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Machine operation

assistance functions

Differential current
Through current

DE50311

Differential current
Operation
The differential current Id is calculated to facilitate the implementation of the
ANSI 87T and ANSI 87M differential protection functions:
b for a rotating machine (ANSI 87M), it is calculated for each phase by:
Id

= I + I′

b when a transformer is used (ANSI 87T), the Id calculation takes into account the
vector shift and transformation ratio:

2

I d = Irec + I′ rec
The Id value is expressed with respect to In1, the rated current of the main channels.

The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software

Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) At In, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).

0.015 to 40 In
A or kA
0.1 A
±5 %
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)

Through current
Operation
The through current It is calculated to facilitate the implementation of the ANSI 87T
and ANSI 87M differential protection functions:
b for a rotating machine (ANSI 87M), it is calculated for each phase by:
It

– I′= I--------------2

b when a transformer is used (ANSI 87T), the It calculation takes into account the
vector shift and transformation ratio:
It = max ( Irec , I′ rec )
The It value is expressed with respect to In1, the rated current of the main channels.

The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software

Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) At In, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).

60

0.015 to 40 In
A or kA
0.1 A
±5 %
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)

SEPED303001EN - 01/2013

Protection functions Machine differential ANSI code 87M Phase-to-phase short-circuit protection for generators and motors. 2. 3 32 b 2nd half curve 2 2 where 2In < Itx and x = 1. 3 b through current I x – I′ x Itx = --------------------. a differential high set point.– ----------. To avoid any delay for major asymmetrical faults.01/2013 .> 1 where x = 1. is used. 2. 3 Itx SEPED303001EN .where x = 1.05 In ) 8 32 Differential high set point. The characteristic of this set point is: Idx > 5. This function picks up if the difference in current is greater than the set point defined by: b a percentage-based curve b a differential curve (high set point). without restraint. 2. Percentage-based differential The percentage-based tripping characteristic compares the through current to the differential current. 3 2 The percentage-based characteristic is made up to two half curves defined according to the following formulas: b 1st half curve depending on the Is set point Tripping restraint ensures stability due to: b detection of an external fault or machine starting b detection of CT saturation b fast detection of CT loss b detection of transformer energizing. based on phase by phase comparison of the currents on motor and generator windings. shown in the diagram and respecting the recommended wiring system. DE52189 DE50311 2 Idx Itx ------------. 2.> Is where 0 y Itx y 2In and x = 1. Idx = I x + I′ x where x = 1. 3. the differential and through currents are calculated by: b differential current: Description Phase-to-phase short-circuit protection. 3 2 2 2 Itx Idx – ----------.> ( 0. According to the current measurement convention. 2.5 In 212 Idx and --------.

Protection functions Machine differential ANSI code 87M Tripping restraints b Restraint for external faults or machine starting During starting or an external fault.01/2013 213 3 . 3 An external fault can be followed by a short. 3.< – ( 0. 2. The restraint analyses the asymmetry of the signals and restrains the tripping order if a CT is saturated.25 In ) 2 32 where x = 1.> 0. the through current is much higher than 1.15 where x = 1. This transient state is detected by the following characteristic: 2 2 2 Idx Itx ------------. As long as the CTs do not saturate. b Restraint on CT loss CT loss can result in a false differential current and nuisance tripping. but high differential current. b Restraint on transformer energizing this restraint ensures that the H2 level of the differential current is greater than 15 %: Idxh2 ----------------. Idx DE52288 Block diagram SEPED303001EN . b Restraint on CT saturation CT saturation can result in a false differential current and nuisance tripping.– ----------. the differential current is low. 2.5 In. This restraint is the means to detect a measurement that abnormally drops to zero (sample analysis). that is why a 200 ms restraint is used to ensure protection stability for this type of fault.

Protection functions Machine differential ANSI code 87M Dimensioning phase-current sensors Current transformers must be either: b type 5P20.05 I’n) y Is y max(0.in. with an accuracy burden VACT u Rw. Rw is the resistance of the CT load and wiring. I'3.4 % In 1 A or 1 digit 93. I2. Equations b b b b b b b b Logipam b b b b b b b b Outputs 214 Matrix b SEPED303001EN . If there is no intersection.5 I’n) ±5 % Is or ±0. The setting range of the Is set point depends on the rated values of the current sensors on the main channels I1.05 I’n 0.20. The equations apply to the phase current transformers placed on either side of the machine.05 In 0. The setting range is the intersection of [0.5 In] with [0.01/2013 . 0.5 In. the setting range is optimum. When the rated values are identical.5 I’n]. in is the CT rated secondary current. Characteristics Settings 3 Is set point Setting range Accuracy (1) Resolution Drop out/pick up ratio max(0.05 In. I'2. the function cannot be used. 0.5 % ±5 % Advanced settings Pick-up of restraint on CT loss Setting range On / off Characteristic times Operation time Overshoot time Reset time Operation time of differential current function < 45 ms at 2 Is < 40 ms at 2 Is Inputs Designation Protection reset Protection inhibition Syntax P81L_x_101 P81L_x_113 Equations b b Logipam b b Designation Syntax Protection output P87M_1_3 Phase 1 fault P87M_1_7 Phase 2 fault P87M _1_8 Phase 3 fault P87M _1_9 Protection inhibited P87M_1_16 High set point P87M_1_33 Percentage-based set point P87M_1_34 CT loss P87M_1_39 (1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6). I3 and the additional channels I'1. RCT is the CT internal resistance.in2 b or defined by a knee-point voltage Vk u (RCT + Rw).