or base metal.

For the limit state related to base metal strength the nominal strength is:

Rn = FBMABM

For the limit state related to weld metal strength the nominal strength is:

Rn = FwAw

The controlling Rn is the one that has the least strength. This leads to the

expression:

Rn = min[FBM1ABM1, FBM2ABM2, FwAw]

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The definitions of the variables are found in J2.4. The two base metal

terms are place there since it is likely that the two pieces being connected

will have different capacities. The determination of the effective areas for

the weld metal was presented in Section 5.2 of these notes. The

determination of the effective areas for the base metal were presented in

Section 5.3 of this text.

Since Aw and ABM always have the same lengths, it is common when

computing the capacity of the connection, to consider only a unit length of

weld to determine the controlling capacity of the welded connection. For

example, we might consider only one inch of weld and determine the

capacity of the weld and of the base metal, taking the lesser of the two,

and continuing on to compute the capacity of the connection.

The values for FBM, Fw, f, and W are obtained from SCM Table J2.5.

Table J2.5 is divided into sections relating to the different types of welds.

For CJP welds, the limit state of weld strength will never control since both

the weld and the base metal have the same effective area and the filler

material is constrained to be stronger than the base metal. Consequently,

only the capacity of the base metal is of concern.

For PJP welds, the effective areas for the weld and base metals differ, with

the weld effective area being less than the base metal. If the weld's

effective throat is small enough, then the weld strength will control over

the base metal strength.

For fillet, plug, and slot welds the forces are all considered to be shearing

regardless of force direction relative to the weld. The same assumption

can be made about the forces in the base metal. This leads to the

following values:

Fw = 0.60 FEXX

and

FBM = 0.60 Fu

Where FEXX is the ultimate strength of the welding electrode and Fu is the

ultimate strength of the base metal.

The Effect of Angle of Load to Axis of a Fillet Weld

As can be seen by the use of the 0.60 coefficient on FEXX, the assumption

is that the weld resists the forces using its shear strength. However, if the

load direction is not parallel to the axis of the weld then there is a

component of the force that causes tension on the effective area as shown

in Figure 5.5.1. Since the material is stronger in tension, the use of only

the shear strength is conservative. This is normally what is done, however

the specification makes provision for the angle of the force to the weld

when the force is concentric to weld group and is in the same plane as the

weld group.

Figure 5.5.1

Components of Force

Click on image for larger view

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The formula for the increased weld metal material strength is found in SCM

J2.4(a). Extracting the FEXX term, the remaining function is the coefficient

to FEXX. A value of 0.6 represents pure shear and a value of 1.0

represents pure tension. Since a fillet weld's effective area is not coplanar

with the weld group, you never have the case of pure tension in the weld

and consequently the coefficient on FEXX will not reach 1.0. Figure 5.5.2

shows the variation of the coefficient with angle between weld axis and

force direction.

Figure 5.5.2

FEXX Coefficient with respect to Angle of Load to Weld Axis

This modified weld metal strength can be applied to any qualified segment

of the weld. The criteria being:

1. The applied force is concentric with the weld group.

2. The applied force is in the plane of the faying surface (i.e. the

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3. The weld is a fillet weld.

4. The weld group is a "linear weld group" as defined in the user note in

SCM J2.4(a).

The condition where the load is eccentric and out of plane of the load

group is treated in specification section J2.4(b). We will cover this in

Section 5.6 of these notes.

Section J2.4(c) of the specification expands on J2.4(a) and allows you to

sum the capacities of the various weld length segments using SCM

equation J2-9a (not using the SCM equation J2-5 modifier) to find the

capacity of the weld group. Alternately SCM equation J2-9b is provided to

approximate the same effect without computing the modified coefficient.

Largest Effective Fillet Weld Size

As previously mentioned in the effective area discussion, there is a point

where increasing fillet weld size is ineffective because the base metal

strength controls. This can be seen by looking at the strength equations.

Figure 5.5.3 shows an example where the weld is obviously stronger than

the base metal. Adding additional weld to this connection would not have

strengthened it. Additional weld would have been a waste of resources.

Figure 5.5.3

Base Metal Failure

Click on image for larger view

Consider the FBD in Figure 5.5.4 of a fractured weld and fractured base

metal. This figure is taken from Figure 5.3.3.

Figure 5.5.4

Connection FBD

Click on image for larger view

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We will first determine a relationship between weld size and base metal

thickness for the condition shown in Figure 5.5.1. In this FBD the base

metal force is shared between two equal size fillet welds (one weld on

either side of the base metal). The largest effective fillet weld size will be

the size where the weld strength equals the base metal strength:

2(0.6FEXX) te L > (0.60Fu) tBM L

After performing the algebra, we get a relationship between weld size and

base metal thickness.

te = 0.707 a > 0.5 (Fu / FEXX) tBM

This formula tells us that any weld size larger the quantity shown is no

longer contributing to the strength of the connection.

Consider now the case where the strength of the base metal is compared

to only one fillet weld as shown in Figure 5.5.5. This FBD is also taken

from Figure 5.2.3.

Figure 5.5.5

Connection FBD

Click on image for larger view

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In this FBD the base metal force is carried by one fillet weld. The largest

effective fillet weld size will be the size where the weld strength equals the

base metal strength:

(0.6FEXX) te L > (0.60Fu) tBM L

After performing the algebra, we get a relationship between weld size and

base metal thickness.

te = 0.707 a > (Fu / FEXX) tBM

This formula tells us that any weld size larger the quantity shown is no

longer contributing to the strength of the connection when only weld

support a base metal location.

<<< Previous Section <<<

4/23/2016 5:37 PM

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