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1.

OBJECTIVE :

To determine totalsolid(TS),
solid(TDS), in a given sample.

2.

Total

suspendedsolid(TSS),Total

dissolved

THEORY:

TOTAL SOLIDS:
The term “total solid “ refers to matter suspended or dissolved in water or waste
water and is related to both specific conductance and turbidity. total solids (also
referred to as total residue) is the term used for material left in a container after
evaporation and drying of a water sample. Total solids includes both total
suspended solid , the portion of total solids retained by a filter and total dissolved
solid , the portion of total solids that passes through a filter ( American public
health Association ,1998).
Total solids can be measured by evaporating a water sample in a weighed dish and
then drying the residue in an oven at 103-105 °C .the increase in weight of the dish
represents the total solids. Instead of total solids laboratories often measure total
suspended solid and total dissolved solids.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS):
Total dissolved solids(TDS) are the total amount of mobile charge ions. including
minerals ,salts or metals dissolved in a given volume of water (mg/L), also referred
to as parts per millions (ppm). This material can include carbonate , bi-carbonate
,chloride,sulphate phosphate ,nitrate ,calcium magnesium, sodium, organic ions,
and other ions . a certain level of these ions in water is necessary for aquatic life.
To measure TDS , the water sample is filtered and then the filtrate (the water that
passes through the filter ) is recovered in a pre-weighed dish and dried in an oven
at 180 °C,until the weight of the dish no longer changes . the increase in weight of
the dish represents the total dissolved solids , and is reported in mg/l.

Total suspended solid (TSS):
Total suspended solids are solids in water that can be trapped by a filter .TSS can
include a wide variety of material , such as slit ,decaying plant and animal matter
,industrial waste , sewage.
High concentration of suspended solids can cause many problems for stream health
and aquatic life.to measure TSS the water sample is filtered through a pre weighed
filter .the residue retained on the filter is dried in an oven at 103-105 °C .untill the
weight of the filter no longer changes .the increase in the weight of filter represents
the total suspended solids.TSS can also be measured by analyzing total solid and
subtracting total dissolved solids

4. APPARATUS REQUIRED :
Apparatus

S.No.

Quantity

1

Beaker (100ml)

2 Nos.

2

Filter paper (Ashless-Whatman-42)

1 No.

3

Heating plate and oven

1 No. each

4

Weighing balance :least count 0.1 mg (Electronic top
loading balance)

1 No. each

5

Tongs

1 No.

5.REAGENTS REQUIRED:1.Water/Waste water Sample

6.STEPWISE PROCEDURE:1. Take two dried beaker from oven and weight them separately .assign no. 1and 2
to them.
2. Take 75 ml of water sample in beaker 1.
3. Filter the water from beaker 1 into beaker 2 using the funnel and pre weighed
filter paper .
4. After the completion of filteration process the filter paper along with with
residue, should be kept for drying and the difference of weights of filter paper
gives the total suspended solid (TSS) .
5. The beaker 2 is heated (boiled ) for about half an hour at 105+-2 °C .weight the
residue along with the beaker. And beaker 2 will give Total dissolved solid
(TDS).

7.OBSERVATION TABLE :Physical observation of given sample.
S.No.

Particulars

1.

Appearance

2.

Color

3.

Odor

4.

Temperature

5.

Temperature of drying

Observation

Details of Measurement :S.No.

particulars

1.

Volume of water sample taken ml.

2.

Weight of empty beaker,g
Beaker 1
Beaker 2

3.

Weight of beaker and dried sample for TS, g

4.

Weight of beaker and dried sample for TDS, g

5.

Weight of dried filter paper used for TSS, g

6.

Weight of dried filter paper +dried residue for TSS, g

8.ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE:

Quantity

•Dissolved minerals, gases and organic constituents may produce aesthetically

displeasing

color ,taste and odor.

• Some dissolved organic chemicals may deplete the dissolved oxygen in the
receiving waters and some may be inert to biological oxidation, yet others have
been identified as carcinogens.
• Water with higher solids content often has a laxative and sometimes thereverse
effect upon people whose bodies are not adjusted to them.

• High concentration of dissolved solids about 3000 mg/L may also produce
distress in livestock. In industries, the use of water with high amount of dissolved
solids may lead to scaling in boilers,corrosion and degraded quality of the product.
• Estimation of total dissolved solids is useful to determine whether theWater is
suitable for drinking purpose, agriculture and industrial purpose.
• Suspended material is aesthetically displeasing and provides adsorptionSites for
chemical and biological agents.
• Suspended organic solids which are degraded anaerobically may release
obnoxious odors.
• Biologically active suspended solids may include disease causingOrganisms as
well as organisms such as toxic producing strains of algae.
• The suspended solids parameter is used to measure the quality ofWaste water
influent and effluent.
• Suspended solids determination is extremely valuable in the analysis ofPolluted
waters.
• Suspended solids exclude light, thus reducing the growth of oxygenProducing
plants.

9. CALCULATION:

10. RESULT AND DISCUSSION:
Total dissolved solid (TDS) :mg/l

Total suspended solid (TSS):

mg/l

Total solid

mg/l

:

The sum of TDS TSS is slightly less than value of Total solid. this may be because
of presence of the moisture in beaker for TDS and filter paper for TSS after the
drying process .hence the beaker with dried sample and filter sample with dried
residue must be sufficiently desiccated for the removal of moisture and therefor
accuracy in reading. This may be excessive drying of giving sample because it may
cause the evaporation of volatile material and inherent moisture .

11.PRECAUTION:1. The beaker should be kept dry before taking the initial weights.
2. The drying process should be carried out at a temperature of 105 °CThe
filter paper should be weighed after desiccating it only.
3. The weight should be note down in g, upto the fourth decimal point.
4. The water should be poured through the filter paper slowly so that filter
paper does not get torn.
5. The volume of water taken should be measured accurately.

12.REFERENCE:
1. Mathur, R. P., Water and Wastewater Testing (Laboratory Manual), 4 th ed., Nemchand and
Brothers, Roorkee , 2005.
2. Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., “Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse”, 4 th ed., Tata
McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2003.