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University  of  Santo  Tomas  

College  of  Science  

 
 

Department  of  Biological  Sciences  
BIO203L  A.Y.  2015-­‐2016  

A Study on the Biodiversity of Invertebrates and Seagrasses from
Silaqui Island, Bolinao, Pangasinan.
Tan, Eugene Francis U.1, Tuazon, Maria Felicia D.1, Valenzuela, Kim Patricia Nicole P.1, Villaseran, Janina Myka
G.1, & Vivas, Angelli Mutya L.1 GRP 8- 4BIO4
1

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS ESPAÑA, MANILA 1508

Abstract
Pangasinan has been exposed to many natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, and storm surges due to
its geographical location, topography and the presence of vast rivers that greatly affect those living in the low lying
areas. In order to conserve biodiversity, estimations was done to evaluate Pangasinan’s biodiversity. The aim this
study is to determine level of biodiversity of invertebrates and seagrasses in the coastal region of Silaqui islands,
Bolinao, Pangasinan using statistical methods. In addition, this study also aims to identify species of invertebrates
and seagrasses in the mentioned location. Random sampling was done on 3 sites in the coasts of Salaqui island,
Pangasinan . The sites to be sampled are three 5 to 10-1x1 meter quadrats from the shore, as the starting point,
moving towards the sea, as the end point. Species richness was calculated using the the Shannon-Weiner diversity
index and the species evenness was investigated through the Simpson’s index. Upon deliberation of results, the data
was treated using Kruskal-Wallis test. From the results of the Shannon-Weiner index can be deduced that the
individuals in the population is distributed evenly. With an H value lesser than the critical value, it is then proved
that at least for the sites studied the diversity is the same throughout.

Silaqui island, Pangasinan, Thallasia hemprichii, Shannon-Weiner, Simpson’s Index, Kruskal-Wallis test

Introduction

in northwestern Luzon, bounded in the north by
La Union province, in the east by Nueva Ecija

The Philippines is the most biodiverse tropical

province, in the south by Tarlac province, and in

country located on the southeastern part of Asia.

the west by Zambales province. The province’s

It is an archipelago composed of 7,107 islands. It

coastal area is endowed with productive coastal

is one of the 17 mega-diversity countries, which

ecosystems, such as seagrass, coral reefs and

between themselves contain 70 to 80 percent of

mangroves that provide fishing grounds.

global biodiversity. The country’s marine waters
cover 2,210,000 km2 with a coastline of 22,450

Aside from these natural calamities,

km and an estimated 27,000 km2 of coral reefs

current trends in coastal migration and the

(Ong et al.). Pangasinan is one of the largest

increasing human activities on land, coasts and

provinces in Region I and in the country located

seas have exerted pressure on the sustaining

 

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the deterioration of near shore water quality. to evaluate Therefore. Methodology Philippines is the largest contributor to the high biodiversity of the Indo-Pacific center Research design. In addition. pressures like overfishing. biodiversity. Figure 1-A. One of the known sites from the shore. Its’ vast flora and (map shown.Y. Bolinao. Most seagrass beds are invertebrates and seagrasses in the mentioned moderately degraded and destroyed due to location. biodiversity of the area. Random sampling was done on (Carpteter & Springer. species in 3 sites and to ensure variety of flora Philippines is also at risk for marine danger and and fauna in order to evaluate the overall efforts have been made to conserve marine life.  2015-­‐2016   capacity of coastal and marine areas (Ong.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. The sites to be fauna are the main source of livelihood and sampled are three 5 to 10-1x1 meter quadrats income in coastal areas. estimations loss Pangasinan’s of marine biological diversity and must be done biodiversity. as the starting point. 2005).B). In order to conserve biodiversity. moving for fisheries in the country is in Pangasinan towards the sea. Biodiversity plays 3 sites in the coasts of Silaqui island. Despite its’ vast Marine extinction and coral bleaching are just   2   . as the end point. erosion and mine tailings. sedimentation and this study also aims to identify species of domestic pollution. Pangasinan a big role in the economy. et al. degradation. climate change the coastal region of Silaqui islands. Coral objective of this study is to determine level of reefs have experienced dramatic degradation and biodiversity of invertebrates and seagrasses in decline due to natural calamities. destruction of vital coastal habitats.). some of the few issues being faced by coast of These also amplify the risks of environmental Pangasinan. impacts like coral bleaching and unabated human Pangasinan using statistical methods. The rationale where corals and commercial fishes dominate the of this design is to compare presence of various seafloors.

Y. The substrate were studied. marked with a red star symbolizing Silaqui island. test. Statistical treatment. This non-parametric statistical analysis enabled the analysis of data in between ranks and Research sampling. Research instrument. A experiment utilized a where the species lay were also noted estimating one 20-meter rope/string marked every meter.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. maximum diversity. and field notebook for note results. a its mineral composition. (C) Quadrat used in the field. This method enabled the test for laid from the shore towards the sea. It Presence of invertebrates and seagrasses were also determined the difference between sites and counted per selected quadrat and pictures were percent cover and density of seagrasses species taken for documentary purposes.   3   . blue line marking site B and green line marking site C. diversity. evenness and dominance indexes comparisons. (B) Silaqui island with a red line marking site A. At every 1-2 overlap attribute. meter interval. The 20-meter line will be medians. 1x1 meter plastic quarter grid embedded with stable ropes (Figure 1-C) swimming equipment. a quadrat grid was placed. the data was treated using Kruskal-Wallis taking. Upon deliberation of underwater camera.  2015-­‐2016   B A C Figure 1: (A) Philippine map.

A transect line from site A shows a Littorina littorea with 28% and lease populated distribution wherein majority (48%) of the by Ulva lactuca with 24% as seen in Figure 3.Y. species are Thalassia hemprichii followed by       49%   49%   28%   Littorina littorea 48%   Ulva lactuca 2%   Littorina littorea Ulva lactuca Thalassia hemprichii Thalassia hemprichii 24%   Figure 3:Estimate of the distribution of organisms at site A from the average of the transect line data.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. An estimate of 49% of site A consists of first five meters of the site is seen to have a 90% Thalassia hemprichii species and an equal 49% dead coral and 10% fine sand substrate while the of Littorina littorea. while a meager 2 % belongs next 5-10 meter are observed to be 80% fine to Ulva lactuca species as seen in Figure 2. 1 meters from the shore contain 1 Ulva lactuca and Ulva lactuca and 12 Thalassia hemprichii 41 Thalassia hemprichii species. While the selected quadrats within 5-10 meters show a total of 53 Littorina littorea.  2015-­‐2016   Results and Discussion Site A From the selected quadrats within the first 5 species. The sand and 20% dead coral substrate. Figure 2:Estimate of the distribution of organisms at site A from the average of the quadrat data.                             4   .

While the selected quadrats meters of the site is seen to have a 100% dead within 5-10 meters from the shore contain 12 coral substrate while the next 5-10 meters are   5   . The first five hemprichii species.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. Figure 5:Estimate of the distribution of organisms at site B from the average of the transect line data. An estimate of 89% of site A consists of From the selected quadrats within the Thalassia hemprichii species followed by 7% of first 5 meters show a total of 13 Littorina Ulva lactuca. An estimate of 67% of site B consists of by Ulva lactuca with 7% as seen in Figure 5. littorea. while 1 % belongs to Ulva 41%   32%   Littorina littorea 67%   Littorina littorea 52%   Ulva lactuca Ulva lactuca 1%   Thalassia hemprichii 7%   Thalassia hemprichii Figure 4:Estimate of the distribution of organisms at site B from the average of the quadrat. While the selected quadrats distribution wherein majority (52%) of the within 5-10 meters from the shore contain 14 species are Thalassia hemprichii followed by Littorina littorea and 41 Thalassia hemprichii Littorina littorea with 41% and lease populated species.     Ulva lactuca and 194 Thalassia hemprichii Site C species. while 1 % belongs to Littorina littorea.  2015-­‐2016   lactuca species as seen in Figure 4. 1 Ulva lactuca and 5 Thalassia A transect line from site B shows a hemprichii species. Littorina littorea species followed by 32% of Thalassia hemprichii.Y. The first five meters of the site is seen to have a 100% dead Site B coral substrate while the next 5-10 meter are From the selected quadrats within the observed to be 30% fine sand and 70% dead first 5 meters show a total of 84 Littorina coral substrate. 14 Ulva lactuca and 125 Thalassia littorea species as seen in Figure 6.

4054 -0.Y.8486 Sum= Figure 7:Estimate of the distribution of organisms at site C from the average of the transect line data..1973 -0. if the value generated fails to also is nest within the range. 2015). Littorina littorea ranges from 0-1. Variable H then signifies true hemprichii. diversity index (H). thick and sharply   species is not evenly distributed within the known as common periwinkle 6   of individuals counted from the . and Thalassia population..2014). These coral substrate.2222 -1.1111 -2. Lastly. The evenness in the given population Littorina littorea with 10% and lease populated can be represented by the Shannon-Weiner by Ulva lactuca with 6% as seen in Figure 7. it is assumed that the characterized by broadly ovate. Ulva lactuca.5042 -0.. 2016).. Ulva lactuca 84%   Thalassia hemprichii n Pi (n/N) ln(pi) (pi)*(ln(pi)) 10 0. Thalassia common to coastal regions of the country and Thalassia hemprichii dominates majority of the seafloor of Pangasinan (Suphapon et al.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A.6667 -0.2441 30 0.3342 5 0.2013: Djop et al. hence its Littorina littorea common name sea lettuce (van der Wal et Ulva lactuca hemprichii also known as the sea grass is also al.  2015-­‐2016   observed to be 60% fine sand and 40% dead pointed shell (Raynor & Rundle. 45 Species Identification The variable pi (abundance) denotes the Collected species of invertebrates and seagrasses were identified to be the following: portion Littorina littorea. are small edible sea snails attached to the rocky ocean floors of Pangasinan. Figure 6:Estimate of the distribution of organisms at site C from the average of the quadrat.2703 H = 0. Ulva lactuca is 4%   7%   89%   characterized by leafy appearance. Species Evenness Species evenness refers to how close A transect line from site C shows a each individual in a population is therefore distribution wherein majority (84%) of the quantifying the equal the distribution of each species are Thalassia hemprichii followed by individual. 2013: Tanaka et al. The value of H morphological characteristics. Species were confirmed by their diversity among the population. 10%   6%   Littorina littorea Table 1: Values used and generated for the Shannon-Weiner diversity index.

which denotes that the greater the value the P  value  =  5.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. The obtained value is   7   Site  B   Site  C   . Using the values from Simpson’s index (D) is needed.088) less than the critical value or P value Table 2: Values used and generated for the Simpson’s index. Researchers prefer to measure the species’ This test identifies whether there is a dominant dominance since evenness and richness are species and whether this dominance is the same complimentary.0408. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index 2. df  =  2     α  =  0. The values 7   4   3   1   4   2   obtained in chart gives weight to the species with 8   5   17   7   6   3   most abundance. that the individuals in the population is not evenly distributed Kruskal-Wallis Statistical test The Species Richness kruskal-wallis test is a non- parametric test on ranks (which is the equivalent of the one-way anova). hemprichii 30 870 Total (N) 45 980 specie and the distribution is somewhat same throughout.  2015-­‐2016   population. the data was subjected to the Kruskal –Wallis test and yielded an H value (H= 0. (5.05   Simpson’s reciprocal index ranges from 1 as the minimum value and the number of total samples as the maximum value. Given this we have Species (n) n(n-1) accepted our null hypothesis.Y.99   H  =  0. littorea 10 90 for the three sites there is common dominant U.99) as seen in Table 3. lactuca 5 20 T. 2013). Simpson’s index of diversity 14   6   24   8   53   9   calculated is equal to 0. Table 3: Values used and generated for the Kruskal-Wallis test. To measure dominance. independent of each other (Lane et al.8486 therefore it can be deduced diversity. the transect line.088   lesser the diversity. On the other hand. This compares two or The Shannon-Weiner index increases more groups of the same or equal size richness and evenness of the total population.49. in all the sites sampled. Simpson’s index (D) is the measure wherein the probability of 2 individuals take at random will Site  A   belong to the same group of species. D value ranges from Tc   15   Tc   16   Tc   14   0-1. where a higher value denotes greater computed is 0. which implies that L.

species evenness was the diversity of the sites. H. F. Saratherondon melanotheron) along the Senegalese coast. Andam. C. G. (2012). J. Howsam. (2016). M. reciprocal of Simpson’s index can be Sampling was conducted in 3 different determined and calculated to be 2.. Fortes. E. A higher sites of Silaqui island in Pangasinan. F. M. IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation. N. Cardona. Dizon. and the null calculated to be 0. Goossens. References: Abreo.. Nutrient Enrichment.28. Macusi.. A. R.0408. and from the index throughout. M. Heavy Metals and Plastic Pollution in the Marine Environment and its Implications on Philippine Marine Biodiversity: A Review. & Amara.Y.308. (2015).. it is then proved that at least for The the sites studied the diversity is the same of calculated its value characteristics. G. calculated using Simpson’s index (D). With an H value lesser than the evenness and species richness were determined. B. C. Ranara. Historical review of seagrass research in the Philippines.  2015-­‐2016   In an instance wherein the H value was (H) species richness was determined which was seen greater than the critical value. and from Conclusion index (D). Diop. Simpson’s index of diversity is equal to 0. and fish (Mugil cephalus. Collected value of reciprocal signifies a higher level of samples were identified using morphological diversity. Short-term responses of coral microphytobenthic communities to inorganic nutrient loading. Cuenca. Sedimentation. R. B.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. D. P.. for Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H) is 0. Inc.49. C. C. (1999).. Diop. a post hoc in the form individuals in the population is not distributed of the Mann-Whitney must be done to compare evenly.. D. On the other hand. mussels (Perna perna). American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. A. species in all three sites. M.   8   . Marine pollution bulletin. T.. critical value.. L. S. and Yap. 111. M.. It can be deduced that the hypothesis was rejected. T. & Arabejo.. Diouf. 15. The kruskal-wallis test was done to comparisons Using evaluate if the diversity of species was the same combined transect and quadrat method. Assessment of trace element contamination and bioaccumulation in algae (Ulva lactuca). shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus)..

  9   . Exposure to predator kairomones influences egg number and size in Littorina littorea.. (2013). 24(5).. P.. L. Priosambodo. Supaphon... M. S.  2015-­‐2016   Gaither..8(2). 40(9).University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. Beger.. V. & Rundle. L. H. B. Anticamara. (1980). & Asmus. Bulletin of Marine Science. R... M. Campbell. (2014). Handbook of seagrass biology: an ecosystem perspective. & Rocha. (2014).. J. Phillips. The Journal of urology. R. C. & Gill. J. 1638-1648. L.PloS one. J. Juinio-Meñez.. The application of genetics to marine management and conservation: examples from the Indo-Pacific.. Ocean & Coastal Management. R.Y. Marine protected area networks in the Philippines: Trends and challenges for establishment and governance. R. J. & Quilang. A. White. D. & Sakayaroj. 258-268. P. Raynor. 64. e72520. S. Conservation International. E. 584-595. Antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi derived from three seagrass species: Cymodocea serrulata. . 8(8). G. Toonen. (eds. I.. Garland STPM Press.. Dynamics of seagrasses in a heterogeneous tropical reef ecosystem. 44-49. P.. S. Kneer. Ong. A. 123-158. and Rosell-Ambal. 10-year oncologic outcomes after laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy.. C.. The Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A second iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. M. D.. Ravago-Gotanco. Phongpaichit. (2013). T. & Pressey.) (in press)... & McRoy. 90(1). A. (2013). The Plymouth Student Scientist. A. Journal of Biogeography. Afuang. & Bernardi. Lane. P. Matias. Manila..Mitochondrial DNA. A. Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii. M. Rukachaisirikul.. S. M. J. Aliño.190(1). L. P. S. R. R. G. (2012). van Herwerden. High gene flow in reef fishes and its implications for ad-hoc no-take marine reserves.. Philippines. (2015).. Origins of species richness in the Indo Malay Philippine biodiversity hotspot: evidence for the centre of overlap hypothesis.. von der Heyden. (2013). S. V. 15-26. R. C. Horigue. A.

Sperber. J. Brandenburg. L. D. & Sala... Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services... J. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. 431-437. W. Wheeler. Science. (2014).. Waycott. J. Folke. C.. A. . Estuaries. Thayer.Y. A. Routledge.  2015-­‐2016   Tanaka. 314(5800). R. .. M.   10   . Dennison. Role of larger herbvores in seagrass communities. ..Bioresource technology.. A. C. 88(1). 17-year change in species composition of mixed seagrass beds around Santiago Island.. (2006).. M. & LópezContreras. Go. S. B. H.. Statistical techniques in geographical analysis. E. B. Olyarnik. Bakker.. M. G... and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. C.... G.. B. van der Wal. H.. Halpern. Houweling-Tan.. N. 12377-12381. C. T. Barbier. & Zieman. W... S. the northwestern Philippines. Miyajima. 106(30). M. (2009). M. Duffy. Bolinao. R. Watanabe. K. Williams. A. Carruthers. 787-790. J.. Marine pollution bulletin. & Kendrick.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. Nakaoka. Beaumont. (1984). B... Bjorndal. Uy. Worm.. E. Orth. W. D. A.. B. & Fortes. butanol.. S. Ogden. Y. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. L. 7(4). T.. (2013).. R. C. 351-376. G. 81-85. Production of acetone.. Duarte. E. (2013). W. J. 128..

Ulva lactuca 7 3.  2015-­‐2016   APPENDIX I . 12 - 1 7 4. 13 9 - - 4. 7 - - 14 2. 19 - - 2 5. 24 25 1 5 3.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A.Y. 19 1 - 7 5.Organisms found in 5 random quadrats within the first five (1-5) meters from shore at site A Quadrat Littorina littorea Ulva lactuca Thalassia hemprichii 1. Littorina littorea 8 2. 2 4 - - 2. 10 5 - - 53 1 12 TOTAL APPENDIX II: Organisms found in 5 random quadrats within five to ten (5-10) meters from shore at site A Quadrat Littorina littorea Ulva lactuca Thalassia hemprichii 1. 9 - - 5 3. Thalassia hemprichii 14 11   . 23 - - 13 0 1 41 TOTAL APPENDIX III: Organisms found within the 10 meter transect line from the shore of site A                           Organisms Count 1.

19 - - 9 14 0 41 TOTAL APPENDIX VI: Organisms found within the 10 meter transect line from the shore of site B                     Organisms Count 1. Thalassia hemprichii 24 12   . 11 10 - 5 4. 5 50 1 2 5. Quadrat Littorina littorea Ulva lactuca Thalassia hemprichii 1.Y. 19 1 - - 84 1 5 TOTAL APPENDIX V: Organisms found in 5 random quadrats within five to ten (5-10) meters from shore at site B. 3 21 - - 2. Ulva lactuca 3 3.  2015-­‐2016   APPENDIX IV: Organisms found in 5 random quadrats within the first five (5) meters from the shore at site B. Quadrat Littorina littorea Ulva lactuca Thalassia hemprichii 1. 11 - - - 4. 7 12 - 3 3. 7 4 - 7 3. 3 - - 9 2. 5 - - 11 5.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. Littorina littorea 17 2.

16 - 3 30 4. 1 10 - 23 2. Quadrat Thalassia Littorina littorea Ulva lactuca 1. Ulva lactuca 4 3. 14 - 9 45 3. Thalassia hemprichii 53 13   . Littorina littorea 6 2. Quadrat Littorina littorea Ulva lactuca Thalassia hemprichii 1. 21 - - 49 0 12 194 TOTAL APPENDIX IX: Organisms found within the 10 meter transect line from the shore of site C                     Organisms Count 1. 25 - 2 35 13 14 125 TOTAL hemprichii APPENDIX VIII: Organisms found in 5 random quadrats within five to ten (5-10) meters from shore at site C.Y.  2015-­‐2016   APPENDIX VII: Organisms found in 5 random quadrats within the first five (5) meters from the shore at site C. 20 - - 41 5. 22 - 4 25 5. 3 - - 29 2.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. 13 - 3 30 4. 5 3 5 12 3.

??   ???????! ?  ??????????  ?????     14   ? = ?. ???? ???????? = ? ???? = ?. ????  ~  ?. ???? ? .  2015-­‐2016   APPENDIX X: Computation for the Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index   ???? = ?? ? = ?? ? = ?. ???? ?.Y.University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A. ???? =  ?. ?? APPENDIX XI: Computation for the Simpson’s Index ?= ?  ?(? − ?) ?(? − ?) ?= ??? ??(??) ???????! ?  ?????  (?) = ?.

University  of  Santo  Tomas   College  of  Science       Department  of  Biological  Sciences   BIO203L  A.99 α = 0.05 df = 3-1 = 2 H< Crit value Since H < Crit value. ?? Ho: All three sites are similar in terms of dominant species and general biodiversity. ACCEPT HO   15   . Crit value = 5. Ha: One or two of the three sites are dissimilar in terms of dominant species and general biodiversity.  2015-­‐2016   APPENDIX XI: Computation for the Kruskal Wallis Test ??? − ?  (? + ?) ?? ?? ?= ?   ?  (? + ?) ?= ?? ??? + ??? + ??? ?   − ?  (? + ?) ?  (? + ?) ? ? = ?.Y.