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Resiko Lasik

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apakah LASIK punya resiko akan kebutaan? tq..
Bapak/saudara yang Terhormat
terima kasih telah menggunakan layanan e-konsultasi Klikdokter
Beberapa persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi apabila akan menjalankan operasi LASIK ini
diantaranya adalah :

Usia 21 tahun atau 18 tahun keatas apabila refraksi mata atau ukuran kacamata
sudah stabil selama 1 tahun

Apabila memakai lensa kontak, maka harus lepas dari soft contact lens minimal 2
minggu, Rigid Gas Permeable (RGP) lenses dilepaskan selama 3 minggu, dan hard
contact lens selama 4minggu sebelum evaluasi. Hal ini dikarenakan lensa kontak
dapat mengubah bentuk kornea

Memiliki mata yang sehat sehingga meminimalkan risiko operasi

Memiliki salah satu atau lebih kelainan refraksi seperti miopia (rabun dekat),
hipermetropia (rabun jauh), dan astigmatisme (silinder)

Tidak sedang hamil

Beberapa hal yang harus dipertimbangkan sebagai faktor risiko operasi LASIK adalah :

Pupil yang besar. Kondisi pupil yang besar dapat mengakibatkan gambaran halo,
percikan api atau bintang, dan pandangan ganda setelah operasi

Mata yang kering

Kornea tipis. Prosedur LASIK yang mengubah bentuk kornea (contoh: dengan
mengambil sedikit jaringan kornea) apabila dilakukan pada kornea yang tipis dapat
menyebabkan komplikasi perdarahan

Blefaritis. Blefaritis merupakan peradangan dari
meningkatkan risiko infeksi kornea setelah LASIK

Riwayat operasi refraktif sebelumnya

kelopak

mata

yang

dapat

Risiko dan Komplikasi
Sebagian besar pasien merasa excited menantikan hasil operasi yang sudah mereka jalani.
Namun seperti layaknya semua tindakan medis yang dijalankan, selalu ada risiko yang
terkandung di dalamnya. Setiap individu memiliki karakteristik yang berbeda-beda, karena

itu sangat penting untuk dipahami mengenai risiko dan komplikasi yang dapat terjadi selama tahapan Bedah Refraktif ini.klikdokter. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan penurunan daya pandang. hasil dari operasi dapat berkurang seiring dengan bertambahnya usia Perawatan setelah lasik paling penting selama 1 bulan. kabur. Sebgai komplikasi dari operasi. selebihnya bisa beraktifitas biasa. beberapa pasien dapat mengalami gambaran halo. glare atau pandangan ganda yang mempengaruhi penglihatan di malam hari  Tidak semua pasien dapat memiliki tajam penglihatan 20/20 setelah operasi. Resiko paling buruk lasik bila terjadi infeksi yang berat demikian informasi yang dapat kami berikan. atau plus > 6)  Beberapa pasien dapat mengalami penurunan daya pandang yang tidak dapat dikoreksi dengan kacamata atau lensa kontak  Setelah operasi. dan gejala lain  Efektifitas dan keamanan jangka panjang dari LASIK masih belum diketahui karena teknologi LASIK masih tergolong baru  Hasil tidak akan terlalu baik bagi pasien yang memiliki kelainan refraksi besar (minus pada mata>12. Risiko dan komplikasi yang mungkin terjadi diantaranya adalah:  Sindroma mata kering yang parah. mata seorang pasien dapat tidak memproduksi atau sangat berkurang produksi air matanya untuk menjaga mata tetap nyaman dan lembab. beberapa masih membutuhkan kacamata atau lensa kontak meskipun dengan dioptri yang rendah  Bagi beberapa pasien dengan rabun dekat.com/tanyadokter/mata/resiko-lasik .semoga bermanfaat Salam Tim Redaksi Klikdokter http://www.

For patients with moderate to high myopia or thin corneas which cannot be treated with LASIK and PRK. the phakic intraocular lens is an alternative. over 11 million LASIK procedures had been performed in the United States[5] and as of 2009 over 28 million have been performed worldwide.[2] LASIK is most similar to another surgical corrective procedure. set the "invisible" field to "true") List of blacklisted links:[show] LASIK Intervention LASIK surgery using a excimer laser at US National Naval Medical Center Bethesda ICD-9-CM 11. see Lasix. If the links are appropriate you mayrequest whitelisting by following these instructions. photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). An automated process has detected links on this page on the local or global blacklist. is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia.[3][4] As of 2011.(To hide this tag. the free encyclopedia For the article on the drug used for treatment of hypertension. The LASIK surgery is performed by anophthalmologist who uses a laser or microkeratome to reshape the eye's cornea in order to improve visual acuity. LASIK provides a permanent alternative to eyeglasses or contact lenses. and both represent advances over radial keratotomy in the surgical treatment of refractive errors of vision.[6] .[1] For most patients. otherwise consider removing or replacing them with more appropriate links. commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction.71 MeSH D020731 MedlinePlus 007018 [edit on Wikidata] LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). and astigmatism.LASIK From Wikipedia. hyperopia.

3Presbyopia  2Risks o 2.2Dissatisfaction o 1.1Experimental techniques .4Halos o 2.2Operative procedure o 3.1Barraquer's early work o 5.1Vision loss due to infection o 2.2Laser refractive surgery o 5.  6Further research o 6.1Satisfaction o 1.3Postoperative care  4Wavefront-guided  5History o 5.S.3Dry eyes o 2.4Implementation in U.2Higher-order aberrations o 2.1Preoperative procedures o 3.Contents [hide]  1Effectiveness o 1.5Other complications  3Process o 3.3Patent o 5.

The American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery published a patient satisfaction metaanalysis of over 3. corneal infection and flap complications. Risks include failure to achieve the expected improvement in unaided vision. 7Comparison to photorefractive keratectomy  8FDA's position o 8."[7] The FDA reports "The safety and effectiveness of refractive procedures has not been determined in patients with some diseases. A small percentage of patients may need to have another surgery because their condition is overcorrected or under-corrected. Clinicians undertaking photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors should ensure that patients understand the benefits and potential risks of the procedure. has subsequently criticized its widespread use."[8] Satisfaction[edit] Surveys of LASIK find rates of patient satisfaction between 92 and 98 percent. development of new visual disturbances.1Quality of life study  9References  10External links Effectiveness[edit] In 2006. the British National Health Service's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) considered evidence of the effectiveness and the potential risks of the laser surgery stating "current evidence suggests that photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors is safe and efficacious for use in appropriately selected patients. [19] . These risks should be weighed against those of wearing spectacles or contact lenses.000 peer-reviewed articles from international clinical journals. The FDA responded that Waxler's information was "filled with false statements. "Surgical Eyes" has since been superseded by the "Vision Surgery Rehab Network" (VSRN). [9][10][11] In March 2008. "Surgical Eyes" was founded in New York City as a resource for patients with complications of LASIK and other refractive surgeries by RK patient Ron Link.[13] In 1999. Waxler made media appearances and claimed that the procedure had a failure rate greater than 50%. Data from the prior 10 years revealed a 95.[14][15][16][17][18] Morris Waxler. incorrect citations" and "mischaracterization of results". [12] Dissatisfaction[edit] Some people with poor outcomes from LASIK surgical procedures report a significantly reduced quality of life because of vision problems or physical pain associated with the surgery.4 percent patient satisfaction rate among LASIK patients. Some patients need to wear contact lenses or glasses even after treatment. a former FDA official who was involved in the approval of LASIK. In 2010.

at 0.65 mm. 'halos' and others. Higher-order aberrations[edit] The term "higher-order aberrations" are visual problems that require special testing for diagnosis and are not corrected with normal spectacles (eyeglasses). may be used in presbyopia. The researchers calculated the risk of significant vision loss consequence of LASIK surgery to be closer to 1-in-10. LASIK and PRK may induce spherical aberration if the laser under corrects as it moves outward from the centre of the treatment zone. These aberrationsinclude 'starbursts'. known as presbyLasik.[citation needed] Others propose that higher order aberrations are present preoperatively. In situ keratomileusis effected at a later age increases the incidence of corneal higher-order wavefront aberrations. Daily contact lens wearers have a 1-in-2. [26][27] These factors demonstrate the importance of careful patient selection for LASIK treatment.[20] Risks[edit] Vision loss due to infection[edit] On October 10. . WebMD[21] reported on a peer-reviewed study in the Archives of Ophthalmology[22] in which statistical analysis revealed that vision loss risk as a result of an infection for contact lens wearers is higher than vision loss risk as a result of an infection from LASIK. 2006.000 cases.[23] Some patients describe these symptoms post-operatively and associate them with the LASIK technique including the formation of the flap and the tissue ablation.[25]They can be measured in micrometers (µm) whereas the smallest laser beam size approved by the FDA is about 1000 times larger. especially when major corrections are made. However.000 chance of significant vision loss.Presbyopia[edit] A type of LASIK. Daytime post-LASIK vision is optimal. however. 'ghosting'. A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common and minor post-LASIK complication.[citation needed] There is a correlation between pupil size and aberrations. at night. Results are. more variable and some people have a decrease in visual acuity. the pupil may dilate such that light passes through the edge of the LASIK flap which gives rise to aberrations. [24] The advancement of the LASIK technology has reduced the risk of clinically significant visual impairment after surgery. since the pupil size is smaller than the LASIK flap. This correlation may be the result of irregularity in the corneal tissue between the untouched part of the cornea and the reshaped part.

DLK has not been reported with photorefractive keratectomy due to the absence of flap creation. . Particles of various sizes and reflectivity are clinically visible in about 38. diffuse lamellar keratitis.[31] Halos[edit] Some post-LASIK patients see halos and starbursts around bright lights at night. At night. Sometimes it is necessary for the eye surgeon to lift the flap and manually remove the accumulated cells.3% after LASIK. prescription tears and punctal occlusion. [35]  slipped flap – is a corneal flap that detaches from the rest of the cornea. The eyes can be examined for large pupils pre-operatively and the risk of this symptom assessed.244%. or late postoperative sources:[32] According to the UK National Health Service complications occur in fewer than 5% of cases.[30] Treatments include artificial tears.[29] Underlying conditions with dry eye such as Sjögren's syndrome are considered contraindications to Lasik.[28] Other complications[edit]  flap complications – The incidence of flap complications is about 0. Patients are usually given sleep goggles or eye shields to wear for several nights to prevent them from dislodging the flap in their sleep. The USAeyes organisation reports an incidence of 2. The incidence of these microkeratome-related complications decreases with increased physician experience.[37] It is most commonly treated with steroid eye drops. intraoperative. A short operation time may decrease the chance of this complication.Dry eyes[edit] Some people experience dry eyes following surgery. Complications due to LASIK have been classified as those that occur due to preoperative.[36] [36]  Diffuse lamellar keratitis – an inflammatory process that involves an accumulation of white blood cells at the interface between the LASIK corneal flap and the underlying stroma. which normally drains fluid from the eye. and epithelial ingrowth) are common in lamellar corneal surgeries [34] but rarely lead to permanent loss of visual acuity. as there is less time for the flap to dry. the pupil may dilate to be larger than the flap leading to the edge of the flap or stromal changes causing visual distortion of light that does not occur during the day when the pupil is smaller.[33] Flap complications (such as displaced flaps or folds in the flaps that necessitate repositioning. Some patients complain of ongoing dry eye symptoms despite such treatments and dry eye symptoms may be permanent.[28] Although it is usually temporary it can develop into dry eye syndrome. the inflammatory infiltrate appears similar to waves of sand. The chances of this are greatest immediately after surgery.7% of eyes examined via slit lamp biomicroscopy and in 100% of eyes examined by confocal microscopy. early postoperative.[citation needed]  Flap interface particles – are a finding whose clinical significance is undetermined. It is known colloquially as "sands of Sahara syndrome" because on slit lamp exam. Punctal occlusion is accomplished by placing a collagen or silicone plug in the tear duct. so patients typically are advised to go home and sleep to let the flap adhere and heal.

[37]  Post-LASIK corneal ectasia – a condition where the cornea starts to bulge forwards at a variable time after LASIK.[37][38]  Corneal scarring – or permanent problems with cornea's shape making it impossible to wear contact lenses. However.[41]  for climbers – Although the cornea usually is thinner after LASIK.[40]  Uveitis: estimated at 0.5%. causing irregular astigmatism.1%. some mountain climbers have experienced a myopic shift at extreme altitudes. refractive surgeons strive to maintain the maximum thickness to avoid structurally weakening the cornea. because of the removal of part of the stroma.[39]  Retinal detachment: estimated at 0.[40]  Choroidal neovascularization: estimated at 0.  subconjunctival hemorrhage – A report shows the incidence of subconjunctival hemorrhage has been estimated at 10.36 percent.[13]   epithelial ingrowth – estimated at 0.4%. The condition is similar tokeratoconus.33 percent.[42][43]  Late postoperative complications – A large body of evidence on the chances of long-term complications is not yet established and may be changing due to advances in operator experience.[37] traumatic flap dislocations – Cases of late traumatic flap dislocations have been reported up to seven years after LASIK. Decreased atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes has not been demonstrated as extremely dangerous to the eyes of LASIK patients.[44][45][46][47] Process[edit] Video of a complete LASIK-treatment . instruments and techniques. Infection – the incidence of infection responsive to treatment has been estimated at 0.18 percent.

anaesthetic eye drops are instilled. [49] Operative procedure[edit] Flap creation[edit] . the surgeon calculates the amount and the location of corneal tissue to be removed. Factors that may rule out LASIK for some patients include large pupils. Although some contact lenses (notably modern RGP and soft silicone hydrogel lenses) are made of materials with greater oxygen permeability that help reduce the risk of corneal neovascularization. Using low-power lasers. More importantly the patient's eye prescription should be stable for at least one year prior to surgery.[1] to measure their surface contour. The procedure is contraindicated if the topographer finds difficulties such as keratoconus[1] The preparatory process also detects astigmatismand other irregularities in the shape of the cornea. a topographer creates atopographic map of the cornea. The cornea is avascular because it must be transparent to function normally. The patient may be examined with pupillary dilation and education given prior to the procedure. thin corneas and extremely dry eyes. folding it to enable remodeling of the tissue beneath with a laser and repositioning the flap. One industry body recommends that patients wearing hard contact lenses should stop wearing them for a minimum of six weeks plus another six weeks for every three years the hard contacts have been worn. because of greater bleeding. The patient is prescribed and self-administers an antibiotic beforehand to minimize the risk of infection after the procedure and is sometimes offered a short acting oral sedative medication as a pre-medication."[48] The procedure involves creating a thin flap on the eye. an approach based on the Alpins method of astigmatism analysis. Before the surgery. Thus. you should carefully weigh the risks and benefits based on your own personal value system. the patient's corneas are examined with a pachymeter to determine their thickness. Prior to the procedure. and with a topographer. Its cells absorb oxygen from the tear film.The planning and analysis of corneal reshaping techniques such as LASIK have been standardized by the American National Standards Institute. Pre-operative examination and education[edit] In the United States. patients considering LASIK are warned to avoid over-wearing their contact lenses. and try to avoid being influenced by friends that have had the procedure or doctors encouraging you to do so. or corneal topography machine. the FDA has approved LASIK for age 18 and over. Using this information. This causes a slight lengthening of inflammation duration and healing time and some pain during surgery. The FDA website on LASIK states. low-oxygen-permeable contact lenses reduce the cornea's oxygen absorption. Preoperative procedures[edit] Contact lenses[edit] Patients wearing soft contact lenses are instructed to stop wearing them 5 to 21 days before surgery. "Before undergoing a refractive procedure. sometimes resulting in corneal neovascularization—the growth of blood vessels into the cornea.

Laser remodelling[edit] The second step of the procedure uses an excimer laser (193 nm) to remodel the corneal stroma. the LASIK flap is carefully repositioned over the treatment area by the surgeon and checked for the presence of air bubbles. photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). a flap is created by cutting through the corneal epithelium and Bowman's layer.[50] During the second step.[51] Repositioning of the flap[edit] After the laser has reshaped the stromal layer. The laser vaporizes the tissue in a finely controlled manner without damaging the adjacent stroma. Performing the laser ablation in the deeper corneal stroma provides for more rapid visual recovery and less pain than the earlier technique. No burning with heat or actual cutting is required to ablate the tissue. a harmless side effect that resolves within several weeks. redirecting laser pulses for precise placement within the treatment zone.000 times per second. This step in the procedure can sometimes cause small blood vessels to burst. or a femtosecond laser that creates a series of tiny closely arranged bubbles within the cornea. Once the eye is immobilized. revealing the stroma. and proper fit on the eye. The flap is folded back. This process is achieved with a mechanical microkeratome using a metal blade. Increased suction causes a transient dimming of vision in the treated eye. which can lead to mild disorientation. resulting in bleeding or subconjunctival hemorrhage into the white (sclera) of the eye. The layers of tissue removed are tens of micrometres thick. A hinge is left at one end of this flap. The flap remains in position by natural adhesion until healing is completed. the patient's vision becomes blurry. holding the eye in place. the middle section of the cornea. The process of lifting and folding back the flap can sometimes be uncomfortable. The excimer laser uses an eye tracking system that follows the patient's eye position up to 4. debris. .Flap creation with femtosecond laser A soft corneal suction ring is applied to the eye. Typical pulses are around 1 millijoule (mJ) of pulse energy in 10 to 20 nanoseconds. once the flap is lifted. They will be able to see only white light surrounding the orange light of the laser.

an ophthalmologist applies a spatially varying correction.[52] Wavefront-guided[edit] Wavefront-guided LASIK is a variation of LASIK surgery in which. In patients who have an element of internally induced astigmatism. and typically removed after 3–4 days. and is called ocular residual astigmatism (ORA). as shown in a 2008 study. ORA is a calculation of astigmatism due to the noncorneal surface (internal) optics. patients expecting so-called "super vision" from such procedures may be disappointed.Postoperative care[edit] Patients are usually given a course of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory eye drops. Another important factor is whether the excimer laser can correctly register eye position in 3 dimensions. which are both fundamental principles of vector planning overlooked by a purely wavefront-guided treatment plan. They also are required to moisturize the eyes with preservative-free tears and follow directions for prescription drops. pre-existing aberrations can be worsened. The goal is to achieve a more optically perfect eye. Occasionally after the procedure a bandage contact lens is placed to aid the healing. therefore. If the patient has preexisting irregular astigmatism. Patients should be adequately informed by their surgeons of the importance of proper post-operative care to minimize the risk of complications. and to track the eye in all the possible directions of eye movement. and leaves less regular astigmatism behind on the cornea. though the final result still depends on the physician's success at predicting changes that occur during healing and other factors that may have to do with the regularity/irregularity of the cornea and the axis of any residual astigmatism. This can result in less-than-optimal visual acuity compared with a wavefront-guided approach combined with vector planning. The "leftover" astigmatism after a purely surface-guided laser correction can be calculated beforehand. If a wavefront guided treatment is performed with less than perfect registration and tracking. the wavefront-guided astigmatism correction may leave regular astigmatism behind (a cross-cylinder effect). Patients are told to rest and are given dark eyeglasses to protect their eyes from bright lights and occasionally protective goggles to prevent rubbing of the eyes when asleep and to reduce dry eyes. rather than applying a simple correction of only long/short-sightedness and astigmatism (only lower order aberrations as in traditional LASIK). Therefore. These are continued in the weeks following surgery.[57] Thus. [53][54][55][56] When treating a patient with preexisting astigmatism. In older patients.[56] The pathway to "super vision" thus may require a more customized approach to corneal astigmatism than is usually attempted. scattering from microscopic particles (cataract or incipient cataract) may play a role that outweighs any benefit from wavefront correction. The purely refraction-based approach represented by wavefront analysis actually conflicts with corneal surgical experience developed over many years. which is advantageous whether irregular astigmatism coexists or not. most wavefront-guided LASIK lasers are designed to treat regular astigmatism as determined externally by corneal topography. wavefront-guided approaches may leave both regular and irregular astigmatism behind. guiding the computer-controlled excimer laser with measurements from a wavefrontsensor. vector planning offers a better alignment between corneal astigmatism and laser treatment.[56] This was confirmed by the 2008 study mentioned . and any remaining astigmatism ought to be regular (as opposed to irregular).

the United States Air Force has described WFG-Lasik as giving "superior vision results". Rangaswamy Srinivasan. He wrote. made by 193 nm far-ultraviolet light radiation emitted by the excimer laser.above. nor the percentage of refractive surgeons who have a preference one way or the other.[59][60][61][62] however. published his work using the excimer laser in radial keratotomy. discovered that an ultraviolet excimer laser could etch living tissue. which found a greater reduction in corneal astigmatism and better visual outcomes under mesopic conditions using wavefront technology combined with vector analysis than using wavefront technology alone. [67] Five years later." the visual artifact caused by spherical aberration induced in the eye by earlier methods. [57] Vector planning also proved advantageous in patients with keratoconus. and also found equivalent higher-order aberrations (see below). Both the depth of the corneal incisions and the degree of central corneal flattening correlated with the laser energy applied. Histopathology revealed the remarkably smooth edges of the laser incisions. in 1985. with precision and with no thermal damage to the surrounding area."[68] .35 diopters. the microkeratome and keratomileusis technique were developed in Bogotá. "The central corneal flattening obtained by radial diamond knife incisions has been duplicated by radial laser incisions in 18 enucleated human eyes.12 to 5. at the IBM Research laboratory. [64] Based on their experience. he would cut thin (one hundredth of a mm thick) flaps in the cornea to alter its shape. A meta-analysis of eight trials showed a lower incidence of these higher order aberrations in patients who had wavefrontguided LASIK compared to non-wavefront-guided LASIK. Steven Trokel at the Edward S. Svyatoslav Fyodorov (1920-2000). produced corneal flattening ranging from 0. Laser refractive surgery[edit] In 1980. The incisions. it is clear that not all LASIK procedures are performed with wavefront guidance. [65] History[edit] Barraquer's early work[edit] In the 1950s. Colombia. He named the phenomenon "ablative photo-decomposition" (APD). In his clinic. by the Spanish ophthalmologist Jose Barraquer.Columbia University in New York City. Barraquer also investigated how much of the cornea had to be left unaltered in order to provide stable long-term results. [63] Still. who developed radial keratotomy (RK) in the 1970s and designed the first posterior chamber implantable contact lenses (phakic intraocular lens) in the 1980s. [66] This work was followed by that of the Russian scientist. surgeons claim patients are generally more satisfied with this technique than with previous methods.[58] No good data can be found that compare the percentage of LASIK procedures that employ wavefront guidance versus the percentage that do not. Harkness Eye Institute. Wavefront technology continues to be positioned as an "advance" in LASIK with putative advantages. particularly regarding lowered incidence of "halos.

The first enterprise to receive FDA approval to use an excimer laser for photo-refractive keratectomy was Summit Technology (founder and CEO.[edit] The LASIK technique was implemented in the U. David Muller). Dr.[72] In 1989. [73] It was.[71] Samuel E.S.T.[70] Patent[edit] A number of patents have been issued for several techniques related to LASIK. In 1998. Lai. The desired predetermined pattern is formed by use of a variable diaphragm. VISX and other companies followed. serial number KEA 940202. either the surface or thin layer is exposed to the laser beam along a predetermined pattern to ablate desired portions.Rangaswamy Srinivasan and James Wynne filed a patent application on the ultraviolet excimer laser.[72] In 1991. received FDA approval for its singular use for performing LASIK. Bille filed a patent on surgical lasers in 1988. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commenced a trial of the excimer laser in 1989. Stuart I.Together with his colleagues. J. under the direction of the FDA. Charles Munnerlyn and Terry Clapham. Lin was granted a US patent (US5520679) for a new technology using a flying-spot for customized LASIK that has been used worldwide. Blum.[75] Subsequently. The first US patent (in 1993) using an eye-tracking device to prevent decentration in LASIK procedures was granted to S. Gholam A. Peyman was granted a US patent for using an excimer laser to modify corneal curvature. Ablating a central area of the surface or thin layer makes the cornea less curved. Then.[74] In 1992. Brown and Josef F.S. Trokel founded VISX USA inc. Summit Technology was the first company to receive FDA approval to mass manufacture and distribute excimer lasers. the "Kremer Excimer Laser". a rotating orifice of variable size. The live cornea has a thin layer removed therefrom. in 1982. issued in 1988. leaving an exposed internal surface thereon. after its successful application elsewhere.[75] . "A method and apparatus for modifying the curvature of a live cornea via use of an excimer laser. a movable mirror or a movable fiber optic cable through which the laser beam is directed towards the exposed internal surface or removed thin layer. The thin layer is then replaced onto the surface. while ablating an annular area spaced from the center of the surface or layer makes the cornea more curved.[69] Marguerite B. Greek ophthalmologist Ioannis Pallikaris introduced LASIK to ten VISX centres. MacDonald MD performed the first human VISX refractive laser eye surgery in 1989. Implementation in U."[72] The patents related to so-called broad-beam LASIK and PRK technologies were granted to US companies including Visx and Summit during 1990-1995 based on the fundamental US patent issued to IBM (1983) which claimed the use of UV laser for the ablation of organic tissues.

 Sub-Bowman’s keratomileusis (thin flap LASIK). or IntraCOR). there have been further developments such as faster lasers. for example.  Wavefront-guided PRK. The addition of a flap to PRK became known as LASIK. The goal of refractive surgery is to avoid permanently weakening the cornea with incisions and to deliver less energy to the surrounding tissues. Epi-LASIK.  Femtosecond laser intrastromal vision correction: using all-femtosecond correction.[79]  LASIK with the IntraLase femtosecond laser: early trials comparing to the «LASIK with microkeratomes for the correction of myopia suggest no significant differences .[76] and is in European clinical trials for the correction of myopia and keratoconus.  advanced intraocular lenses.Pallikaris Pallikaris suggested a flap of cornea could be raised by microkeratome prior to the performing of PRK with the excimer laser. intraoperative corneal pachymetry. use of the excimer laser risks damage to the retinaand optic nerve. Femtosecond Lenticule EXtraction. FLIVC. bladeless flap incisions.The excimer laser that was used for the first LASIK surgeries by I. [78] with trials ongoing for myopia and other conditions. Experimental techniques[edit]  "plain" LASIK: LASEK. and "wavefrontoptimized" and "wavefront-guided" techniques.  Keraflex: a thermobiochemical solution which has received the CE Mark for refractive correction. However. larger spot areas.[77]  Technolas FEMTEC laser: for incisionless IntraCOR ablation for presbyopia. Further research[edit] Since 1991.

phase II (PROWL-1) and phase III (PROWL-2). Up to 35 percent of participants with no halos before LASIK had halos three months following surgery. although this finding was not significant». Based on study results:  Up to 45 percent of participants. and the Department of Defense (DoD) launched the LASIK Quality of Life Collaboration Project (LQOLCP) to help better understand the potential risk of severe problems that can result from LASIK[83] in response to widespread reports of problems experienced by patients after LASIK laser eye surgery. et al.[82] This project examined patient-reported outcomes with LASIK (PROWL).[81] The two techniques after a period of one year have similar results.) after LASIK surgery.in safety or efficacy. most often developed halos. reported dry eye symptoms at three months after their surgery.[82] Quality of life study[edit] In October 2009. glare. 2011. the femtosecond laser has a potential advantage in predictability.[81] FDA's position[edit] On December 6. . 2014. the National Eye Institute (NEI). [80] Comparison to photorefractive keratectomy[edit] A systematic review that compared PRK and LASIK concluded that LASIK has shorter recovery time and less pain. The results of the long-awaited LASIK Quality of Life Study were disclosed in October.  Up to 30 percent of participants with no symptoms of dry eyes before LASIK. reported at least one visual symptom at three months after surgery.  Participants who developed new visual symptoms after surgery. The video includes images of what certain visual symptoms may look like to patients experiencing them.[84] The last two phases were completed in 2014. However. the FDA. the FDA posted a video on the FDA's YouTube channel and the FDA's LASIK web site to help explain the risks of LASIK and other important information to potential patients.  Less than 1 percent of study participants experienced "a lot of" difficulty with or inability to do usual activities without corrective lenses because of their visual symptoms (halos. The project consisted of three phases: pilot phase. who had no visual symptoms before surgery. phase I.

in conclusion to her presentation about the LASIK study results said: "Given the large number of patients undergoing LASIK annually. starbursts. [85] Also in 2014. FDA published an article highlighting the risks and a list of factors and conditions individuals should consider when choosing a doctor for their refractive surgery.[86] https://en. and halos).[83] At the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) convention in Chicago on October 17. Participants who were not satisfied with the LASIK surgery reported all types of visual symptoms the questionnaire measured (double vision/ghosting. dissatisfaction and disabling symptoms may occur in a significant number of patients".org/wiki/LASIK . 2014 the FDA's director of the Division of Ophthalmic Devices. Eydelman. ophthalmologist Malvina B. glare.wikipedia.